Fibers and Polymers 2013, Vol.14, No.2, 311-315
A Study on Coarse Hanji Yarn Manufacturing and Properties of the
Tae Young Park and Seung Goo Lee1*
Division of Fashion Design and Beauty, Howon University, Kunsan 573-930, Korea1BK21 FTIT, Department Advanced Organic Materials and Textile System, Chungnam National University,
Daejeon 305-764, Korea
(Received August 10, 2011; Revised November 1, 2011; Accepted July 5, 2012)
Abstract: Hanji (Korean traditional paper) yarn displays excellent humidity control, air permeability, and absorbency as wellas pleasantness to the touch due to its structural characteristics, and thus, it has been developed as a new eco-friendly fibrousmaterials. In this study, Hanji, having a basis weight of 8 and 10 g/m2, was prepared using mulberry fibers. The preparedHanji was cut into Hanji tape of 5-10 mm in width using a rotary slitter and then the tape was twisted to manufacture Hanjiyarn. To ensure a uniform twist of Hanji yarn and a smooth twisting process, a water supply system was designed to providewater directly at the twisting zone. At a fixed spindle speed, the feeding speed of the delivery roller was varied to providedifferent twist numbers for the Hanji yarn. The Hanji yarn manufactured with water treatment has higher tensile propertiesand a softer touch than the Hanji yarn prepared without water treatment. The Hanji yarns have count numbers of 7-11 Ne andtensile strengths of 1.0-1.2 gf/d. Moreover, the fabric from Hanji yarn shows an excellent color fastness of 4.0 grade, stainingof 4-5 to washing, and 4-5 grade to dry cleaning.
Keywords: Hanji, Mulberry fiber, Hanji yarn, Water supply system, Twist
The traditional method for manufacturing Hanji yarn
consists of preparing the paper yarn according to a twisting
process, which includes preparing Hanji using mulberry
fiber as a raw material, cutting the Hanji to a predetermined
length, and twisting it using a spinning wheel . The
obtained paper yarn, however, has unstable twists, poor
strength, and elongation, and thus it cannot be formed into a
fabric using a conventional power loom and knitting machine;
rather a table loom must be used. Therefore, the mass
production of coarse Hanji yarn using mulberry fiber is
limited. The fabric from Hanji yarn has been used traditionally
in shrouds, neck ties, and crafts.
The manufacturing of a uniform and light-weight paper
sheet using long mulberry fiber is difficult. Generally, the
preparation of the paper yarn used in Japan involves cutting
paper sheets made of Manila hemp into a tape with a
predetermined width using a cutting apparatus, then twisting
the tape to produce the paper yarn. Various paper making
techniques, cutting machines, and twisting methods have
been developed in Japan [2-7].
Therefore, for the prevention of yarn cut-off in a knitting
or weaving process and stable management of the paper
yarn fabric, various raw materials and paper-reinforcing
agents have been used in the preparation of the paper [2,3].
Such paper yarn has, however, disadvantageously poor
flexibility compared to common yarn. To improve this
flexibility, several methods have been proposed. For example,
a wax or oil, steaming has been added [4-6]. As a result, the
flexibility is more or less improved, but there are still
limitations. Therefore, an additional twisting process  is
required to make flexible paper yarn while maintaining a
uniform twist and preventing the yarn cut-off in the weaving
or knitting process. Also, it is necessary to use the paper-
reinforcing agent in the proper amount and select a raw
fiber material with a relatively long fiber length in a range
suitable for paper making. Also, some methods for preparing
composite yarn with other yarns or covered yarn can be
Generally, paper yarn has excellent humidity control, air
permeability, absorbency, and deodorant efficiency. Also,
though it is prepared using staple fiber as a raw material,
paper yarn is classified as a filament yarn. It is unique to the
touch due to its slightly fluffy texture and has recently
gained attention as a high value-added fashion material
because it is an eco-friendly material.
