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A STUDY ON JOB SATISFACTION OF EMPLOYEES IN BSNL,

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THIRUVARUR
SASTRA Deemed University, Srinivasa Ramanujam Centre, Kumbakonam.
Dr. M. K. Durgamani
SASTRA Deemed University, Srinivasa Ramanujam Centre, Kumbakonam.
Dr. R. Renuka
SASTRA Deemed University, Srinivasa Ramanujam Centre, Kumbakonam.
Abstract
Job satisfaction is a multifaceted factor, because it is connected with various casual
factors like individual, social, intellectual, ecological and also, monetary. Job satisfaction is
an individual's attitude towards the job or it is even an individual's reaction to the job. It
plays a prominent role in a man’s life, as it affects positively on the personal and social
adjustment of the individual and adversely affects the physical and cerebral health of the
individual. One should note that a highly satisfied employee need not necessarily be a
profound performer. The study on job satisfaction reveals the preferences and difficulties
of the employees. Mainly, six factors influences the job satisfaction namely payment
package, career development, interpersonal relations, Inspiration, Circumstances, training
and development. The present study highlights job satisfaction of employees of Bharat
Sanchar Nigam Ltd., Thiruvarur, which is well organized in many aspects. However, the
study reveals that the most of the employees are not satisfied with their job.
Keywords
Introduction
Job satisfaction is the long-term prospect of employment in the organization, which
creates a sense of contribution and dedication to the employees. This is with regard to
one's feelings or mental state with respect to the nature of their work. It can be influenced
by various factors, for eg, the quality of one's relationship with their manager, the quality of
the physical atmosphere in which they work, degree of accomplishment in their work, etc.
International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics Volume 119 No. 7 2018, 2429-2443 ISSN: 1311-8080 (printed version); ISSN: 1314-3395 (on-line version) url: http://www.ijpam.eu Special Issue ijpam.eu
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Job satisfaction is also provides positive emotional circumstances when a person
fulfill his requirements and aspirations and it may be general or specific. Statement of the
Problem
An unhappy employee, however, can cause severe damage to the organizational
effectiveness. Performance management system should be based on ideological
underpinnings and a holistic context by strengthening the linkages among the key
components such as performance planning, performance execution, performance appraisal,
recognition and reward, and performance improvement on a continuous basis.
The study on job satisfaction helps to know their preference and problem of the
employees. Mainly six factors influenced on the job satisfaction they include payment
package, career development, interpersonal relations, inspiration, work circumstances,
training and development. When these factors were high Job satisfaction was high in all
organizations. When these factors were low, Job satisfaction is also low. In the present
research, an attempt has been made by the researcher to analyze the job satisfaction of the
employees working in the BSNL Thiruvarur Branch.
Objectives of the Study
To know the demographic profile of the employees in the study unit.
To study the job satisfaction level of employees according to selected individual
factors
To offer suggestions and recommendations to improve job satisfaction in the study
unit.
Methodology
In the present unit of study, survey method has been used for collection of the
required data. Convenience sampling method of non – probability sampling is used in this
study. In Thiruvarur BSNL, 301 employees are working at the time of study. They
constitute the population of the study. From the population, 150 samples have been taken
as sample size. The samples were taken from various departments and sections of the
BSNL and steps were taken to include all categories of staff in the sample frame.
The sample units are chosen primarily on the basis of the convenience to the
investigation. The data, thus collected have been properly classified, tabulated and
interpreted, to have a clear-cut outlook. The statistical tools like percentage, Chi-square
test and ANOVA were employed to analyze the data and testing of hypotheses in an
effective manner.
Hypotheses of the Study
There isn’t any significant difference between experience of the respondents and the
level of satisfaction over the payment package.
There is little difference between educational qualifications of the respondents and
their satisfaction over training and development.
Limitations of the Study
The study has the following limitations
1. Due to less time and considering the limited resources available, the study was
restricted to 150 respondents. The sample size may not be sufficient to reflect the
perception of the employees about the job satisfaction.
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2. The method used in the study for collecting the data is very common. As the
researcher found the Questionnaire method for appropriate this study.
3. The study on its face appears to be limited as it is carried out in a single Indian
organization, i.e. BSNL, Thiruvarur. Thus, its findings cannot be generalized.
