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1230 VICTOR MORAX Dr. Victor Morax, whose death occurred on May 14th in Paris, was an ophthalmologist, well known far away from Paris. He was born on the banks of the Lake of Geneva, but his medical educa- tion was carried out entirely in Paris and his first studies in bacteriology were carried out in that city. In 1900 he made an official visit to Egypt, and in the following year appeared his first significant contribu- tion to the study of trachoma, the disease on which he was later to become the prime authority. Here he showed that many of the prominent symptoms were due to superimposed infections like the gono- coccus and the pneumococcus, observations which led to the clinical division of trachoma into the chronic and the acute forms. For the next quarter of a century Morax held an important official post as clinical director at the Hopital Lariboisiere and he continued there his bacteriological studies, out of which sprang the French association entitled " The League against Trachoma." This society organised the publication of a journal dealing with trachoma, summarising all important contributions on the subject made in other languages. For the last ten years this journal has appeared quarterly under the title of " La Revue Internationale du Trachome," while Morax became a member of the executive committee of an international organisation against the spread of trachoma and was an important participant in all its activities. Latterly Morax had worked at the Pasteur Institute, with which he had always been in close touch, while 30 years ago he contributed to the Annales de l’Institut the discovery of the organism known as the Morax Axenfeld diplo-bacillus. As a member of the Ophthalmological Society of the United Kingdom, he delivered the Bowman lecture in 1919 at the annual congress of the Society held in London, his subject being plastic operations in the orbital region with special reference to war wounds, when he described in detail the methods chiefly directed to such repairs of the injured tissues as could be made for cosmetic purposes. He also wrote an admirable text-book on ophthalmology, and a treatise on the bacteriology of conjunctivitis, and was a regular contributor to the Bulletins de la Société Française d’Ophtalmologie. To the International Congress of Ophthalmology, held in Madrid in 1933, he submitted an important report on the aetiology of trachoma, and in the month of his death the Annales de l’Institut Pasteur contained an exhaustive review from him upon intraocular inoculation by tuberculosis bacilli. He was both a great worker and a great man of science. A MEDICAL VICE-CHANCELLOR THE appointment as vice-chancellor to a university of a graduate who has been associated with its activities almost continuously for nearly 30 years is a tribute to proved merit. On the scientific side Prof. J. S. B. Stopford, F.R.S., has served the University of Manchester as professor of anatomy since 1919, having previously been lecturer and before that demonstrator ; his contributions to the anatomy of the living, dealing chiefly with sensation, the sensory pathway and the blood-supply of the brain, have brought fame to his alma mater as well as to himself. The development of his department at Manchester has made the subject of anatomy a vital part of the students’ medical studies. On the academic side he has shown judgment and tact as dean of the medical school and pro-vice-chancellor of the university. His promotion at the early age of 46 to a position of high dignity will be regretted only by those who deplore the loss to neurology which even a partial withdrawal of his energies from active research must imply. Prof. Stopford has been a prominent member of the General Medical Council for many years and has shown keen interest in the knotty problems of the medical curriculum. VIENNA GENERAL SPITAL THIS week with the help of many foreign guests every medical faculty and every medical society in Vienna is celebrating the 150th anniversary of the foundation of the Allgemeines Krankenhaus which has been identified as no other hospital in Europe with the teaching of clinical medicine. The foundation of the General Spital, as it was then known, was the act of that enlightened Hapsburg monarch, Joseph II., and in its earliest days the hospital was directed by Johann Peter Frank, who, realising that clinical teaching must be controlled by the study of patho. logical anatomy, appointed the first prosector to a teaching school. In a festival number of the Wiener klinische Wcchenschrift, Prof. Wagner-Jauregg eulo. gises this medical statesman and Prof. Max Neuburger tells the story of the school up to its culmination at the beginning of the present century. Despite the levelling out of medical knowledge and practice the Vienna school is still making its contribution to medical thought and Neuburger finds a Vienna " nuance " in the theory and practice of all branches of medical science. The week ends with an address by Prof. Paul Clairmont of Zurich, one of the surgical technicians of our time, on the way Vienna surgery has permeated the surgical schools of the world. The festival number is evidence of the continuing liveliness of a school for which medicine everywhere has respect. THE Lister medal for 1936 has been awarded to Sir Robert Muir, F.R.S., professor of pathology in the University of Glasgow, and he will deliver the Lister memorial lecture at the Royal College of Surgeons of England next year. This is the fifth occasion of the award, which is made by a committee representative of the Royal Society, the Royal College of Surgeons of England, the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, the University of Edinburgh, and the University of Glasgow in recognition of dis- tinguished contributions to surgical science. It may be noted that it is now exactly 75 years since Lister was appointed to the chair of surgery at Glasgow. THE People’s League of Health is appointing a committee to study the influence of diet on the health of pregnant women and the relation of nutri- tion to maternal mortality and morbidity. It is hoped to make a thorough and wide investigation and to publish a report in due course. The office of the League is at 12, Stratford-place, London, W.I. THE trustees of the Rockefeller Foundation have promised to give 60,000 towards the building and equipment of the proposed institute for the teaching and study of neurology at the National Hospital, Queen-square, and a further f:60,OOO towards the endowment of the teaching and research that will be carried on there. COUNTY HOSPITAL, EDMONTON.-The Middlesex county council has approved in principle proposals which, it is estimated, will cost about 500,000, for modernising this hospital and for adapting Edmonton House for hospital purposes.

