A new approach for conservation treatment of a silk textile in Islamic Art Museum, Cairo

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<ul><li><p>Journal of Cultural Heritage 12 (2011) 412419</p><p>Original a</p><p>A newa silk te</p><p>Harby E.Conservation D</p><p>a r t i c l</p><p>Article history:Received 8 OcAccepted 21 FAvailable onlin</p><p>Keywords:TextileSilkAdhesiveStainsCleaningPoulticeSupportFrameDyes</p><p>onsextile014.ken iorgato idon thas aservave. O</p><p>supported. Cleaning includedmechanical andwet cleaning. New silk fabrics dyedwith natural dyeswereused to complete the missing parts. The textile was supported on new linen fabric which was stretchedon a metal frame. The method of exhibition will be discussed. Photographs are included to document theconservation process.</p><p> 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.</p><p>1. Introdu</p><p>Archeolomany challing temperastorage andof adhesiveArabic gumboth bershardness in</p><p>The paphistorical tetion of histothe kinds oin this objereports theremoving tparts, xing</p><p> CorresponE-mail add</p><p>1296-2074/$ doi:10.1016/j.ction</p><p>gical textiles in Egyptian Museums are exposed toenges such as oscillate relative humidity (RH), chang-ture, effect of light, effect of air pollution, non standarddisplay methods, old poor restoration and old type</p><p>s such as starch adhesive, animal glue adhesive, andadhesive. All these factors cause damage and decay inand dyes which results in weakness in bers and dye,bers, separate parts, loss parts, stain and dust [15].</p><p>er aims to present the strategies for the conservation ofxtiles in Egypt. It shows new methods in the conserva-ric textiles, at least in Egypt. The paper aims at knowingf bers and dyes, stain, dust, and different damagesct through different ways of investigation. The paperconservation treatment of the object such as cleaning,he old adhesive and old restorations, completing lossseparate parts and making a new display.</p><p>ding author.ress: harbyezzeldeen@yahoo.com (H.E. Ahmed).</p><p>2. Description of object</p><p>The textile object dates back to Ottoman age and was shown incases no 12014 in the Islamic ArtMuseum, Cairo. Itsmeasurementsare11669.7 cm. Its containsmanydecorations suchasplantsdec-oration (owers and leafs), written decorations inside lamp hangfromarch, andgeometric decorations (columns, arches). It also con-tains different colors such as red, blue, green and yellow. The objectwas kept under glass xed on a plywood support lined by cottonfabric, a xing support, and glass coveredwith a plastic sticker fromthe edges. There aremany signs of damageon this object such as oldadhesive, old cardboard stuck on the objects back, many separateparts from the edges, loss parts, weakened bers, and brittlenesscombined with old adhesives and other previous repairs, hardness,old restoration error (such as using paper sticker to x separateparts), staining and dust. Figs. 1 and 2 illustrations the condition ofthe original.</p><p>3. Testing and analysis</p><p>3.1. Morphological study</p><p>The morphology of the surface of the fabrics was investigatedusing a Quanta 200 ESEM FEG from FEI Scanning Electron Micro-</p><p>see front matter 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.culher.2011.02.004rticle</p><p>approach for conservation treatment ofxtile in Islamic Art Museum, Cairo</p><p>Ahmed , Yassin E. Ziddanept. Faculty of Archeology, Cairo University, 12613 Orman, Giza, Egypt</p><p>e i n f o</p><p>tober 2010ebruary 2011e 1 April 2011</p><p>a b s t r a c t</p><p>The paper presents strategies for the ctrolled storage and display. The silk teperiod, and was exhibited in case # 12and analysis of the textile was undertaused to identify the kinds of dyes andLight microscope and SEM were usedogy. The effects of cleaning materialsmetallic frame support system whichThis presentation will review the conall the sticking cardboard and adhesirvation of historical textiles in Egypt that have