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METHOD FOR VOLUME REDUCTION OF LOW ACTIVITY
ORGANIC WASTES FROM NUCLEAR POWER PLANT’S BY ANAEROBIC DECOMPOSITION
Esko Tusa, ttaRaimo Maa, Antti Ruuskanen, Kauniainen, Finland assigned to lmatran Voima OY
The invention relates to a method and apparatus for the reduction in the quantity of low activity organic wastes from nuclear power plants. This is accomplished using anaerobic fermentation in a bioreactor. The waste from the nuclear power plant is subjected to a pretreatment such as com- minution and suspension, hydrolysis and/or physical dispersion, such as by a irradiation, heat treatment or the equivalent. The pretreated waste is subjected to anaerobic decomposition in a bioreactor, the anaerobic decomposition taking place in two stages, namely an acid stage and a methane stage. The gases produced in the decomposition process are conducted from the methane stage to a gas burning stage and the un- decomposed waste is removed, concentrated and packed in barrels or the like for storage.
MICROBIOLOGICAL DESULFURIZATION OF COAL
AND COAL WATER ADMIXTURE TO PROVIDE A DESULFURIZED
Ajay Madgavkar assigned to Shell Oil Company
The invention disclosed is for a combination of two processes to enable the clean burning of coal in a coal water mixture. First the coal is ground and then treated with a desulfurizing micro- organism to desulfurize the coal. After separa- tion the coal is formulated into a coal water admixture in requisite quantities of water to coal, and with proper inclusion of additives, is combusted in a suitable furnace equipped with a means to bum a coal-water mixture. The desul- fur&d coal, after treatment with a select micro- organism, will contain less than 1 .O wt y0 pyritic (inorganic) sulfur, be low in ash content and be cleanly combustible to capture its latent heat values.
MICROBIAL METHOD OF PRODUCING C3AND/OR
Hideo Fukuda, Takahira Ogawa, Takao Fujii, Sumiyoshi ku, Osaka 558, Japan assigned to Fukuda Hideo
C3 and/or C4 hydrocarbons(s) is produced by the aerobic cultivation of a microorganism belonging to a wide variety of genera of Fungi, Yeasts, Bacteria and Actinomycetes. Industrial wastes and various biomass can be employed as nutrient source in the cultivation.
PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF
FERMENTABLE SUGARS FROM BIOMASS
Donald S Scott, Ja Piskorz, Waterloo, Canada assigned to Canadian Patents & Development Ltd
A process for the production of fermentable sug- ars from wood or other cellulose-containing bio- masses, comprises the steps of (a) hydrolysing the biomass with a dilute sulfuric acid to dissolve hemicellulose while leaving most of cellulose in a solid phase, (b) separating the cellulose- containing solid phase, (c) subjecting the solid phase to rapid pyrolysis at a temperature of 400 degrees-600 degrees C. at atmospheric pressure, preferably in a fluidized bed reactor with a short vapor residence time, to obtain a crude pyrolysis product by condensing the pyrolytic vapors, (d) adjusting the water content of the crude product to form an aqueous phase with high carbohy- drate content and a water-insoluble phase con- taining lignin-derived material, and (e) separating the aqueous phase. Optionally, the aqueous phase may be purified, e.g. by absorp- tion.