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1230

VICTOR MORAX

Dr. Victor Morax, whose death occurred on

May 14th in Paris, was an ophthalmologist, wellknown far away from Paris. He was born on thebanks of the Lake of Geneva, but his medical educa-tion was carried out entirely in Paris and his firststudies in bacteriology were carried out in that city.In 1900 he made an official visit to Egypt, and in thefollowing year appeared his first significant contribu-tion to the study of trachoma, the disease on whichhe was later to become the prime authority. Herehe showed that many of the prominent symptomswere due to superimposed infections like the gono-coccus and the pneumococcus, observations whichled to the clinical division of trachoma into thechronic and the acute forms. For the next quarterof a century Morax held an important official postas clinical director at the Hopital Lariboisiere andhe continued there his bacteriological studies, outof which sprang the French association entitled " TheLeague against Trachoma." This society organisedthe publication of a journal dealing with trachoma,summarising all important contributions on thesubject made in other languages. For the lastten years this journal has appeared quarterly underthe title of " La Revue Internationale du Trachome,"while Morax became a member of the executivecommittee of an international organisation againstthe spread of trachoma and was an importantparticipant in all its activities. Latterly Moraxhad worked at the Pasteur Institute, with which hehad always been in close touch, while 30 years agohe contributed to the Annales de l’Institut the

discovery of the organism known as the MoraxAxenfeld diplo-bacillus. As a member of the

Ophthalmological Society of the United Kingdom,he delivered the Bowman lecture in 1919 at theannual congress of the Society held in London, hissubject being plastic operations in the orbital regionwith special reference to war wounds, when hedescribed in detail the methods chiefly directedto such repairs of the injured tissues as could be madefor cosmetic purposes. He also wrote an admirabletext-book on ophthalmology, and a treatise on thebacteriology of conjunctivitis, and was a regularcontributor to the Bulletins de la Société Françaised’Ophtalmologie. To the International Congress of

Ophthalmology, held in Madrid in 1933, he submittedan important report on the aetiology of trachoma, andin the month of his death the Annales de l’InstitutPasteur contained an exhaustive review from him

upon intraocular inoculation by tuberculosis bacilli.He was both a great worker and a great man ofscience.

A MEDICAL VICE-CHANCELLOR

THE appointment as vice-chancellor to a universityof a graduate who has been associated with itsactivities almost continuously for nearly 30 yearsis a tribute to proved merit. On the scientific sideProf. J. S. B. Stopford, F.R.S., has served theUniversity of Manchester as professor of anatomysince 1919, having previously been lecturer andbefore that demonstrator ; his contributions to theanatomy of the living, dealing chiefly with sensation,the sensory pathway and the blood-supply of thebrain, have brought fame to his alma mater as wellas to himself. The development of his departmentat Manchester has made the subject of anatomya vital part of the students’ medical studies. Onthe academic side he has shown judgment and tactas dean of the medical school and pro-vice-chancellor

of the university. His promotion at the early age of46 to a position of high dignity will be regrettedonly by those who deplore the loss to neurologywhich even a partial withdrawal of his energies fromactive research must imply. Prof. Stopford has beena prominent member of the General Medical Councilfor many years and has shown keen interest in the

knotty problems of the medical curriculum.

VIENNA GENERAL SPITAL

THIS week with the help of many foreign guestsevery medical faculty and every medical society inVienna is celebrating the 150th anniversary of thefoundation of the Allgemeines Krankenhaus whichhas been identified as no other hospital in Europewith the teaching of clinical medicine. The foundationof the General Spital, as it was then known, was theact of that enlightened Hapsburg monarch, Joseph II.,and in its earliest days the hospital was directedby Johann Peter Frank, who, realising that clinicalteaching must be controlled by the study of patho.logical anatomy, appointed the first prosector to a

teaching school. In a festival number of the Wienerklinische Wcchenschrift, Prof. Wagner-Jauregg eulo.gises this medical statesman and Prof. Max Neuburgertells the story of the school up to its culminationat the beginning of the present century. Despitethe levelling out of medical knowledge and practicethe Vienna school is still making its contribution tomedical thought and Neuburger finds a Vienna" nuance

" in the theory and practice of all branchesof medical science. The week ends with an addressby Prof. Paul Clairmont of Zurich, one of the surgicaltechnicians of our time, on the way Vienna surgeryhas permeated the surgical schools of the world.The festival number is evidence of the continuingliveliness of a school for which medicine everywherehas respect.

THE Lister medal for 1936 has been awarded toSir Robert Muir, F.R.S., professor of pathology inthe University of Glasgow, and he will deliver theLister memorial lecture at the Royal College of

Surgeons of England next year. This is the fifthoccasion of the award, which is made by a committeerepresentative of the Royal Society, the RoyalCollege of Surgeons of England, the Royal Collegeof Surgeons in Ireland, the University of Edinburgh,and the University of Glasgow in recognition of dis-tinguished contributions to surgical science. It maybe noted that it is now exactly 75 years since Listerwas appointed to the chair of surgery at Glasgow.THE People’s League of Health is appointing a

committee to study the influence of diet on thehealth of pregnant women and the relation of nutri-tion to maternal mortality and morbidity. It is

hoped to make a thorough and wide investigationand to publish a report in due course. The officeof the League is at 12, Stratford-place, London, W.I.THE trustees of the Rockefeller Foundation have

promised to give 60,000 towards the building andequipment of the proposed institute for the teachingand study of neurology at the National Hospital,Queen-square, and a further f:60,OOO towards theendowment of the teaching and research that willbe carried on there.

COUNTY HOSPITAL, EDMONTON.-The Middlesexcounty council has approved in principle proposals which,it is estimated, will cost about 500,000, for modernisingthis hospital and for adapting Edmonton House for

hospital purposes.