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4/9/2010 Intro: Week 1 Structures & Theories Donna Bolima-Yamada Upward Bound Program University of Washington

4/9/2010 Intro: Week 1 Structures & Theories Donna Bolima-Yamada Upward Bound Program University of Washington

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Page 1: 4/9/2010 Intro: Week 1 Structures & Theories Donna Bolima-Yamada Upward Bound Program University of Washington

4/9/2010

Intro: Week 1 Structures & Theories

Donna Bolima-YamadaUpward Bound ProgramUniversity of Washington

Page 2: 4/9/2010 Intro: Week 1 Structures & Theories Donna Bolima-Yamada Upward Bound Program University of Washington

4/9/2010

What is Upward Bound?A program that prepares students for college.

Criteria: low-income and/or first generation

Page 3: 4/9/2010 Intro: Week 1 Structures & Theories Donna Bolima-Yamada Upward Bound Program University of Washington

Why Low Income & First Generation?

• Inequities in educational opportunity in the past & present

• Why do inequities in learning exist?

• Theories of Intelligence ------->

Page 4: 4/9/2010 Intro: Week 1 Structures & Theories Donna Bolima-Yamada Upward Bound Program University of Washington

Intelligence Theories in Education• What is a Theory?

A hypothesis about something --explanation about observed facts.

• Why do people learn differently?

3 Major Theories to explain: • Deficit• Ecological• Multiple Worlds

Page 5: 4/9/2010 Intro: Week 1 Structures & Theories Donna Bolima-Yamada Upward Bound Program University of Washington

Deficit Theorists of the Past(Cultural &Genetic)

• Genetic Theorists claimed some people are less intelligent. Studies cited the poor and immigrants as those less intelligent. (Darwinian Theory)

• Original Scholastic Testing proved the point that certain groups were less intelligent and justified social status and placement

• Cultural Deficit Theory blamed social, cultural or economic environment (Engelmann & Bereiter)

• Modern Deficit Theory: “The Bell Curve”

Page 6: 4/9/2010 Intro: Week 1 Structures & Theories Donna Bolima-Yamada Upward Bound Program University of Washington

STATS from the Bell Curve• Richard J. Herrnstein, Ph.D. Psychology, Harvard University• Charles Murray, Ph.D. Political Science, M.I.T.

*Promotes the idea of using race as an indicator of intelligence or status

Page 7: 4/9/2010 Intro: Week 1 Structures & Theories Donna Bolima-Yamada Upward Bound Program University of Washington

Criticism of the “Bell Curve”

• It is irrational to consider the differences in IQ scores between [cultural] groups relevant... In other words, within a group everyone faces similar things (cultural teachings, traditions, and values) and so is expected to perform similarly. Between groups, there are differences in the things they face. Each group has own traditions and values.

• For example, Eskimos are highly educated on differences in snow types. They consider this an essential thing in their culture and way of living. Does it mean that, because they give more importance to snow types than to solving arithmetic problems, they are not intelligent?

• Each group gives different values to individual things.

• It’s like comparing apples and oranges

Page 8: 4/9/2010 Intro: Week 1 Structures & Theories Donna Bolima-Yamada Upward Bound Program University of Washington

Cultural Difference Theory (Erickson)

Micro-ethnography: micro elements that affect learning

• Cultures create differences in what teachers emphasize in learning and in how students respond to learning

• Hit or Miss each other’s Cultural Blind Spots by interpreting the same thing differently or valuing different aspects of learning

• But did not explain why some teachers do well or spme students do well despite cultural differences

Page 9: 4/9/2010 Intro: Week 1 Structures & Theories Donna Bolima-Yamada Upward Bound Program University of Washington

Cultural Ecological Theory (Ogbu)• Macro-ethnography: focuses on the larger social influences which create

differences. (ie. social class, immigration, historic oppression, etc…)

• Autonomous Minorities: culturally distinct, but culture is not devalued in society.

• Cast-like Minorities: Brought to the U.S. involuntarily, such as through slavery or colonization. May experience what is called “secondary cultural differences” from prolonged contact with a dominant culture that is different. This can create resistence.

• Immigrant Minorities: Came to U.S. voluntarily and may experience less hardship or need for resistence.

• What do you think?

Page 10: 4/9/2010 Intro: Week 1 Structures & Theories Donna Bolima-Yamada Upward Bound Program University of Washington

Multiple Worlds Theory

• Idea that every student exists in multiple worlds of values, norms & beliefs

• Each student has a different level of negotiating or not negotiating the differences in each world

• Takes a macro and micro approach

Page 11: 4/9/2010 Intro: Week 1 Structures & Theories Donna Bolima-Yamada Upward Bound Program University of Washington

Multiple Worlds Theory (Phelan, Davidson)

Page 12: 4/9/2010 Intro: Week 1 Structures & Theories Donna Bolima-Yamada Upward Bound Program University of Washington

Ways Students Cope with Multiple Worlds

• Type 1 - no cultural differences, no negotiation needed

• Type 2 - some cultural differences, negotiation easy

• Type 3 - major cultural differences, negotiation hard, but managed. May become bi-cultural or assimilate.

• Type 4 - major differences, negotiation hard and not managed. May drop out.

Page 13: 4/9/2010 Intro: Week 1 Structures & Theories Donna Bolima-Yamada Upward Bound Program University of Washington

Theories of Intelligence

Page 14: 4/9/2010 Intro: Week 1 Structures & Theories Donna Bolima-Yamada Upward Bound Program University of Washington

Do you Remember?

1.What two criteria qualify you as a UB Student?

2.Name one class room expectation for Bolima?

3.Who's here next week?

4.Name one Theory of Intelligence?

5.What was the purpose for these theories?

6.Define micro-ethnography:

7.Who is John Ogbu?

8.What are voluntary minorities?

9.How are they different than involuntary minorities?

Page 15: 4/9/2010 Intro: Week 1 Structures & Theories Donna Bolima-Yamada Upward Bound Program University of Washington

Free-Write:

• Part One: In consideration of the Multiple Worlds Theory, Identify any major differences in beliefs, values, norms, expectations or actions in your own worlds of peers, school and family. Discuss how you do or don’t negotiate differences in values from one world to the next.

• Part Two: What are your educational goals and how will you achieve them?

Page 16: 4/9/2010 Intro: Week 1 Structures & Theories Donna Bolima-Yamada Upward Bound Program University of Washington

Research –The Breakfast of College Students (Champions)

• It sounds like a big task—but it really is not.• Every class in college will ask you to do

research• UW is a research institution

• But what is research? Why is it important?

Page 17: 4/9/2010 Intro: Week 1 Structures & Theories Donna Bolima-Yamada Upward Bound Program University of Washington

All theories begin with research….

• It is why we know –the earth is round

• I want you to do a little research --it is silly, but I’m making a point

• What did you find out? And how?

Page 18: 4/9/2010 Intro: Week 1 Structures & Theories Donna Bolima-Yamada Upward Bound Program University of Washington

Research by UB students

• Sr.Proj\Hee-Kyong.ppt

• Sr.Proj\Isabel07.ppt

• CWPages1-8Dec18.docx

• http://depts.washington.edu/ub/seniorproject.html

Page 19: 4/9/2010 Intro: Week 1 Structures & Theories Donna Bolima-Yamada Upward Bound Program University of Washington

Wed—Think about colleges!

• And a good research topic!