4. The study is based on the concerned employees’ opinion. They employees might
express a biased opinion, which may limit the validity of the study.
Review of Literature
Maurer and Lippstreu, (2008) states that the support from employer for the personal development of the employee is a Human Resource function that aids in changing employee behavior and further it leads to employees’ positive response as being occupied and pledged. Ali and Ahmed (2009) confirmed that there is significant statistical relationship between recognition and reward, also between inspiration and contentment. Ekaterini Galanou, (2011) focuses on the primary purpose of performance appraisal as to
prepare a useful feedback to individuals so that they could enhance their performance.
There are eight appropriate methods suggested: Personal improving plan, Personal
appraisal, 360 degree appraisal, self appraisal, Coaching, Competence assessment,
objective setting, performance related to pay .
Gurusamy and Mahendran (2013), in their scrutiny established the fact that Salary
occupies the First position in the determination job satisfaction when compared with other
major determinants. About 300 respondents were studied and the study is limited to
automobile industries of India.
Gopinath and Shibu (2014 ) examined the level of promotion and transfer related to job
satisfaction among BSNL employees using Job Descriptive Index (JDI) Scale. The JDI
scale included pay, promotions, supervision, work and co-worker. The results
demonstrated that promotion and transfer process are important praxis for human resource
development and are crucial in affecting the success of an organization. The analysis
further proves that promotion and transfer highly influence job satisfaction of employees in
BSNL. So the 45 % employees are having job satisfaction in high level and 55 %
employees having job satisfaction in moderate level.
Rashid Saeed (2014), in his study found that factors such as promotion, pay, fairness and
working condition are key constituents that contribute to employee’s job satisfaction. The
study was conducted on 200 telecom sector employees of Pakistan and concluded that
money and Payment play an important role in the job satisfaction of the telecom employees
of Pakistan.
Data Analysis and Interpretations
Profile of the Respondents
The profile of the respondents is given below in the form of tables on the basis of
which the analysis has been made in the study.
Table - 1
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Sl. No Variables Frequency Total No. of
Respondents Per cent (%)
40-50 65 43.33
Total 150 100
Professional Degree 37 24.67
Total 150 100.00
Source Primary Data
The above table shows the gender distribution of the respondents in the study unit.
Out of 150 sample respondents 76 per cent is male and 24 per cent is female. The table
indicates the age distribution of the respondents. Out of 150 sample respondents, 43 per
cent of the respondents belong to the age group between 40-50 years. It is crystal clear
from the table that 56 per cent of respondents are UG and PG scholars, 24 per cent of the
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respondents are Professional Degree holders and 18 per cent of the respondents have
studied up to Higher Secondary Level.
Above table shows the distribution of the respondents in accordance with their
departments. Out of 150 respondents, as much as 32 per cent of the respondents are
belonging to commercial department. 35 per cent of the respondents have experience
between 10-15 years followed by 31 per cent of the respondents have experience above 15
years.
The respondent whose monthly income is less than Rs, 10,000 constitutes 9 per
cent of the total respondents. Table shows the reasons stated by the respondents for joining
this organization. Out of 150 sample respondents, nearly 50 per cent of the respondents
jointed this organization due to high degree of job security. It can be inferred from the
table that the organization provides high degree of job security to its work force. As much
as 36 per cent of the respondents opined that the Payment package offered by the
organization is the main motivating factor and 21 per cent of the respondent stated that the
recognition and reward is the effective motivating factor that drives in work. About 20 per
cent of the respondents felt that the higher degree of job security is the effective motivating
factor.
Job Satisfaction of Employees in BSNL Thiruvaur Branch.
In this paper an attempt is made by the researcher to analyze the job satisfaction of
employees in BSNL, Tiruvarur Branch. The job factor selected for analyzing job
satisfaction employees are (1) Reward Package, (2) Career Development, (3) Working
Circumstances, (4) Interpersonal Relation, (5) Training and Development, (6) Inspirations.
