A History of the World Cup19302010
Clemente Angelo Lisi
THE SCARECROW PRESS, INC.Lanham, Maryland Toronto Plymouth, UK 2011
SCARECROW PRESS, INC. Published in the United States of America by Scarecrow Press, Inc. A wholly owned subsidiary of The Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc. 4501 Forbes Boulevard, Suite 200, Lanham, Maryland 20706 www.scarecrowpress.com Estover Road Plymouth PL6 7PY United Kingdom Copyright 2011 by Clemente Angelo Lisi All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publisher. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Information Available Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Lisi, Clemente Angelo, 1975 History of the World Cup, 1930-2010 / Clemente A. Lisi. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-8108-7753-5 (pbk. : alk. paper) ISBN 978-0-8108-7754-2 (ebook) 1. World Cup (Soccer)History. 2. SoccerHistory. I. Title. GV943.49.L573 2011 796.334'668dc22 2010049016
The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirementsof American National Standard for Information SciencesPermanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992. Manufactured in the United States of America.
To my parentsfor always believing in me and giving me the knowledge to succeed
F O R E WO R D by Thomas Dooley AC K NOW L E D G M E N T S I N T RO D U C T I O N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 T H E WO R L D C U P I S B O R N THE FIRST STEPS BR AZIL IS BORN P E L T H E K I NG T O TA L F O O T BA L L THE HAND OF GOD A N E W F RO N T I E R F O U R - Z A I TA L I A ! V I VA E S PA A
vii xi xiii 1 9 44 93 128 189 247 319 359 409 413 465
G L O S SA RY A P P E N D I X A : WO R L D C U P S TAT S A P P E N D I X B : WO R L D C U P R E C O R D S
BIBLIOGR APHY INDEX A B O U T T H E AU T H O R
469 4 71 475
occer never ceases to amaze me for its sheer magnitude and ability to elicit a spectrum of emotions. Worshipped by the masses and played by superstars in every corner of the planet, it is the biggest public spectacle in the world. The games ultimate celebration takes place every four years at the World Cup, where millions upon millions of peoplemen, women, and children from all walks of lifebreak with their daily routines to follow the fortunes of their favorite national teams. Governments close and productivity declines over the four weeks the World Cup is contested. Families travel across time zones and spend large sums of money to attend the World Cup to experience in person the passion and energy of the game. This is a very difficult feeling to explain, although I participated in both the 1994 and 1998 World Cup as a player for the United States after becoming a citizen of this great country. In 2006, I experienced my first World Cup as a fan after deciding to travel to my native Germany with my son to check it out. I had watched many previous World Cups on TV, but being in Germany during the month-long tournament was the longest party I had ever witnessed. I could see the passion in the eyes of the people who were there dancing, drinking, and singing in the streets and inside the stadiums. The smell of the freshly cut grass, the sight of fireworks lit before the start of a game, and the enthusiasm generated by a goal were, for me, all part of that World Cup experience.
Soccer for a single month can unite people of different languages and cultures. The people at the World Cup, including me, have one desire and one passion: soccer, football, futbol, futebol, calcio, or whatever you choose to call it in your native tongue. Soccer is truly the international language. It means friendship, enjoyment, joy, and unabashed happinessand every four years it is put on display for everyone to see and experience. Soccer, and specifically the World Cup, is a multibillion-dollar business that will only continue to grow in the coming decades. Interest on the part of fans will also increase in the coming years. The 2010 World Cup, for example, drew massive interest from around the world. Every play, every goal, every bad call is put under the microscope on Twitter, Facebook, and blogs. The world is a smaller place than when I was a child and enjoyed the World Cup, and the most recent tournament was a wonderful example of just how tiny our planet has become over the last decade alone. At each World Cup, games are contested and stars are born. Success is celebrated and failure is to be avoided. At the 1994 World Cup played in the United States, an error by Colombian defender Andres Escobar, who deflected the ball into his own goal during the U.S. historic 2-1 victory at the Rose Bowl, ended up costing him his life. Escobar was killed upon his return home, one of the biggest tragedies to ever take place in connection with the World Cup. Almost 16 years later, Escobar is still mourned by his countrymen and teammates. At the 1966 World Cup, England defeated West Germany in the final, only after Geoff Hurst was awarded a controversial goal that had struck the underside of the crossbar and appeared to bounce down in front of the line instead of over it. The goal was awarded and England won what remains its only World Cup title to date. The goal remains, in my opinion, one of the biggest injustices to ever take place on the field during a World Cup. Some 44 years later, people are still debating it. Clemente Lisis book pays homage to this wonderful tournament, which has now been played over a span of 80 years, and concludes with a chapter on the 2010 World Cup. The games, the results, the winners and losers, the behind-the-scenes stories, team histories, and interviews all come together to give new fans, and old ones like me, a better understanding of what the World Cup means to people around the world and in this country. This is a great book to read, consult, and cherish
American fans in Ohio gather to watch the 2010 World Cup on large-screen TVs in another sign of soccers popularity in this country (Credit: Columbus Crew).