In this study, the property of Hanji yarn and a method for
manufacturing Hanji yarn using mulberry fiber are studied.
A new system for supplying water during the twisting
process to prevent yarn cut-off and provide a uniform twist
is proposed. The fineness of Hanji yarn is determined by
adjusting the Hanji weight and width of the Hanji tape yarn.
Also, from the analysis of the tensile properties, color
fastness to the washing of the prepared Hanji yarn, and Hanji
fabric, an end use for the Hanji yarn is investigated. The
development of such coarse Hanji yarn may be used in
producing fine Hanji yarn.
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
312 Fibers and Polymers 2013, Vol.14, No.2 Tae Young Park and Seung Goo Lee
Mulberry fiber was beaten using a knife beater, and a
concentration of 1.5 % was used. As the paper-reinforcing
agent and a dispersing agent, 0.5 % epoxy and 0.5 %
polyacrylamide, respectively, were used. The Hanji papers
with basis weights of 8 and 10 g/m2 were prepared through a
paper-making apparatus of Fourdrinier type, to a width of
110 cm, and compressed and dehydrated using a press. The
dehydrated Hanji was dried through a drying roller at
110 oC, taken up to a length of 10,000 m and cut to a width
of 220 mm.
Preparation of Hanji Tape and Hanji Yarn
Hanji was cut using a rotary slitter to produce the Hanji
tape having a width range of 5 to 10 mm and the Hanji tape
was taken up to a cone. The Hanji yarn was prepared by
twisting the Hanji tape with a specially designed process. In
this study, a water-supply apparatus was equipped in the
twisting machine to feed water for smoothing the paper. By
using a water-supply apparatus, water was uniformly supplied
at a rate of 60 cc/min to the central part of the paper yarn.
Figure 1 shows schematic diagram of the Hanji yarn
production process, in which Hanji tape was supplied to a
traveler through a yarn guide. Subsequently, the Hanji tape
passed a yarn guide and was taken up around the bobbin in a
spindle. The spindle speed was set to 4,100 rpm and the
feeding speed of the delivery roller was varied to give
different amounts of twist to the Hanji yarn. The produced
Hanji yarn was dried in a drying oven.
Preparation and Dyeing of Hanji Fabric
Hanji fabric with 22 basket structure was prepared using
a rapier loom to a fabric density of 5240/inch2. Hanji fabric
was pretreated with 25 % Glauber salt for 5 s and dyed with
reactive dyestuffs, Rifazol Brill and Blue R 0.12 %. The
dyeing was performed at 60 oC for 30 min, followed by
washing and drying.
Evaluation of the Properties of Hanji Yarn and Fabric
The fineness of the Hanji yarn was measured according to
ASTM D1059. The tensile properties of Hanji yarn was
measured according to ASTM D 2256, and the properties of
the Hanji fabric was measured by ASTM D 5034. Also, the
color fastness to washing and dry cleaning of the dyed fabric
were measured according to AATCC 61/1A and 132,
respectively. The surface structure of Hanji and Hanji yarn
were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In
addition, the yarn irregularity (U%) was evaluated with an
Uster Tester 5-S800.
Results and Discussion
Structure and Tensile Properties of Hanji
To manufacture very fine Hanji yarn, it is important to
produce light-weight Hanji. In this study, Hanji was prepared
with basis weights of 8 and 10 g/m2. When the weight is less
than 8 g/m2, Hanji fails to have a uniform distribution of the
mulberry fiber, but when the weight exceeds 10 g/m2, Hanji
is not suitable for preparation of fine Hanji yarn.
Figure 2 shows the surface structure of Hanji prepared by
the paper making process, in which mulberry fiber was
randomly distributed. Such a distribution of fiber orientation
directly affects the tensile properties of the Hanji yarn.
