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Agricultural and Forestry Biotechnology
B E T A - F O R M Y L - B E T A - H Y D R O X Y E S T E R
Teruaki Mukaiyama, Yoji Sakito, Masatoshi Asami, Tokyo, Japan assigned to Sumitomo Chemical Company Limited
An optically active or inactive beta-formyl- beta-hydroxy ester oftbe formula (I), See Patent for Chemical Structure (1) wherein R 1 represents a CI-C]0 alkyl, C3-C10 alkenyl, C2-CI0 alkynyl, C6-C14 aryl or C7-CI4 aralkyl group, R2 represents a C1-C4 alkyl group and R3 represents a hydrogen atom or a CI-CI0 alkyl group, and a method for producing the same which comprises reacting an optically active or inactive compound of the formula (2), See Pa- tent for Chemical Structure (2) wherein A represents a C6-C14 aryl group and R! is as defined above, with an alpha-halo ester of the formula (3), See Patent for Chemical Structure (3) wherein X represents a halogen atom and R2 and R3 are as defined above, in the presence of zinc, followed by hydrolysis, or reacting an ester of the formula (4), See Patent for Tabular Pre* sentation PS wherein R2 and R3 are as defined above, with a lithium amide derivative and then with an optically active or inactive compound of the formula (2), followed by hydrolysis. The compounds of this invention are intermediate materials for production of medicines and agri- cultural chemicals.
A process is defined for providing plants of a nonhalophytic crop wherein the resulting plants have an enhanced ability to grow successfully in a soil comprising a normally deleterious con- centration of a plurality of inorganic salts. Tissue culturing of a large quantity of plant cells ini- tially is carried out under conditions wherein substantial disorganized cell growth takes place which is accompanied by genetic variation (e.g., via somaclonal variation), and the resulting cells subsequently are tissue cultured in a medium which is substantially lacking in a hormone com- ponent comprising a plurality of inorganic salts which are provided in a concentration which is normally injurious to cells of the crop wherein a substantial quantity of cells are killed and at least one cell survives and multiplies which has under- gone genetic variation wherein an atypical func- tioning single gene is present which is dominant for increased tolerance to the totality of the in- organic salts present. Living cells which possess the desired genetic variation are recovered and are regenerated into improved plants. The highly desirable plant characteristics made possible by the present process readily can be transferred to subsequent generations in a highly stable man- ner via plant breeding thereby efficiently pro- viding a new source of improved germ plasm. In a particularly preferred embodiment, improved flax plants and seed capable of forming the same are provided.
P R O D U C T I O N O F I M P R O V E D P L A N T S H A V I N G A N I N C R E A S E D T O L E R A N C E T O T H E P R E S E N C E O F A N O R M A L L Y D E L E T E R I O U S
C O N C E N T R A T I O N O F A P L U R A L I T Y O F I N O R G A N I C
S A L T S
Alan G McHughen, Saskatoon, Canada as- signed to Crop Development Centre of the University of Saskatchewan
M E T H O D O F P R O D U C I N G S E L F - I N C O M P A T I B L E P L A N T S
David L Mulcahy, Gabriella B Mulcahy
This invention is directed to the breeding of self- incompatible plants, especially crop plants. In particular, the invention is directed to novel self- incomparable crops and hybrid seeds thereof.