48993980 Microwave Link Design Nueva Ecija

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AMA Computer University Quezon City Campus

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN

A DESIGN SUBMITTED TO ENGR. ANTIPAS TEOLOGO JR.

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE SUBJECT ECEG11A EC

SUBMITTED BY: CALDERON, Leonard Andre MANALO, April Gray MORTALLA, Anjo PEGUIT, Jan Anthony 3nd Trimester 2009-2010

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PRELIMINARY PAGES: Letter of Transmittal i Approval Sheet . ii Acknowledgement . iii Dedication ... iv Company Logo .. v

CHAPTER 1:

A. Objectives .... 2 B. Foreword to the Design .................. 3 C. Scopes and Limitations ...... 4 D. Significance of the Study ..... 5 E. Review of Related Literature .. 6

CHAPTER 2: CHAPTER 3: CHAPTER 4: CHAPTER 5:

Terms and Definitions . 12 Factor Consideration in Choosing the Site ..... 20 Site Description ....... 25 Path Profile ... 41

Microwave Link Design ECEG11A EC

CHAPTER 6:

Link Budget Calculations A. Conditions for Putting Up a Microwave Link . 44 B. Topographical Map of the Site ................. 44 C. Frequency Plan ........ 44 D. Azimuth Computation ........ 44 E. Antenna Gain 44 F. Free Space Loss .. 44 G. Received Signal Level . 45 H. Thermal Fade Margin . 47 I. Net Path Loss . 48 J. Effective Rain Path Length .. 48 K. Rain Loss . 49 L. Rain Attenuation 49 M. Atmospheric Losses .. 50 N. Water Vapor Losses 50 O. Flat Fade Margin .. 51

Microwave Link Design ECEG11A EC

P. Reliability Calculation .. 52 Q. K Q Reliability 56 R. K Q Reliability of Terrain Roughness . 57 CHAPTER 7: CHAPTER 8: Conclusion and Recommendation . 62 Equipment Specifications A. Antenna Specifications .. 64 B. Tower Specifications 68 C. Waveguide Specifications 72

Bibliography .. 73

APPENDICES:

Appendix A: Curriculum Vitae .... 75 Appendix B: Picture Gallery ..... 79 Appendix C: List of Tables .... 81 Appendix D: List of Formulas ... 84

Microwave Link Design ECEG11A EC

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

March 27, 2010

Engr. Antipas Teologo Jr. College of Engineering AMA Computer University Project 8, Quezon City Dear Sir: In view of our requirements in the course Communications Theory 5, we have prepared documentation on Microwave Link Design. In relation to this we have come up with a proposed repeater, receiver and transmitter location with its equipment and specifications based on the design we have made. We are hoping that all the expectations were met with the completion of this design. Thank you very much.

Respectfully, _______________________________ Manalo, April Gray _______________________________ Mortalla, Anjo _______________________________ Calderon, Leonard Andre ______________________________ Peguit, Jan Anthony

Microwave Link Design ECEG11A EC

APPROVAL SHEET

This is to certify that the group have designed, conducted studies and documented important parameters in this microwave design which was prepared by the group entitled MICROWAVE LINK SYSTEM DESIGN, and that this document has been submitted for final examination by the oral examination committee.

_____________________________ Manalo, April Gray ____________________________ Mortalla, Anjo

____________________________ Calderon, Leonard Andre ____________________________ Peguit, Jan Anthony

As member of the oral examination committee, we certify that we have examined this document and hereby recommend that it be accepted as fulfillment for the subject COMMUNICATIONS THEORY 5. ______________________________ Panel

This document is hereby approved and accepted by the Electronics Engineering Department as fulfillment of the design requirement for the subject COMMUNICATIONS THEORY 5. ______________________________ Engr. Antipas Teologo Jr.