ahead of the next World Cup in Brazil, where the game is a religion and played by nearly every citizen. I hope to see everyone there in 2014. Thomas Dooley played for the U.S. national team from 1992 to 1999 after becoming an American citizen. He was a defensive midfielder who played at the 1994 World Cup and captained the team at the 1998 World Cup. He played for noted German clubs Kaiserslautern, Bayer Leverkusen, and Schalke 04 before joining the Columbus Crew and NY/NJ MetroStars of Major League Soccer. He retired in 2000 after playing in 95 MLS games and scoring seven goals. Before coming to this country, Dooley won the German league title, known as the Bundesliga, with Kaiserslautern in 1991, and the UEFA Cup with Schalke 04 in 1997. He also coached German club FC Saarbrucken during the 200203 season. Dooley was inducted into the U.S. National Soccer Hall of Fame in 2010.
project of this magnitude requires a lot of help along the way. I would like to thank the many journalists whose articles and books provided me with information on past World Cups. I also want to thank those who helped make this book possible, including my wife, Kate, for all her patience and for dealing with my absence in the summer of 2010 so I could travel to South Africa for the World Cup. I would also like to thank my parents, Franco and Rachele, and my sister, Paola, for their words of encouragement. A special thanks goes to J Hutcherson at USSoccerPlayers.com for giving me a place to write about the worlds greatest game. I would also like to thank my editors, Stephen Ryan and Kellie Hagan, along with everyone at Scarecrow Press, for believing in this books updated edition and helping to make it a reality. I would also like to extend my gratitude to all the players and coaches who gave their time so I could compile this extraordinary story. My gratitude also goes to FIFA for providing me with official game reports and access to video and photographs. Finally, I want to offer my special thanks to former U.S. midfielder Thomas Dooley for writing the foreword. His experiences and knowledge of the game added credibility to this book.
Some people believe football is a matter of life and death. Im very disappointed with that attitude. I can assure you it is much, much more important than that. Former Liverpool coach Bill Shankly1 am a soccer junkie. The sport has been in my blood since I was a child. Actually, given that my parents were born in Italy, Id argue that somewhere in my DNA is a soccer gene. Though scientists have never found it, Im sure it exists. I first learned of soccers existence, and the passion it can evoke, in the summer of 1982. I was just six years old and on vacation in Italy with my parents and younger sister. Not too far away, the World Cup was being contested in Spain. Unknown to me at the time, I was falling in love with the sport. Italy had started the tournament off on the wrong foot but had steadily picked up steam during the knockout rounds. That summer was truly a magical time. I remember watching the World Cup final between Italy and West Germany on my grandmothers TV in Naples, fascinated with what these athletes were able to do with a ball. Italys star striker Paolo Rossi, affectionately nicknamed Pablito by the Argentine press four years earlier for his small stature, was the first player I enjoyed watching. He scored goalslots of themand the crowds, both in the stadiums and huddled around the television, loved him. Naples is a city overflowing with passion and zest for lifeand has always had a
great love for soccer. During the game, the streets around my grandmothers apartment building were empty. The nation held its breath. I knew something monumental was about to happen but exactly what was hard for me to understand. Then it happened. Italy beat West Germany, 31. My memories of that game include Rossis first goal, Marco Tardellis long-range shot that wound up in the back of the West German net, and his subsequent goal celebration. The final whistle brought with it an explosion of joy in the stands and across Italy, including the narrow, cobble-stoned streets near my grandmothers four-story building. The emotional phrase, Campioni del Mondo! Campioni del Mondo! Campioni del Mondo! shrieked