4 Role playing

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PaTiE Training material Role playing

Text of 4 Role playing

  • Role Playing Psychodrama as a tool in Education Training materials - Module 5

    Leonardo Da Vinci project Transfer of Innovation

  • INDEX

    1. Description of module and objectives ............................................................................ 3

    2. Introduction to theory ..................................................................................................... 4

    2.1. Definition ................................................................................................................ 4

    2.2. Role definition ........................................................................................................ 5

    2.3. Group definition ...................................................................................................... 9

    2.4. Among role and group in psychodrama ................................................................ 12

    2.5. Distinction between Role playing and psychodrama ............................................. 14

    2.6. Methods and applicative contexts ......................................................................... 17

    2.7. Application of these key theories in education ..................................................... 19

    2.8. Educational Role-playing ...................................................................................... 20

    2.9. The conductors role ............................................................................................. 23

    2.10. Construction of a role-playing session .............................................................. 24

    2.11. Setting construction and classroom learning ..................................................... 26

    3. Exercises and examples of role playing ....................................................................... 28

    3.1. Structured Role playing ........................................................................................ 28

    THE FIRST DAY .................................................................................................................... 28

    AN ORDINARY DAY .............................................................................................................. 29

    HOW THE OTHER SEE ME .................................................................................................. 29

    3.2. Example of semi-structured role playing ............................................................... 29

    MY FUTURE .......................................................................................................................... 30

    MY DOUBTS ......................................................................................................................... 30

    EL THE BEAUTY AND THE UGLY ........................................................................................ 30

    WHAT WILL BE ..................................................................................................................... 31

    WHAT I WANTED TO SAY .................................................................................................... 31

    I SAY IT TO MYSELF ............................................................................................................ 31

    3.3. Non-structured Role playing ................................................................................. 32

    4. Evaluation ................................................................................................................... 33

    4.1. Questionnaire for the Conductor .......................................................................... 33

    4.2. Learners Questionnaire ........................................................................................ 33

    5. Bibliography ................................................................................................................ 34

    5.1. English Bibliography ............................................................................................. 34

    5.2. Italian Bibliography ............................................................................................... 34

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  • 1. Description of module and objectives

    This module, like the others already presented, is intended to give an overview of the theoretical and methodological background related to role playing. We discuss some distinctive aspects of role playing in psychodrama that characterize and differentiate it from the use of the technique in other training areas.

    Initially the definitional aspects, are described and the main theoretical concepts that underlie the theoretical model of the main areas of application are discussed. The technique and methods to design and conduct role playing are then presented. Finally, examples are given of role playing that can be useful as a guide for application.

    At the end of the module, VET educators will gain the theoretical knowledge useful to theoretically frame role playing and to define training needs that can be answered with a teaching unit that uses role playing.

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  • 2. Introduction to theory

    2.1. Definition

    Role playing is perhaps the most used technique in the educational, pedagogical and clinic field with a moreniana derivation. Its employed as an auxiliary technique by systemic, psychoanalytic, gestalt, cognitive-behavioural, psycho-sociological, professionals and others. The role playing used in a classical psychodrama context has meanings, functions and finalization different from those assumed in other contexts.

    Moreno uses the term psychodrama referring to all action methods: role play, sociodramma, psychodrama, mimodrama. This has created some confusion and makes it more difficult to specifically define role play.

    Moreno describes two meanings of role playing. The first refers to a specific process related to the learning process and to the development of roles in the individual (Schutzenberger, 1992).

    The term role playing is used to point out both an educational technique and a development phase of the role. As an educational technique it is based on the putting into play, by the members of the group, specific roles of the professional or social area. As a stage of development of the role, role playing is set between role taking, that is the assumption of a role imposed by the social and organizational culture of belonging, and role creating, the creative and personalized transformation of a role.

    In any case, role playing brings changes and transformations in respect to the role assigned because it relates the protagonist, through the action of the game, both with his inner world, and with the external one. In the words of Moreno:

    Each role presents itself as a fusion of individual and collective elements, and comes from two factors: its collective denominators and its individual differentiations. It may prove useful to distinguish: the assumption of the role (role taking), namely the fact of accepting a defined role, fully structured, that does not allow the subject to take the least freedom from the text; playing the role (role playing), which allows a certain degree of freedom; and the creation of the role (role creating), which leaves scope to the initiative of the subject, as occurs in the case of the spontaneous actor ". (Moreno, 1980, p. 76)

    The assumption of a role (role taking) and playing a role (role playing) show a common origin; they are phases of the same process. In fact, the assumption of the role is not merely a cognitive process and the role play is not reduced to pure behavior. In the process of learning a role, cognitive, perceptual, behavioral and action elements cannot be separated cleanly.

    Remember

    The term role playing is used to indicate both a training technique and a phase of development of the role. As a training technique it is based on putting into play, by the members of the group, specific roles of the professional or social area.

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  • Playing a role perceiving a role, playing a role and assuming a role are processes that go hand in hand in the first phase of learning and conditioning. In situ, are inseparable. (Moreno, 1980, p. 81)

    The second meaning of role playing refers to a specific educational technique. Moreno claims authorship of this technique, emphasizing its derivation from the language of theater. Playing a role can be considered a way to learn to support roles with greater adequacy. Role play is characterized therefore as a space for learning, where the role played is contrasted to the crystallized role. In this sense, role playing is the field of the development of spontaneity and of the meeting between the subjectivity and the socio-cultural mandate of the role.

    Role playing is a strategy based on a reconstruction of a real situation in which learners are invited to impersonate organizational or social roles to develop relational and decision-making skills. Indeed S. Caparanico notes that "role playing is one of the active learning methods classified under the term simulation, which aims to miniaturize a real experience in a protected environment, based on a model that starts from reality itself (Capranico, 1997p. 39).

    Role playing is the spoken, acted and participated dramatization of communicative and interpersonal situations that can be experienced in real life, with an emphasis on the aspect of the role. The learner-actor, indeed, is not called to be himself but he is invited to play a character, an alter ego, a figure that will be affected by the personality of the "actor" but that will not totally identify itself with it. Role playing is therefore a playful technique that consists