Microwave Link Design ECEG11A EC

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We give our warmest thanks to the Calderon and Peguit family, for welcoming us in their humble homes during those sleepless nights of labor and hardwork. We also give our deep gratitude to Engr. Antipas Teologo Jr. who gave us the opportunity to gain the knowledge we need through practical applications and designs. We would also like to thank our parents who have supported us emotionally and financially in making this design. And also for letting us go through with the series of overnights to make this project successful. Your trust and understanding has given us the energy and lessen the pressures that we have. To the group, this would not be done without the trust and the cooperation within our group. And this whole thing would not be possible if we never believed with the capability of each other in doing our best. And most especially, we give our thanks to the Lord Almighty for all the guidance that He granted us in times of need. He unselfishly gave us wisdom to carry on and finish this project. And we owe Him the strength that pushed us to continue in all that we aim as a group, a friend and a family.

Microwave Link Design ECEG11A EC

To our PARENTS, FRIENDS, LOVED ONES and THE LORD ALMIGHTY

Microwave Link Design ECEG11A EC

Microwave Link Design ECEG11A EC

CHAPTER 1

A. B. C. D. E.

Objectives Foreword to the Design Scopes and Limitations Significance of the Study Review of Related Literature

Microwave Link Design ECEG11A EC

OBJECTIVES

To be able to design a reliable Point-to-Point Microwave Cellular Communications System

To be able to design a fully-operational microwave link system having the ideal reliability of 99.9999%

To be able to know the general principles in Microwave Communications To be able to come up with a project that will help the students grasp the idea of microwave design more comprehensively

To be able to provide the students a material that will serve as their guide in making their own microwave design

Microwave Link Design ECEG11A EC

FOREWORD

This paper describes and provides guidelines for the design and implementation of a two-hop microwave communications system in Nueva Ecija, Philippines. Adherence to these guidelines should allow significant terrain and propagation dynamics as well as cost savings to be made for the pursuit of a highly reliable system. The suggested procedure and considerations are presented with the fundamental components of microwave path design: determining whether a proposed path is "line-of-sight", evaluating path clearances with regard to refractive effects, evaluating path clearances with regard to Fresnel zones, considering path reflections, deriving a power budget and the fade margin as well as the path reliability. This design focuses on a Microwave System designed for cellular communication. The system links Site A is located on General Tinio, Site B is located on Tampak-I, and Site C is located on Bongabon. A 13 Ghz operating frequency is used for both Hop 1 and Hop 2 and in each relay station in an SFN (single frequency network), the coupling from the transmitting antenna to receiving antenna causes loop interference. The interference must be reduced to an allowable level in order to avoid problems with distortion and oscillation so a Coupling Loop Interference Canceller was used.

Microwave Link Design ECEG11A EC

SCOPES AND LIMITATIONS

This part deals with the scopes and limitations of the design. These categorize the reach and restrictions of the microwave system which might be useful to the readers of the paper and on the people of Nueva Ecija. The scope of the proposed project is focused on: The system is comprised of one transmitter, one receiver and one repeater. The designed microwave link system is to operate at a frequency of 13Ghz for both Hop 1 and Hop 2. A circuit called Coupling Loop Interference Canceller is used in the system to avoid co-channel interference in the transmit-receive process The limitations of the proposed projects are as follows: The distance between sites of each hop is limited to 40 kilometers. The system is comprised of only two hops. The designed system is only to be used for cellular communication purposes. The microwave link covers the province of Nueva Ecija only.

Microwave Link Design ECEG11A EC

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Prior to the advent of commercial wireless communications market today, most microwave designs were destined for profitable applications. Because of the fast

phasing of technology, there is a need, for students who are not yet in the actual field of their studies, to cope up with the technological advancements. This design will be of great help to the students to practice everything they have learned theoretically. This design intends to introduce the basics of microwave system design to the students who are required to take up this subject as well as to those who are interested in the field of microwave communications. This design as well will serve as a reference for students who will take the subject in the future.

Microwave Link Design ECEG11A EC

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This part aims to briefly discuss the concepts of microwave communications system, the design considerations and the components behind a fully functional system that would work under the conditions of being a microwave communications system design. From researches about Microwave Systems, it specifies that there are so many factors to consider in designing an effective and efficient microwave system.

Urgent Communications, Official Publication of IWCE Microwave communications path design poses many challenges. In addition to static gain and loss considerations, terrain and propagation dynamics can play a large role in determining whether a proposed path will have the required signal levels, clearances and reliability.

Microwave