Level of Satisfaction over Payment Package
Table - 2
S .N
02 Satisfied 28 18.67 16 10.67 19 12.66 11 07.33
03 Neutral 12 08.00 06 04.00 21 14.00 15 10.00
04 Dissatisfied 53 35.33 63 42.00 57 38.00 63 42.00
05 Highly
Source: Primary data
Table 2 indicates the level of satisfaction over payment package provided by the
study unit. As per the table the majority of the respondents are dissatisfied with the
Payment package (salary/wages, bonus, fringe benefits and rewards) provided by the study
units. It is inferred from the table that the job satisfaction of the employee is very low in
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relation to Payment package. The Payment package is one of the vital factor that
maximize job satisfaction of the employees, therefore the organization must take necessary
steps to modify the present Payment package in order to improve the job satisfaction of the
employees.
Experience of the Respondents and Level of Satisfaction over Payment Package
Table 3 exhibits that the majority of the respondents are dissatisfied with the
Payment package given by the organization, therefore it is necessary to find out that there
is any significant difference between experience of the respondents and the level of
satisfaction over Payment package.
To verity difference between experience of the respondents and their satisfaction
level over Payment package a null hypothesis is framed and tested with the help chi-square
test.
Null hypothesis
There is no significant difference between experience of the respondents and the
level of satisfaction over Payment package.
Alternate hypothesis
There is a significant difference between experience of the respondents and the
level of satisfaction over Payment package. The result is shown in table 3
Table - 3
03 Fringe benefits 36.97 21.0 Significant
04 Rewards 43.71 21.0 Significant
Compiled by the researcher
The chi-square test result indicates that there is no significant difference between
experience of the respondents and their level of satisfaction over salary/ wages and there is
a significant difference between experience of the respondents and their level of
satisfaction over bonus, fringe benefits and rewards.
Level of Satisfaction over Career Development
Table - 4
S.No Level of
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05 Highly dissatisfied 34 22.67 43 28.67
Total 150 100.00 150 100.00
Source: Primary data
Table 4 indicates that the as much as 52 per cent of the respondents are dissatisfied
with the availability of opportunities to grow the career of the employees and 38 per cent of
the respondents are satisfied with it. On the other hand 54 per cent of the respondents are
dissatisfied and 34 per cent of respondents are satisfied with their promotion in the
employment. Therefore it may be concluded that the employees have low job satisfaction
with regard to career development.
Level of Satisfaction over Working Circumstances
Table - 5
S .
01 Highly
satisfied 47 31.33 51 34.00 27 18.00 11 07.33 42 28.00 28 18.67
02 Satisfied 56 37.33 64 42.67 46 30.67 15 10.00 51 34.00 39 26.00
03 Neutral 09 06.00 03 02.00 18 12.00 03 02.00 08 05.33 12 08.00
04 Dissatisfie
d 21 14.00 24 16.00 42 28.00 67 44.67 31 20.67 45 30.00
05 Highly
dissatisfied 17 11.33 08 05.33 17 11.33 54 36.00 18 12.00 26 17.33
Total 150 100 150 100 150 100 150 100 150 100 150 100
Source: Primary data
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Table 5 shows the level of satisfaction over working circumstances of the employees. As per
the table majority of the respondents are satisfied with the work stress, Work timings,
availability of the infrastructure facilities, delegation of authority and responsibility and
leave policy of the organization. This is due to strong trade union in the study unit. On the
other hand nearly 80 per cent of the respondents are dissatisfied with their work load because
that they felt that the top level management imposes heavy work on them. It can be
concluded from the table that the job satisfaction of employees in relation to working
condition is satisfactory except for work load. Therefore, the organization may try to reduce
the work load through proper allocation of work and by way of appointing new employees.
Level of Satisfaction over Interpersonal Relation
Table - 6
S .N
02 Satisfied 48 32.00 68 45.33 56 37.33
03 Neutral 07 04.67 03 02.00 02 01.33
04 Dissatisfied 32 21.33 15 10.00 39 26.00
05 Highly
Source: Primary data
It could be infered from table 6 that the majority of the respondents are satisfied
with the interpersonal relations, which include Relationship with superior, Relationship
with collogues, and Sense of team work. Therefore it is inferred from the table that the job
satisfaction in relation to interpersonal relation is very high among the employees in the
organization.
