Journal of Cultural Heritage 12 (2011) 412419
A newa silk te
Harby E.Conservation D
a r t i c l
Article history:Received 8 OcAccepted 21 FAvailable onlin
onsextile014.ken iorgato idon thas aservave. O
supported. Cleaning includedmechanical andwet cleaning. New silk fabrics dyedwith natural dyeswereused to complete the missing parts. The textile was supported on new linen fabric which was stretchedon a metal frame. The method of exhibition will be discussed. Photographs are included to document theconservation process.
2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Archeolomany challing temperastorage andof adhesiveArabic gumboth bershardness in
The paphistorical tetion of histothe kinds oin this objereports theremoving tparts, xing
gical textiles in Egyptian Museums are exposed toenges such as oscillate relative humidity (RH), chang-ture, effect of light, effect of air pollution, non standarddisplay methods, old poor restoration and old type
s such as starch adhesive, animal glue adhesive, andadhesive. All these factors cause damage and decay inand dyes which results in weakness in bers and dye,bers, separate parts, loss parts, stain and dust .
er aims to present the strategies for the conservation ofxtiles in Egypt. It shows new methods in the conserva-ric textiles, at least in Egypt. The paper aims at knowingf bers and dyes, stain, dust, and different damagesct through different ways of investigation. The paperconservation treatment of the object such as cleaning,he old adhesive and old restorations, completing lossseparate parts and making a new display.
ding author.ress: email@example.com (H.E. Ahmed).
2. Description of object
The textile object dates back to Ottoman age and was shown incases no 12014 in the Islamic ArtMuseum, Cairo. Itsmeasurementsare11669.7 cm. Its containsmanydecorations suchasplantsdec-oration (owers and leafs), written decorations inside lamp hangfromarch, andgeometric decorations (columns, arches). It also con-tains different colors such as red, blue, green and yellow. The objectwas kept under glass xed on a plywood support lined by cottonfabric, a xing support, and glass coveredwith a plastic sticker fromthe edges. There aremany signs of damageon this object such as oldadhesive, old cardboard stuck on the objects back, many separateparts from the edges, loss parts, weakened bers, and brittlenesscombined with old adhesives and other previous repairs, hardness,old restoration error (such as using paper sticker to x separateparts), staining and dust. Figs. 1 and 2 illustrations the condition ofthe original.
3. Testing and analysis
3.1. Morphological study
The morphology of the surface of the fabrics was investigatedusing a Quanta 200 ESEM FEG from FEI Scanning Electron Micro-
see front matter 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.culher.2011.02.004rticle
approach for conservation treatment ofxtile in Islamic Art Museum, Cairo
Ahmed , Yassin E. Ziddanept. Faculty of Archeology, Cairo University, 12613 Orman, Giza, Egypt
e i n f o
tober 2010ebruary 2011e 1 April 2011
a b s t r a c t
The paper presents strategies for the ctrolled storage and display. The silk teperiod, and was exhibited in case # 12and analysis of the textile was undertaused to identify the kinds of dyes andLight microscope and SEM were usedogy. The effects of cleaning materialsmetallic frame support system whichThis presentation will review the conall the sticking cardboard and adhesirvation of historical textiles in Egypt that have been in uncon-is highly decorated, multicoloured and dates to the OttomanThe textile has various types of deterioration. An examinationn order to develop a plan of conservation treatment. FTIR wasnic stains, and XR-D was used to identify mordants and dust.entify the kind of bers, their condition and surface morphol-he natural dyes were tested. The researcher designed a newdvantages over the wooden frames commonly used in Egypt.tion treatment step by step. Poultices were used to remove
ld conservation repairs were removed. Separated parts were
H.E. Ahmed, Y.E. Ziddan / Journal of Cultural Heritage 12 (2011) 412419 413
Fig. 1. Textile object dates back to Ottoman age and shows cases no. 12014; one can see a lot of decorations, colors. The object was kept under glass xing on a plywoodsupport lined by cotton fabric, a xing support, and glass covered with a plastic sticker from their edges (A). The plywood support lined by cotton fabric (B). The old glassplate over the object was removed by a researcher (C). The object from the back also, we can see the remnants of the old cardboard (D).