from Italian TV commentator Nando Martinellis raspy voice as I jumped up and down with joy. I still remember my father cryingthe first time Id ever seen him do thatand people in the neighborhood waving Italian flags from their windows and on the streets. I was fascinated. All of this emotion for a game! My father grabbed me by the hand to join the throng of fans who had started cheering in the streets. Chants of E-TAL-YA! E-TAL-YA! E-TAL-YA! filled the night sky as I stood in the street and proudly waved an oversized green, white, and red flag affixed to a wooden stick. I was hooked. Since that night, my love for the sport has blossomed over the years. My love affair with soccer, particularly when I was a child, has always put me in the minority among American sports fans. While soccer is the worlds biggest religioncutting across ethnicity, ideology, and gender like nothing elseit has always had to compete in this country with baseball, football, basketball, and hockey for attention. Growing up in New York, near the United Nations, afforded me the chance to make friends with children from around the world. Some didnt always speak English, but we all bonded because I always showed up to school with a soccer ball. One of the most upsetting experiences I had as a child was watching my soccer ball get run over by a bus. Thankfully, my parents bought me a new ball the next day. Despite having a group of friends who hailed from far-off places like Albania, Turkey, and Uruguayall of whom had an appreciation for what the Brazilians call the Beautiful Gameit wasnt easy to play in an organized league when I was growing up. I grew up during the 1980s, a time when this country had become a soccer backwater
following the collapse of the North American Soccer League. All the hoopla that had come with the New York Cosmos had suddenly packed up and left town like a traveling circus. The only games I could watch on TV were a few weeks old and in Spanish. While other kids watched baseball and football, I grew up watching Spanish-language soccer announcers like Tony Tirado, Norberto Longo, and Andreas Cantor whose trademark GOOOOOOOAAAALL! outburst resonated in my living room years before most Americans had ever heard it. When I was twelve, my parents signed me up for a soccer league at a local YMCA. I was very excited. This was my chance to play like the stars I had seen on TV. Maybe I could score goals like Diego Maradona or dribble like Michel Platini. To my dismay, I was the only kid who had signed up. My dad and I had a brief chat with the coach, a short, dark-skinned man from Trinidad. I recall that we traded stories on that day about how great soccer was and how Americans just had no appreciation for it: a conversation that I know takes place somewhere in this country on a daily basis. In 1988, I cheered FIFAs decision to award the 1994 World Cup to the United States, although it ultimately failed in its goal of establishing soccer as a major sport. There are, however, signs that soccer is raising its profile in this countrys saturated sports market. The signing in January 2007 of English superstar David Beckham by the Los Angeles Galaxy and interest by the U.S. Soccer Federation to host the 2022 World Cup show that soccer is a game that is here to stay. Every four years, sports fans across this country jump on the World Cup bandwagon just like they do with curling during the Winter Olympics and gymnastics at the Summer Games. Once the World Cup comes to an end, so does everyones interest. Not me. I live and breathe the game seven days a week, particularly on Sunday mornings when I get up early just to watch Italian League games. I have watched Serie A games on Sunday mornings since I was eleven, getting up before everyone else in my family so I could fix the rabbit ears on my 13-inch TV and clear up the fuzzy UHF signal that came into my living room courtesy of the now-defunct WNYC/Channel 31 in New York. If that sounds like a passionate fan, try sitting with your ear affixed to a radio for two hours listening to a game. Yep, I did that toojust to listen to teams like Napoli, Juventus, and AC Milan playbefore the proliferation of satellite television during the late 1990s.
While many Americans love to watch...