Referring to Figures 3 and 4, the breaking stress and strain of
Hanji in the machine direction (MD) were slightly higher
compared to the cross direction (CD). However, the difference
was not significant, and thus, the distribution of mulberry
fiber in the Hanji was nearly isotropic. The distribution of
mulberry fiber might be selectively determined by the production
rate or the type of paper-making machine. A parallel-laid
distribution of raw fiber material is advantageous in the
preparation of fine and strong yarn but confers a low
breaking strain and a poor flexibility to Hanji yarn.
Figure 1. Schematic diagram of the manufacturing system for
Hanji yarn: (A) cone (Hanji tape yarn), (B) delivery roller, (C)
water-supplying apparatus, (D) yarn guide, (E) traveler, (F) ring,
(G) bobbin, and (H) spindle.
Figure 2. SEM micrographs of the surface structure of Hanji: (A)
8 g/m2 and (B) 10 g/m2.
Hanji Yarn Manufacturing Fibers and Polymers 2013, Vol.14, No.2 313
Tensile Properties of Hanji Yarn
Various Hanji yarns were produced with a range of 7 to
11 Ne. The yarn count is determined by paper parameters
such as the basis weight and width of Hanji tape. The
product of the basis weight (g/m2) and cutting width (mm) is
referred to as the paper characteristic factor (k). Figure 5
shows the tensile strength of Hanji yarn with different twist
numbers, in which the number in the bracket refers to the
yarn count of Hanji yarn. The maximum breaking stress of
Hanji yarn in this study was in the range of 1.0-1.2 gf/d, and
the twist number showing the maximum breaking stress was
650-700 tpm. Because Hanji tape is very stiff, it is necessary
to feed water to the Hanji tape just prior to twisting to ensure
better twisting. As the width of the Hanji tape was smaller,
the twist number with the maximum breaking stress was
gradually reduced. Also, for the same k value, the maximum
strength of Hanji yarn increased as the width of the tape
decreased. It is believed that the binding frequency between
fibers in the thickness direction increased due to stable and
better twist formation of the Hanji yarn as the width of the
Hanji tape decreased.
Surface Structure of Hanji Yarn
The effect of the feeding amount of water on the cut-off
frequency during the preparation of Hanji yarn is shown in
Table 1. The optimal water feeding amount was 60-90 cc/
min and the cut-off number increased in the finer yarn
manufacturing. Also, the drying time could be shortened by
minimizing the water-feeding amount.
Figure 6 shows the surface structure of Hanji yarn.
Uniform twist formation with fewer fluffiness was observed
Figure 3. Breaking stress of Hanji with different test direction.
Figure 4. Breaking strain of Hanji with different test direction.
Figure 5. Tensile strength of Hanji yarn with twist amount.
314 Fibers and Polymers 2013, Vol.14, No.2 Tae Young Park and Seung Goo Lee
on the surface of water-treated Hanji yarns ((A), (C), (E))
compared to untreated yarns ((B), (D), (F)). Because the
water-treated Hanji yarn had a stable twist formation
compared to the untreated (control) Hanji yarn, the water-
treated Hanji yarn had a better appearance with fewer cut off
phenomena. The results of yarn evenness are shown in
Figure 7. The sample designations are the same as those
given for the specification of Hanji yarn in Table 2. In Figure 7,
the water-treated Hanji yarn and finer yarn had lower yarn
irregularities than untreated and coarse Hanji yarn, respectively,
because of their comparatively stable and smooth twist
formation. Also, considering that the water-treated Hanji
yarn has a slightly smaller diameter than the control yarn of
the same yarn count, the water treatment leads to relatively
high cohesion between fibers and therefore an improvement
of fiber binding. However, when the paper-reinforcing agent
exceeded a concentration of 1 %, it was difficult to obtain a
stable twist formation in Hanji yarn. In the case of adding
1.0 % epoxy, for example, an unstable twisted structure was
continuously appeared . In addition, instead of a plastic
hose with pinhole for supplying water as was used in this
study, spray guns or padding apparatus may be used .