scope (SEM). Small samples were taken from the object fromdifferent parts and investigated under SEM, to show the qualityof the bers as well as the damage aspects on these bers .SEM Photos of examined Ottoman textile are illustrated in Fig. 3showing the silk bers that were identied from different parts ofthe object.with transv
by small scratches, small slits and holes. Furthermore, one can seethe dust, dirt and adhesive that covered the ber as shown in Fig. 4.
3.2. X-ray diffraction analysis
Fig. 2. The gcardboard supThe bers are extremely roughened, damaged, brokenerse cracking and longitudinal splitting characterized
X-rRay Diure shows different type of deteriorations such as dust, grease, losses, separated parts,port and other previous repairs.ffraction of fabrics was carried out with a SIEMENS X-ometerD 5000, given 40 Kv CU Ka, radiation of 30mA.weakened bers, and brittleness combined with old adhesives, old
414 H.E. Ahmed, Y.E. Ziddan / Journal of Cultural Heritage 12 (2011) 412419
Fig. 3. The gure shows SEM images of examined Ottoman textile, One can see that the bers are extremely roughened, damaged, broken with transverse cracking andlongitudinal splitting characterized by small scratches, small slits and holes.
The diffractograms were recorded over 2=50 to 300 continuouslyat a scan rate of 20/min. to show the kinds of mordent (Alum) anddust (sand) [6,7].
3.3. Fourier Transform infrared spectral analysis (FTIR)
FTIR analysis of solid phase samples can be typically performedusing two d
widely used approach, FTIRKBr, utilises a pellet of potassium bro-mide (KBr) which is transparent in the mid-infrared region, as asupportmedium for the sample. Themixture is usually groundwithan agate mortar and pestle and subjected to a pressure of about10 tonne in an evacuated die. This sinters the mixture and pro-duces a clear transparent disc, which is then placed in the samplechamber of the spectrometer for direct absorption measurements.The second,more recent approach is termed FTIRATR. This utilises
Fig. 4. The gu(C and D).ifferent methodologies. The rst, more traditional andre shows SEM images of examined Ottoman textile, one can see different types of dirt and stain (A and B) Also, we can see old adhesive that covered the bers
H.E. Ahmed, Y.E. Ziddan / Journal of Cultural Heritage 12 (2011) 412419 415
an attenuatmeasuringinfrared beple. An infrwith a highangle for toan evanesceinto the samwave protruinto the samBRUKERFTin the 4000tors with aresult of an
WetookThen,webrthem. Afterto nd theSafower dbetween Inadhesive) awith FTIR a
The drywater, to coFig. 5. Spectra of silk dyed with Safower dye (A). Spectra of silk
ed total reection (ATR) accessory which operates bythe changes that occur in a totally internally reectedam when the beam comes into contact with a sam-ared beam is directed onto an optically dense crystalrefractive index at an angle greater than the critical
tal internal reection. This internal reectance createsnt wave that extends beyond the surface of the crystalple held in contact with the crystal. This evanescentdes only a few microns beyond the crystal surface andple [9,10]. These FTIR spectra were obtained using a
IR- TENSOR 27 Spectrometer. An expanded spectrum400 cm 1 range was used for measuring several fac-spectral resolution of 4 cm 1. Each spectrum was theaverage of 16 scans.small samplesofdifferent colors and investigated them.ought all the dyeswhich give this color and investigatedthat, we compared the original samples with new dyesfollowing: (Red color is Cochineal dyeYellow color isyeBlue color is Indigo dyeGreen color is a mixturedigo and Turmeric dyethe adhesive is the Arab gums shown in Fig. 5. Furthermore, nomordantswere foundnalyses.