been in uncon-is highly decorated, multicoloured and dates to the OttomanThe textile has various types of deterioration. An examinationn order to develop a plan of conservation treatment. FTIR wasnic stains, and XR-D was used to identify mordants and dust.entify the kind of bers, their condition and surface morphol-he natural dyes were tested. The researcher designed a newdvantages over the wooden frames commonly used in Egypt.tion treatment step by step. Poultices were used to remove</p><p>ld conservation repairs were removed. Separated parts were</p></li><li><p>H.E. Ahmed, Y.E. Ziddan / Journal of Cultural Heritage 12 (2011) 412419 413</p><p>Fig. 1. Textile object dates back to Ottoman age and shows cases no. 12014; one can see a lot of decorations, colors. The object was kept under glass xing on a plywoodsupport lined by cotton fabric, a xing support, and glass covered with a plastic sticker from their edges (A). The plywood support lined by cotton fabric (B). The old glassplate over the object was removed by a researcher (C). The object from the back also, we can see the remnants of the old cardboard (D).</p><p>scope (SEM). Small samples were taken from the object fromdifferent parts and investigated under SEM, to show the qualityof the bers as well as the damage aspects on these bers [68].SEM Photos of examined Ottoman textile are illustrated in Fig. 3showing the silk bers that were identied from different parts ofthe object.with transv</p><p>by small scratches, small slits and holes. Furthermore, one can seethe dust, dirt and adhesive that covered the ber as shown in Fig. 4.</p><p>3.2. X-ray diffraction analysis</p><p>ay diffract</p><p>Fig. 2. The gcardboard supThe bers are extremely roughened, damaged, brokenerse cracking and longitudinal splitting characterized</p><p>X-rRay Diure shows different type of deteriorations such as dust, grease, losses, separated parts,port and other previous repairs.ffraction of fabrics was carried out with a SIEMENS X-ometerD 5000, given 40 Kv CU Ka, radiation of 30mA.weakened bers, and brittleness combined with old adhesives, old</p></li><li><p>414 H.E. Ahmed, Y.E. Ziddan / Journal of Cultural Heritage 12 (2011) 412419</p><p>Fig. 3. The gure shows SEM images of examined Ottoman textile, One can see that the bers are extremely roughened, damaged, broken with transverse cracking andlongitudinal splitting characterized by small scratches, small slits and holes.</p><p>The diffractograms were recorded over 2=50 to 300 continuouslyat a scan rate of 20/min. to show the kinds of mordent (Alum) anddust (sand) [6,7].</p><p>3.3. Fourier Transform infrared spectral analysis (FTIR)</p><p>FTIR analysis of solid phase samples can be typically performedusing two d</p><p>widely used approach, FTIRKBr, utilises a pellet of potassium bro-mide (KBr) which is transparent in the mid-infrared region, as asupportmedium for the sample. Themixture is usually groundwithan agate mortar and pestle and subjected to a pressure of about10 tonne in an evacuated die. This sinters the mixture and pro-duces a clear transparent disc, which is then placed in the samplechamber of the spectrometer for direct absorption measurements.The second,more recent approach is termed FTIRATR. This utilises</p><p>Fig. 4. The gu(C and D).ifferent methodologies. The rst, more traditional andre shows SEM images of examined Ottoman textile, one can see different types of dirt and stain (A and B) Also, we can see old adhesive that covered the bers</p></li><li><p>H.E. Ahmed, Y.E. Ziddan / Journal of Cultural Heritage 12 (2011) 412419 415</p><p>an attenuatmeasuringinfrared beple. An infrwith a highangle for toan evanesceinto the samwave protruinto the samBRUKERFTin the 4000tors with aresult of an</p><p>WetookThen,webrthem. Afterto nd theSafower dbetween Inadhesive) awith FTIR a</p><p>3.4. Testing</p><p>The drywater, to coFig. 