Table - 7
S. No Level of satisfaction No. of Respondents %
01 Highly satisfied 56 37.33
02 Satisfied 68 45.33
03 Neutral 05 03.33
04 Dissatisfied 15 10.00
Total 150 100.00
Source: Primary data
Table 7 indicates the level of satisfaction over training and development policy of
the organization. Out of 150 sample respondents, about 83 per cent of the respondents are
satisfied with the training and development policy of the organization of which 45 per cent
of the respondents are highly satisfied with it and a meager portion of the respondents are
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dissatisfied with the training and development policy practiced by the study unit.
Therefore it can be concluded that the job satisfaction of the employees is very high with
regards to training and development policy of the organization.
Educational Qualifications and Level of Satisfaction over Training and Development
Table 8 clearly exhibits that most of the respondents are satisfied with the training
and development policy of the organization. Therefore to verify difference between
educational qualifications of the respondents and their satisfaction level over training and
development a null hypothesis is framed and tested with the help of one way ANOVA.
Null hypothesis
There is no significant difference between educational qualifications of the
respondents and their satisfaction level over training and development.
Alternate hypothesis
There is a significant difference between educational qualifications of the
respondents and their satisfaction level over training and development.
The result is shown in table 8
Table – 8
ANOVA TABLE
Source of
Source: computed by the researcher
Since the calculated value is less than the table value, the null hypothesis is
accepted. Therefore, it may be concluded there is no significant difference between
educational qualifications of the respondents and their satisfaction level over training and
development.
Inspiration
Source: Primary data
Table 9 indicates the level of satisfaction of the employees with respect to their
inspiration. As per the table majority of the respondents are not satisfied with the
S.No Level of
02 Satisfied 24 16.00 16 10.67
03 Neutral 19 12.67 29 19.33
04 Dissatisfied 47 31.33 53 35.33
05 Highly
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recognition for good performance and performance based incentives in the organization.
This is due to that the employees felt that they are not properly recognized good
performance and also incentives are not given based on the performance in the
organization. Therefore it can be infereded that the job satisfaction of the employees in
relation with inspiration is very poor.
Over All Job Satisfaction
After analyzing the above mentioned ten job factors, the over all job satisfaction of
the employees in the study unit is explained in table 10
Table - 10
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RELATION
(64.67)
51
(34.00)
02
(01.33)
150
(100)
Figures without brackets indicate the number of respondents.
Figures in the brackets indicate the percentage to the total sample
Table 10 indicates the overall picture of the job satisfaction of the employees after
taking in to account six job factors. Out of six job factors, the respondents are dissatisfied
with the Payment package, the career development, Inspiration and satisfied with the
working conditions (except work load, and leave policy), Interpersonal relation, Training
and development, job security and job evaluation. It is inferred from the table that the
satisfaction in relation to the career development of the employees in the organization is
not at satisfactory level, therefore the organization must take necessary steps to increase the
career satisfaction of the employees.
Findings, Suggestions and Conclusion
Findings
It is found that out of 150 sample respondents; nearly 50 per cent of the respondents
jointed this organization due to high degree of job security, nearly 27 per cent of the
respondents referred Payment package as their reason for joining this organization. About
23 per cent of the respondents have joined due to availability of career development
opportunities in the organization. It can be inferred from the study that the organization
provides high degree of job security to its work force.
As much as 36 per cent of the respondents opined that the Payment package of the
organization is the main motivating factor and 21 per cent of the respondent stated that the
recognition and reward is the effective motivating factor that drives in work. About 20 per
cent of the respondents felt that the high degree of job security is the effective motivating
factor. Therefore it is inferred from the table that the Payment package, and Career
development are important motivating factors to stimulate the employees to achieve the
organization goals.
As per the study the majority of the respondents are dissatisfied with the Payment
package (salary/wages, bonus, fringe benefits and rewards) provided by the study units. It
is inferred from the study that the job satisfaction of the employee is very low in relation to
Payment package.
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It is found that there is no significant difference between experience of the
respondents and their level of satisfaction over salary/ wages and there is a significant
difference between experience of the respondents and their level of satisfaction over bonus,
fringe benefits and rewards.
As much as 52 per cent of the respondents are dissatisfied with the availability of
opportunities to grow the career of the employees and 38 per cent of the respondents are
satisfied with it. On the other hand 54 per cent of the respondents are dissatisfied and 34
per cent of respondents are satisfied with their promotion…