Table 2 shows the breaking stress, breaking strain, and
initial stiffness of Hanji yarn. The water-treated Hanji yarn
showed an increased breaking stress and strain and also a
decreased initial modulus compared to the control yarn.
These properties were a result of the water treatment.
Table 1. Effect of water amount on the cut-off number for
preparation of Hanji yarn
Hanji Yarn Manufacturing Fibers and Polymers 2013, Vol.14, No.2 315
Tensile Properties and Color Fastness of Hanji Fabric
Table 3 shows the tensile properties and color fastness to
washing and dry cleaning of the Hanji yarn fabric developed
as a canvas fabric, in which the warp and weft yarn were 7
Ne used in C1 of Table 1. As expected from the fabric
density of 5240/in2, the tensile strength of the Hanji fabric
in the warp direction was superior to that in the weft
direction. In contrast, the breaking strain in the weft direction
was higher than that in the warp direction. Generally, a warp
yarn underwent high tension in the warping or weaving
process and thus it was almost fully extended, whereas the
weft yarn was relatively less extended. Therefore, the
breaking strain of the less extended weft yarn was larger
than that of the warp yarn.
The color change of the Hanji yarn fabric to washing was
4.0 grade and the staining evaluation was 4-5 grade to the
cotton fabric as an accompanying fabric. Also, the color
fastness of the fabric to dry cleaning was 4-5 grade. These
values of color fastness to washing and dry cleaning and
resistance to staining are sufficient for use in home textile
applications, and thus the Hanji fabric, prepared in this
study, can be readily used in home textiles such as bedding,
table cloths, curtains, and carpets as well as fabrics for
denim and canvases.
In the present work, the manufacturing process of Hanji
yarn included following: (1) a paper- making process to
prepare Hanji, (2) the preparation of Hanji tape yarn using a
rotary slitter, and (3) the preparation of paper yarn by the
twisting process. To obtain a uniform twisting and stable
structure of Hanji yarn, a moisture-supplying apparatus was
implemented. The produced Hanji yarn was a coarse yarn in
the range of 7-11 Ne and had a breaking stress of 1.0-1.2 g/d.
Also, the twist number with the maximum breaking stress of
the Hanji yarn was 650-700 tpm. The water-treated Hanji
yarn showed an increase in the breaking stress and breaking
strain and a decrease in initial modulus, compared to the
untreated yarn. The fabric prepared from Hanji yarn had
excellent color fastness to washing and dry cleaning and
resistance to staining.
This work was supported by Howon University Research
1. T. Y. Park, D. H. Kim, K. W. Lee, and Y. S. Chung, Fiber
Technol. Ind., 9, 117 (2005).
2. I. Junichi, Japanese Patent, 60473 (1996).
3. O. Akio, Japanese Patent, 95815 (1997).
4. K. Takeshi, Japanese Patent, 172541 (1999).
5. I. Toru, Japanese Patent, 295146 (2001).
6. D. Shozaburo, T. Akio, and K. Hideki, Japanese Patent,
7. I. Junichi and S. Hitoshi, Japanese Patent, 200441 (2001).
8. T. Y. Park and D. H. Kim, Korean Patent, 555690 (2006).
9. T. Y. Park, Text. Sci. Eng., 44, 333 (2007).
Table 2. Tensile properties of Hanji yarn
SampleHanji weight (g/m2)
/cutting width (mm)Water treatment
A1 10/5.0 Yes 1.20 4.8 8.5
A2 10/5.0 No 1.04 4.1 11.7
B1 10/6.4 Yes 1.15 4.9 6.9
B2 10/6.4 No 1.03 4.3 8.5
C1 10/8.0 Yes 1.05 5.6 6.8
C2 10/8.0 No 0.92 5.3 8.2
Table 3. Tensile properties and color fastness of Hanji yarn fabric
Color fastness to washing
Color fastness to dry
Warp Weft Warp Weft Color change Staining Color change
45.9 32.4 12.8 28.3 4.0 4-5 4-5
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