the stability of dyes
fabric (the object) was softened by spraying distilledunter its extremely dry condition. The next step was to
test the staba piece of csolutions anbons, eachdyes were sThenal steby placinging the fabrthin needlepart of the tprocesses [
In theremoved. Tthe water spsive and oldremove the
Wet theit for 10minadhesive. Anot removedyed with Cochineal dye (A).
ility of the colored parts to wet cleaning by immersingotton wrapped round a wooden stick into the cleaningd placing it in contact with the colorful parts of the rib-color was individually tested. It was found that all thetable and did not bleed with the wet cleaning solution.pwas to apply a primary support to theOttoman textileit between two webbed support fabrics, and stabiliz-ic by xing it to the support fabric, using appropriatelys and ne silk thread in order to protect the vulnerableextile from disintegrating during the different cleaning11,12].
l of the old restoration error
beginning, the old glass plate over the object washe object in the case showed severe dryness. Hence,rayed over the object to moisten it. Then, the old adhe-cardboard were removed. There are two methods to
old adhesive and the cardboard.
upper surface of cardboard by warm water, then leaves until water penetrates the cardboard and dissolve thefter that, remove wet parts carefully. This method doesall the sticking cardboard from the textile.
416 H.E. Ahmed, Y.E. Ziddan / Journal of Cultural Heritage 12 (2011) 412419
Fig. 6. The gu r free acid on the upper surface of cardboard (A). Wetting it by warm water,and leave it fo oulticing from the cardboard, and that will remove the sticking cardboardand adhesive (
4.2. Using p
Applicatarea, allowtice to cardbthat has beean even deundisturbedacid paperwarm wateand dissolvcardboard,sive. The uswhen a locacardboard a
Variousdirt (i.e., nowas done b
5.2. The we
This cleato assist theperonic N toallow it to pfor 15minsing bath wwith wateronly, for 10soiling, relacolors [3,14re shows the steps of using poultice to separate adhered cardboard. Putting a paper 10mins to permit water to penetrate and dissolve the adhesive (B). Remove the pC and D).
oultice to separate adhered cardboard
ion of a poultice locally on the textile within the pasteds the moisture to migrate vertically through the poul-oard. The acid free paper (blotter) is a multilayer papern especially designed for poulticing. In order to achievecomposition of the paste, it is necessary to guaranteeand homogenous migration of water. Firstly, place an
free on the upper surface of cardboard. Then, wet it byr, and leave it for 10mins to permit water to penetratee the adhesive. Finally remove the poulticing from the
and that will remove the sticking cardboard and adhe-e of poultices would appear to be particularly suitablelized treatment is necessary to remove all the stickingnd adhesive as shown in Fig. 6 .
types of ne brushes are used to remove free dust andt attached to textile bers). Aerobic aspiration of dusty using a vacuum cleaner .
t cleaning procedure
ningprocedureusedwaterwithotherdetergent agents,cleaning process. The ratiowas one part detergent Syn-100 parts of distilled water. The water was agitated to
enetrate between the bers to release the dirt particles,. The bath temperature was 30 C. Then a second clean-ith distilled water only was applied for 10mins againagitation, and then a third bath with distilled watermins as shown in Fig. 7. The wet cleaning reduced thexed the bers, removed the creasing and brightened the,15].
Fig. 7. The g
6. The dry
To dry ta Japaneseure shows the wet cleaning procedure (A), the drying procedure (B).
he object without distortions, we experimented withtissue sandwich using different tissues (usugami or
H.E. Ahmed, Y.E. Ziddan / Journal of Cultural Heritage 12 (2011) 412419 417
Fig. 8. The gu me, oon the metalli allic frwhich were pe
gampi) apping amountwas left unshown in Fevaporationted in aplacto the sizethat waterhelp of deh
7. The na
After comary suppoand washedat a later tiport was irobetween th
Woodenhave the svariation oftortion, andinsects). So,the followin
it is not a it is light it can be c
The samby the reseaof indigo an
Blue15gntil iml opaststirre shows the steps of xing the linen support to the metallic frame. The metallic frac frame (A). Thick cotton thread was used for xing the linen support on the metrforated after xing on the metallic frame (D).