5. Spectra of silk dyed with Safower dye (A). Spectra of silk</p><p>ed total reection (ATR) accessory which operates bythe changes that occur in a totally internally reectedam when the beam comes into contact with a sam-ared beam is directed onto an optically dense crystalrefractive index at an angle greater than the critical</p><p>tal internal reection. This internal reectance createsnt wave that extends beyond the surface of the crystalple held in contact with the crystal. This evanescentdes only a few microns beyond the crystal surface andple [9,10]. These FTIR spectra were obtained using a</p><p>IR- TENSOR 27 Spectrometer. An expanded spectrum400 cm 1 range was used for measuring several fac-spectral resolution of 4 cm 1. Each spectrum was theaverage of 16 scans.small samplesofdifferent colors and investigated them.ought all the dyeswhich give this color and investigatedthat, we compared the original samples with new dyesfollowing: (Red color is Cochineal dyeYellow color isyeBlue color is Indigo dyeGreen color is a mixturedigo and Turmeric dyethe adhesive is the Arab gums shown in Fig. 5. Furthermore, nomordantswere foundnalyses.</p><p>the stability of dyes</p><p>fabric (the object) was softened by spraying distilledunter its extremely dry condition. The next step was to</p><p>test the staba piece of csolutions anbons, eachdyes were sThenal steby placinging the fabrthin needlepart of the tprocesses [</p><p>4. Remova</p><p>In theremoved. Tthe water spsive and oldremove the</p><p>4.1. Traditi</p><p>Wet theit for 10minadhesive. Anot removedyed with Cochineal dye (A).</p><p>ility of the colored parts to wet cleaning by immersingotton wrapped round a wooden stick into the cleaningd placing it in contact with the colorful parts of the rib-color was individually tested. It was found that all thetable and did not bleed with the wet cleaning solution.pwas to apply a primary support to theOttoman textileit between two webbed support fabrics, and stabiliz-ic by xing it to the support fabric, using appropriatelys and ne silk thread in order to protect the vulnerableextile from disintegrating during the different cleaning11,12].</p><p>l of the old restoration error</p><p>beginning, the old glass plate over the object washe object in the case showed severe dryness. Hence,rayed over the object to moisten it. Then, the old adhe-cardboard were removed. There are two methods to</p><p>old adhesive and the cardboard.</p><p>onal method</p><p>upper surface of cardboard by warm water, then leaves until water penetrates the cardboard and dissolve thefter that, remove wet parts carefully. This method doesall the sticking cardboard from the textile.</p></li><li><p>416 H.E. Ahmed, Y.E. Ziddan / Journal of Cultural Heritage 12 (2011) 412419</p><p>Fig. 6. The gu r free acid on the upper surface of cardboard (A). Wetting it by warm water,and leave it fo oulticing from the cardboard, and that will remove the sticking cardboardand adhesive (</p><p>4.2. Using p</p><p>Applicatarea, allowtice to cardbthat has beean even deundisturbedacid paperwarm wateand dissolvcardboard,sive. The uswhen a locacardboard a</p><p>5. Cleanin</p><p>5.1. Mecha</p><p>Variousdirt (i.e., nowas done b</p><p>5.2. The we</p><p>This cleato assist theperonic N toallow it to pfor 15minsing bath wwith wateronly, for 10soiling, relacolors [3,14re shows the steps of using poultice to separate adhered cardboard. Putting a paper 10mins to permit water to penetrate and dissolve the adhesive (B). Remove the pC and D).</p><p>oultice to separate adhered cardboard</p><p>ion of a poultice locally on the textile within the pasteds the moisture to migrate vertically through the poul-oard. The acid free paper (blotter) is a multilayer papern especially designed for poulticing. In order to achievecomposition of the paste, it is necessary to guaranteeand homogenous migration of water. Firstly, place an</p><p>free on the upper surface of cardboard. Then, wet it byr, and leave it for 10mins to permit water to penetratee the adhesive. Finally remove the poulticing from the</p><p>and that will remove the sticking cardboard and adhe-e of poultices would appear to be particularly suitablelized treatment is necessary to remove all the stickingnd adhesive as shown in Fig. 6 [13].