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91-Biodiesel From Algae

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BY RAVI S. PATEL M. Sc. Integrated biotechnology Sem: VIII

Contents: What is biodiesel? What is algae? Choosing an algae for biodiesel production General method Production method Algae oil extraction Breakthrough in oil extraction from algae Algal Biodiesel Opportunities in India

What is biodiesel? Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil- or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, propyl or ethyl) esters. Biodiesel is made from algae oil by chemical process called transesterification Triglyceride Monoglyceride + Methanol Diglyceride Monoglyceride catalyst Glycerol + Methyl esters (biodiesel)

Choosing an algae for biodiesel production:What Makes Biodiesel From Algae So Exciting? Important characteristics of AlgaeHigh % of total biomass is oil Maintains a high % of oil even under stress

Why Botryococcus braunii?Converts 61% of its biomass into oil Drops to only 31% oil under stress Grows best between 22-25oC (7177oF)

Metabolic pathway in algae related to biofuel production

Production method1) Batch process 2) Supercritical process 3) Ultra & higher shear in line & batch reactors 4) Ultrasonic reactor method 5) Microwave method 6) Lipase catalyzed method

Algae oil extraction2 method

Mechanical method

Chemical method

-Expression/ Expeller method -Hexane solvent method -Ultrasonic assisted extraction -Soxhlet extraction 1)ultrasonic preparation for -supercritical fluid cold pressing extraction 2)ultrasonic solvent extraction 3)ultrasonic enzymatic extraction

Breakthrough in oil extraction from algae1) Single step extraction 2) Continuous algal oil extraction system 3) Extraction using nanotechnology

Algal Biodiesel Opportunities in India In Delhi : increased the number of registered vehicles to increase from 841,000 in 1985 to over 3.5 million in 2001 severe increase in air and water pollution, deforestation, water shortages, and carbon emissions. Currently, a litre of gasoline normally costs 2.5 times more than a litre of diesel fuel. Taking advantage of this cost differential, Indian car manufacturers have been investing heavily in the production of diesel vehicles Substantial number of vehicles on the road that demand diesel and would not require the relatively expensive retrofits needed to use Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). The final factor making biodiesel production in India attractive is the potential to cultivate cheap feed stocks. India's tropical climate is conducive to grow various species of micro-algae, which serves as natural benefit over other countries for the production of algal biodiesel. The micro-algae produced sufficient quantity of biodiesel to completely replace petroleum

References:1. 2. 3. ALGAL BIODIESEL: the next generation biofuel for India A. K. Bajhaiya, S. K Mandotra, M.R. Suseela, Kiran Toppo and S. Ranade. National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, India. Society of Applied Sciences, 2010 4. Industrial Biotechnology (Approach to clean technology), S.N.Jogdand

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