lied cross-grainorparallel-grain to the textilewithvary-s of moisture and pressure. Consequently, the objectcovered to complete drying at ambient conditions asig. 7. In air drying, the process can be shifted towardsin several ways: by ensuring that the wet textile is set-
e (i.e.workroom) that is sufciently large in comparisonand surface area of the drying textile; and by ensuringvapor is removed as soon as it is formed e.g. with the
glass uin 120indigoite andumidiers and/or effective ventilation [16,17].
l support process
mpletion of the object drying, the fabric webbing pri-rt was removed. A new linen support was preparedto remove chemical residues and prevent shrinkage
me due to humidity changes. Then the new linen sup-ned to remove creases and was placed inside the shirte outer and the inner layers as shown in Fig. 8.frames were used in the past for mounting, but they
ome disadvantages: wood is easily affected by themoisture and temperature that causes twisting anddis-it is affected by biological deterioration (i.e., fungi andthe researcher created a new metallic frame which hasg advantages:
ffected by moisture or biological deterioration;and easily moved;oated with different colors.
tion and nal support of lost parts
ples thatwereused to complete the lost partsweredyedrcher who used indigo for the blue color and a mixtured turmeric to get the green color.
until the wThe liquid sing for 20mof sodium d
Heats thwarm wateinto the dyecan enter inthen take itWhen thecolor, whic20mins, thbut only aftdeeper shad
Fig. 9ne can see the rings were xed on this perforation for easy stretchingame (B and C). A linen support was used after supporting the edges
rocedure of new parts
color with indigo on silkof indigo powder with 75ml of warm water in beakert forms a paste. In a second vessel, dissolve 30g of sodaf warm water. Pour 6070ml of this solution over thee and stir vigorously. Then add 30g of sodium dithion-again. Add one liter of warm water and stir carefully
hole is thoroughly mixed. Heat this mixture to 55 C.hould now have a yellowish color. When it is left stand-ins, the color will have turned yellow-green. Add 30githionite to the solution.e 1 L dye bath to 55 C. Immerse 30g of silk fabric inr until the material is thoroughly wet, and then enter iting liquor. Let the dye bath stand still, so that no oxygento the vat. Keep the silk fabric in the vat for 20mins, andout of the vat and squeeze the liquor out thoroughly.
silk comes out of the vat, it will have a green-yellowh turns blue when the fabric is exposed to the air. Aftere silk is completely blue. Rinse thoroughly with water,er the fabric has dried completely. In order to obtain ae, dip the silk fabric into the liquor again and take it out
. Temperature time diagram of the one-bath dyeing process.
418 H.E. Ahmed, Y.E. Ziddan / Journal of Cultural Heritage 12 (2011) 412419
Fig. 10. Lost part before and after conservation. One can see the added dyed parts should be between the linen band (used to support the edges) and the body of the textile,i.e., below the lost part where the dyed parts are slightly larger in size than the lost parts.
after 20mins. Repeated dipping and airing makes the dyed shadedeeper and deeper .
8.1.2. GreenSilk dye
dye. The dythe followin
prepare a soak the
heating the extract to the boiling temperature for 2h with con-tinuous stirring. It may require addition of water to compensatethe evaporated water during the heating process;
allow the extract to be cooled and then ltered many times to getar co
. Dyetion20meake9. In
Fig. 11. Anothtextile i.e., belcolor with indigo and turmeric dye on silkd fabric with indigo was immersed again in Turmericeing with Turmeric dye was carried out according tog steps:
10% dye in water solution;dyes in the distilled water for 24h to extract the colorpowder;
22.214.171.124exhausric perglass bin Fig.er lost part before and after conservation. One can see the added dyed parts should be beow the lost part where the dyed parts are slightly larger in size than the lost parts.lored solution.
ing procedures. The dyeings were performed by themethod using a liquor ratio (LR) of 1:20 (1 g of fab-l of bath). The dyeing experiments were performed inrs according to the temperature-dyeing diagram giventhe experiments mordant (alum), was added as concen-tween the linen band (used to support the edges) and the body of the
H.E. Ahmed, Y.E. Ziddan / Journal of Cultural Heritage 12 (2011) 412419 419
Fig. 12. The osupport.
trated solutor 5 g/L. Aftthree times1:20.) [182
The marwater and ta linen banseparated ehave the saAt rst, a pithe separatband. Small[3,16].
