A Paper - Chapter 2 - Teaching Spoken Procedure Text to Young Learners

  • View
    1.108

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

Yusuf's Literature Collections

Transcript

TEACHING SPOKEN PROCEDURE TEXT TO YOUNG LEARNERS(A Pre-Experimental Study at the Seventh Grade of SMPN 1 Banjarsari)

A PAPER Submitted to the English Education Program Faculty of Teacher Training and Education Sciences of Galuh University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Sarjana Pendidikan Degree

By YUSUF HIDAYAT 2109060194

ENGLISH EDUCATION PROGRAM FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION SCIENCES GALUH UNIVERSITY 2010

CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW

In this chapter, the writer would like to present the concept of teaching, spoken language, defining young learners, genre-based approach, procedure text, and the application of genre-based approach in the classroom. A. Concept of Teaching This chapter will highlight the terminologies used in this paper. To get clear meaning of what teaching is, the writer would like to give the definitions of teaching based on the experts statements. According to Brown (2000:7), teaching may be defined as Showing or helping someone to learn how to do something, giving instructions, guiding in the study of something, providing with knowledge, causing to know or understand. Based on the definition above, it can be considered that teaching is an activity done by a person to show or help someone, to learn how to do something, to know and to understand something. Besides that, Karo-karo (in Asopwan, 2003:9) says that Teaching is a process of presenting by someone to another in order that they receive, master, and develop the material. In the writers opinion, someone who is said above is a teacher that provides, presents and develops the material or lesson to the students. And the word another, it must be the students who receive the material or lesson.

11

12 In relation to the present study, the term teaching refers to the practice of implementing a genre-based approach to teaching English especially speaking skill that will be discussed in the subsequent part of this chapter. 1. Steps of Teaching In this subsequent part of this chapter, the writer is going to discuss about some steps of teaching in the classroom. As mentioned by Brown (2000:7) and Karo-karo (in Asopwan, 2003:9) above, teaching is an activity and a process, therefore if teaching is an activity and a process, teaching should have the steps or procedures to attain the maximal goal for the students success. This study deals with the teaching of spoken genre. Hence, it will be quite worthwhile to take a look at the procedures in teaching spoken genre. Kang Shin (2005:11) suggests that teaching spoken genre has some steps or procedures in classroom routines, the steps are as follows: a. Entering the classroom b. Absences/Make-up procedures c. Beginning teaching d. Modeling e. Working in groups f. Independent work g. Working in front h. Homework In addition, Harmer (2001:31) mentions some activities that can be done in teaching speaking, namely:

13 1. Acting from a Script It is an activity that we can ask from our students, to act from plays, their course books, or sometimes filming the result. Students will often act out dialogues they have written themselves. This frequently involves them in coming out to the front of the class. 2. Communication Games Communication Games which are designed to provoke communication between students frequently depends on an information gap so that one student has to talk to a partner in order to solve a puzzle, draw picture, put things in the right order or similarities and differences between picture. 3. Discussion One of the reasons that discussion fail is that students are reluctant to give an opinion in front of the whole class, particularly if they cannot think of everything to say and are not; anyway, confident of the language they might use to say it. Many students feel extremely exposed in discussion situations. 4. Prepared Talk A popular kind of activity is the prepared talk where students make a presentation on a topic of their own choice. Prepared talks represent a defined and useful speaking genre, and if properly organized, can be extremely interesting for both speaker and listeners. 5. Simulation and Role-play Many students derive great benefit from simulation and role-play. Students stimulate a real-life encounter as if they were doing so in the real world,

14 either as themselves in that meeting or airplane. Stimulation and role-play can be used to encourage students. Then, both Kang Shin and Harmer implicitly suggest that teacher use English as a classroom language to interact with students in their daily activities, so that teacher will have a very rich English language environment. Next the teacher should establish teachers routines, link to students to certain expressions, and use those expressions as much as possible. To sum up, the writer concludes that teaching spoken genre is very important in learning English so that some steps above can be applied by every teacher in his/her classroom routines. B. Spoken Language This study also deals with the teaching of spoken genre. Hence, it will also be quite worthwhile to attain the clarification meaning from the term spoken which is one of the term used in teaching genre-based approach. The term spoken or spoken language has some meanings. To make the meaning clear and intelligible about spoken language, it can be defined as significant to an individuals living processes and experiences as the ability of seeing and walking. Spoken language is also the most natural way to communicate. It isnt just making sound. Birds, animals, babies make sound and it may be a tool of communication for them, but its not spoken language. Without spoken language, people must remain in almost total isolation from the society. For most people, the ability of spoken language is the same with knowing a language since the speech is the most basic means of human communication. When we have spoken language, actually

15 we have a great deal more than just use our mouth, nose, lungs and more. (Cornbleet and Carter, 2001:17). In addition, Bryne (1998:8) states that Spoken language is a two way process between speaker and listener and involves the productive skill of speaking and the receptive skill of understanding. For further statement of spoken language, Cable(2005:1) also argues that We

use spoken language to express our ideas, opinions and

feelings. We also use it to make sense of and confirm our understandings, to question and test our assumptions and to explore meaning. Based on the previous three definitions, it can be synthesized that spoken language is the process of sharing with another person related to knowledge, interests, attitudes, opinions or ideas. Delivery of ideas, opinions, or feelings is some important aspects of the process of spoken language which is a speakers idea become real to his/her listener. Meanwhile, the writer has found some different terms that are associated with spoken language from several resources those are talk, speech, oral communication, oral language and speaking. Basically, all the four terms above have similar meaning with term spoken language. Spoken is also a method, it is called as a spoken language approach. A Spoken Language Approach is an approach to teach children that focuses on developing speech, listening, and spoken language skills. Why is a spoken language approach used to teach children not to adult? The writer thinks that age has often been considered as a major factor in learning language, and over the years, various hypotheses have been proposed to account for the correlation of age

16 of acquisition and mastery of the second language. A number of empirical studies have been designed to investigate the question of optimal age to learn a second language. According to Richards and Reynanda as cited by Wijarwadi (2008:2022) comment There are four factors that affect student spoken language ability those are: age or maturational constraints, aural medium, socio-cultural factors and affective factors, so young learners are the proper age as a focus of this method. Because young learners still have a fresh brain to learn a new language. In line with the previous statement, Penfield & Roberts as quoted by Zhao and Morgan (2004:2), A child's brain is more plastic compared with that of an adult, and before the age of 9 years old, a child is a specialist in learning to speak, he can learn 2-3 languages as easily as one. It means that the child's brain plasticity makes for superior ability especially in acquiring language. Teaching a second language is better done at an early age in school, besides that a commitment from the parents and families are important to work professionally stimulating their childs spoken language development throughout their childs day. Besides that, spoken language is a fundamental language process for teaching and learning in the learning areas for young learners in the primary years. In the reality, teaching written language is also important besides spoken language, and there is not discrimination between of them. And in the writers opinion, written language is better taught to the students of young learners after the spoken language. Nunan (1999:279) summarizes the differences between spoken and written language as follows:

17Spoken language Context dependent generally used to communicate with people in the same time and place relies on shared knowledge between the interactants and often makes references to the shared context generally accompanies action Written language Context independent used to communicate across time and distance Must recreate for readers the context it is describing Generally reflects action

Dialogic in nature Monologic in nature usually involves two or more speakers usually written by one person removed creating spoken texts together from an audience

(Nunan, 1999:279) C. Defining Young Learners This stud