</p><p>g procedure</p><p>nical cleaning</p><p>types of ne brushes are used to remove free dust andt attached to textile bers). Aerobic aspiration of dusty using a vacuum cleaner [3].</p><p>t cleaning procedure</p><p>ningprocedureusedwaterwithotherdetergent agents,cleaning process. The ratiowas one part detergent Syn-100 parts of distilled water. The water was agitated to</p><p>enetrate between the bers to release the dirt particles,. The bath temperature was 30 C. Then a second clean-ith distilled water only was applied for 10mins againagitation, and then a third bath with distilled watermins as shown in Fig. 7. The wet cleaning reduced thexed the bers, removed the creasing and brightened the,15].</p><p>Fig. 7. The g</p><p>6. The dry</p><p>To dry ta Japaneseure shows the wet cleaning procedure (A), the drying procedure (B).</p><p>ing process</p><p>he object without distortions, we experimented withtissue sandwich using different tissues (usugami or</p></li><li><p>H.E. Ahmed, Y.E. Ziddan / Journal of Cultural Heritage 12 (2011) 412419 417</p><p>Fig. 8. The gu me, oon the metalli allic frwhich were pe</p><p>gampi) apping amountwas left unshown in Fevaporationted in aplacto the sizethat waterhelp of deh</p><p>7. The na</p><p>After comary suppoand washedat a later tiport was irobetween th</p><p>Woodenhave the svariation oftortion, andinsects). So,the followin</p><p> it is not a it is light it can be c</p><p>8. Comple</p><p>The samby the reseaof indigo an</p><p>ing p</p><p>Blue15gntil iml opaststirre shows the steps of xing the linen support to the metallic frame. The metallic frac frame (A). Thick cotton thread was used for xing the linen support on the metrforated after xing on the metallic frame (D).</p><p>lied cross-grainorparallel-grain to the textilewithvary-s of moisture and pressure. Consequently, the objectcovered to complete drying at ambient conditions asig. 7. In air drying, the process can be shifted towardsin several ways: by ensuring that the wet textile is set-</p><p>e (i.e.workroom) that is sufciently large in comparisonand surface area of the drying textile; and by ensuringvapor is removed as soon as it is formed e.g. with the</p><p>8.1. Dy</p><p>8.1.1.Stir</p><p>glass uin 120indigoite andumidiers and/or effective ventilation [16,17].</p><p>l support process</p><p>mpletion of the object drying, the fabric webbing pri-rt was removed. A new linen support was preparedto remove chemical residues and prevent shrinkage</p><p>me due to humidity changes. Then the new linen sup-ned to remove creases and was placed inside the shirte outer and the inner layers as shown in Fig. 8.frames were used in the past for mounting, but they</p><p>ome disadvantages: wood is easily affected by themoisture and temperature that causes twisting anddis-it is affected by biological deterioration (i.e., fungi andthe researcher created a new metallic frame which hasg advantages:</p><p>ffected by moisture or biological deterioration;and easily moved;oated with different colors.</p><p>tion and nal support of lost parts</p><p>ples thatwereused to complete the lost partsweredyedrcher who used indigo for the blue color and a mixtured turmeric to get the green color.</p><p>until the wThe liquid sing for 20mof sodium d</p><p>Heats thwarm wateinto the dyecan enter inthen take itWhen thecolor, whic20mins, thbut only aftdeeper shad</p><p>Fig. 9ne can see the rings were xed on this perforation for easy stretchingame (B and C). A linen support was used after supporting the edges</p><p>rocedure of new parts</p><p>color with indigo on silkof indigo powder with 75ml of warm water in beakert forms a paste. In a second vessel, dissolve 30g of sodaf warm water. Pour 6070ml of this solution over thee and stir vigorously. Then add 30g of sodium...</p></li></ul>


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