The lostwhich werbetween ththe textile, ilarger in siz
The addethe same comargin to tband by nelost part to bhas the sam
8.4. Fixing t
A linenwere perforstretching oxing the li
8.5. The n
After comused with
the object. In the beginning of the nal stage, the edges of theobject all around were attached by sewing with a small stitchtechnique (blanket stitch) and afterwards the edges of the miss-ing and vulnerable parts were attached by small stitches. Similarly,sized stitches were used to attach the body of the object. Thesleeves were supported by attaching them to new linen fab-ric. After completing the cleaning process and xing the object,it could be displayed in a suitable manner according to themuseum requirements. One can see the object in nal stage inFig. 12 .
embearby,ome c02) 22andi,123oddin17 (wBrown39 (1ndrewumenicola
(1993atchelations.), Sc, dispText
urnituhomprier Thaeolrigittdies CWilsoss, pr1.homps 52awarspectioes,
Textilalzsynemaletchem. Ins18-02echtotile dyands
Ahmebject after conservation treatment and after xing it on new linen
ion (50g/l) to give a nal dye bath concentration of 2.5er dyeing, the unxed dyestuff was removed by rinsingwith cold water (5min, room temperature [25 C], LR0].
tion of the separate parts
gins were weak and stiff. The stiffness was removed byhe back of these margins were lined from four sides byd of 5 cm width xed under the margins including thedge and the rest of the textile. Fine silky stitches, whichme color of the part we wanted to support, were used.ece of the linen band is xed under the textile, and thened edge is moved to the textile and xed to the linenstitches are used to stitch the edge and textile together
tion of the lost parts
parts were completed using silk parts of similar colore slightly lighter. These added dyed parts should bee linen band (used to support the edges) and the body of.e., below the lost part where the dyed parts are slightlye than the lost parts.d parts have been xed by ne stitches of silk dyed bylor. When the lost part is free, i.e., present at the textilehe outside, the silky parts are xed at rst to the linenstitches followed by adjustment of the band under thee xed byne stitches in the back using silk thread thate color of lost part a shown in Figs. 10 and 11 [3,16].
he linen support to the metallic frame
support was used after supporting the edges whichated. Then, rings were xed on this perforation for easy
 F. L A.H
 S. L120
 J. C16
 S. Adoc
 G. N17
 J. Btic(Edtionand51
 D. Min f
 T. TFouArc
 O. BStu
 K, TNew
 S. HPer
 Y. Mon
 A. BHei
 S. FJ. Ajaic
 T. Btexdem
 H.n the metallic frame. Thick cotton thread was used fornen support on the metallic frame (Fig. 8).
al support process
pletion of the object treatment, tacking stitches werea very ne needle and ne silk thread to x it into
ing of silancient ation, AHRAnnual C
 H. Schwetextile m
 V. Consta15 (1970gement
ors would like to thank the conservators and archaeol-amic Art Museum, Egypt for their contributions.
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A new approach for conservation treatment of a silk textile in Islamic Art Museum, CairoIntroductionDescription of objectTesting and analysisMorphological studyX-ray diffraction analysisFourier Transform infrared spectral analysis (FTIR)Testing the stability of dyes
Removal of the old restoration errorTraditional methodUsing poultice to separate adhered cardboard
Cleaning procedureMechanical cleaningThe wet cleaning procedure
The drying processThe final support processCompletion and final support of lost partsDying procedure of new partsBlue color with indigo on silkGreen color with indigo and turmeric dye on silkDyeing procedures
Completion of the separate partsCompletion of the lost partsFixing the linen support to the metallic frameThe final support process