A cross-cultural perspective: Perceptions and Attitudes .A cross-cultural perspective: Perceptions

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  • A cross-cultural perspective: Perceptions and Attitudes of Anglo-Australians and Chinese Immigrants Ageing in Australia

    3rd International Conference on Ageing in a Foreign Land, Adelaide, 24-26 June 2015 Dr Joanne (Tan) Soosai School of Psychology, University of Adelaide josctan@yahoo.com

  • Background

    Population ageing the youngest of the Australian baby boomers (i.e.,

    those born between 1946 and 1965, inclusive) set to turn 65 in 2031. People aged over 65 - projected to rise to 27 per cent

    of the population by 2051. Australias changing ethnic profile Growing proportions of immigrants from India and Sri

    Lanka, Lebanon, Vietnam, the Philippines, Malaysia, China, Hong Kong, South Africa, and New Zealand (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2012)

    Chinese in contemporary Australia one of Australias top ten ancestries - 4 per cent of the

    population (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2012).

  • Chinese Values, Traditions and Cultural Patterns: Confucianism and Filial Piety

    Culture an integrated set of knowledge, beliefs, values, and behaviors shared by a group of people (Lai, 2010, p. 203)

    Confucian values Role and position within the social order Self-identity, duty and responsibility

    Filial piety Physical needs of parents Wishes and preferences of parents Honour and respect

  • Contrasting value systems

    Eastern/Asian values

    Collectivistic values Promote eldercare and

    interdependence Co-residency Less accepting of formal


    Western/Australian values

    Individualistic values Emphasise self-

    sufficiency and independence

    Independent living More accepting of formal


  • Whether traditional values remain significant?

    Significant social changes: Urbanisation, modernisation, industrialisation o Geographic relocation, employment and education

    opportunities, more women joining the workforce, decease in family size.

    Migration o Ageing Asian immigrants in Australia confronted with

    two sets of values.

    Acculturation oA process in which individuals from one cultural group

    embrace the beliefs and follows the values of a different cultural group over a period of time.

  • PhD Thesis

    Increasing need for research into the needs and attitudes of the Chinese community ageing in Australia. The way in which migration plays a role in how

    traditional roles and responsibilities are practiced and expressed.

    Whether filial piety has eroded following migration, as

    the values and practices of the new country are adopted.

  • PhD Thesis

    Aims: To investigate attitudes and beliefs towards ageing and

    well-being within the context of successful ageing; and To explore the needs and expectations within the

    context of filial piety among Anglo-Australians and Chinese immigrants.

  • Overview: Studies 1 and 2

    Study One qualitative Semi-structured

    interviews (N = 21)

    11 Anglo-Australians (M = 69.8 years) 10 Chinese-Australians (M = 59.9 years)

    Study Two quantitative Questionnaires (N = 268)

    152 Anglo-Australians (M = 67.1 years) 116 Chinese-Australians (M = 64.7 years) 68 English speaking (M = 61.4 years) 48 Chinese speaking (M = 69.5 years)

  • Characteristics of the sample Study One 21 Participants: Born between 1927 and 1950 M = 65.10 years (range 55 to 78) 9 males (42.9%) and 12 females (57.1%) 11 Anglo-Australians 1 widowed, 3 divorced, 7 married 10 Chinese-Australians: All were married Arrived in Australia between 1964 and 1992 Arrival age: M = 34.30 years Length of residency: M = 25.7 years

  • Methodology


    Snowball sampling

    Background questionnaire

    Semi-structured interviews


    Data transcribed

  • Analytic Framework

    Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA)

    (Smith, J.A ) IPA Procedures: Transcripts were read and re-read Themes identified and labeled Themes were clustered A summary table produced (Super-ordinate, core & sub-themes)

  • Qualitative Results

    Future care plans Lack of Planning

    Chinese-Australians: General and vague plans Lack of planning was attributed to their current active

    lifestyle (CA16, 59 years old and CA21, 67 years old). Appropriate finance (CA14, 56 years old and CA20, 55

    years old).

  • Future care plans

    Anglo-Australians: Have either started considering options to aid them with

    planning for the future or had begun to made plans for old age. Funeral options or have paid for it Downsizing Prepared legal documents e.g EPOA, will

    More proactive autonomy and control over their own future.

    Environmental mastery: Independence, self-sufficiency and control

  • Future care preferences

    Ageing in place o Preference to live in their own homes for as long as

    possible. o Preference for progressive care

    Openness to Formal Care and Quality of Care Anglo-Australians: Professionalism of aged care facilities Positive perceptions of formal care.

  • Future care preferences Openness to Formal Care and Quality of Care


    More mixed in their attitudes.

    Do not intend to rely on their children in old age.

    Differences in choice of aged care facility: Preference for mainstream aged care facility CA7, 16 years in Aust, 26% of life in Aust; CA15, 39 years in Aust, 70% of life in Aust.

    Preference for a facility that is culture-specific Be with people of the same cultural background (CA12, 41 years

    in Aust, 70% of life in Aust) Good Chinese food (CA21, 40 years in Aust, 60% of life in Aust)

  • Future care preferences

    Chinese-Australians: Differences in the type of support from family.

    Contact and interaction with their children more important than physical and financial support.

    Parents should expect all forms of care and support from their children. (CA16, 27 years in Aust, 46% of life in Aust) (CA18, 20 years in Aust, 32% of life in Aust)

    Children are not obligated. (CA19, 17 years in Aust, 30% of life in Aust)

  • Study Two - Quantitative Attitudes towards future care

    Percentage of participants who indicated yes

    Item AA All-CA ES CA CS CA I intend to rely on my children in old age***^

    6.3 19.6 10.8 33.3

    Elderly people should live with their children...***

    4.8 33 32.8 33.3

    Elderly people should live in an aged care facility...*

    89.7 78 76.2 80.4

    Note: AA: Anglo-Australian, All CA = English speaking and Chinese speaking combined, ESCA: English speaking Chinese-Australians, CSCA: Chinese speaking Chinese-Australians, Chi-square significance level between AA and All CA at: *p

  • Conclusion, Policy Implications and Future Directions

    Different degrees of adherence to the traditional value of filial piety.

    Future care of the elderly by the family cannot be assumed nor guaranteed simply on the basis of their collectivist beliefs.

    Platform for future studies on other emerging ethnic communities.

  • Published Papers

    Tan, J., Ward, L., & Ziaian, T. (2011). Comparing definitions of successful ageing: The case of Anglo- and Chinese-Australians. Electronic Journal of Applied Psychology, 7(1), 15-21.

    Tan, J., Ward, L., & Ziaian, T. (2010). Experiences of

    Chinese Immigrants and Anglo-Australians Ageing in Australia: A Cross-cultural Perspective on Ageing Well. Journal of Health Psychology, 15(5), 697-706.

    A cross-cultural perspective: Perceptions and Attitudes of Anglo-Australians and Chinese Immigrants Ageing in AustraliaBackgroundChinese Values, Traditions and Cultural Patterns: Confucianism and Filial PietyContrasting value systemsWhether traditional values remain significant?PhD Thesis PhD ThesisOverview: Studies 1 and 2Characteristics of the sampleMethodologyAnalytic FrameworkQualitative ResultsFuture care plansFuture care preferencesFuture care preferencesFuture care preferencesStudy Two - QuantitativeAttitudes towards future careConclusion, Policy Implications and Future DirectionsPublished Papers