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35.1 Notes CASE STUDY: LATIN AMERICAN DEMOCRACIES

35.1 Notes CASE STUDY: LATIN AMERICAN DEMOCRACIES

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Text of 35.1 Notes CASE STUDY: LATIN AMERICAN DEMOCRACIES

  • Slide 1
  • 35.1 Notes CASE STUDY: LATIN AMERICAN DEMOCRACIES
  • Slide 2
  • It takes years to establish a democracy, it is a work in progress! In order to have a successful democracy a nation needs: participation of its citizens education and literacy stable economy rule by law national identity belief in rights of the individual 2002 UN study warned democracy needs to be followed by economic growth, this is a particular issue in Latin America DEMOCRACY AS A GOAL
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  • Since gaining independence, Brazil has alternated between democracies and dictatorships New capital city of Brasilia was built: increased debt and inflation in Brazil The plan for land reform: breaking up large estates and distributing land to peasants 1964: wealthy Brazilians supported army seizing power in a military coup Military dictators ruled for 2 decades. They emphasized: economic growth developed the Amazon jungle fostered foreign investment BRAZIL: DICTATORS AND DEMOCRACY
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  • Economy boomed but downside: the standard of living, or level of material comfort, declined Early 1980s a recession, or slowdown in the economy, occurred in Brazil Military generals decided to open political system, allowed direct election of officials Several Presidents have been elected since then, all have dealt with these current issues: debt and inflation crises Government corruption Large income gap
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  • Mexico enjoyed relative political stability for 20 th century 1920-1934 Mexico elected several Generals as president. They created a ruling party: The National Revolutionary Party, which dominated 20 th century 1934-1940 President Lazaro Cardenas carried out: land reform promoted labor rights nationalized the Mexican oil industry MEXICO: ONE-PARTY RULE
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  • 1946 the main political party changed its name to the Institutional Revolutionary Party, or PRI; for the rest of the 20 th century it was the main force for political stability Govt was stable but imperfect democracy. The PRI controlled the congress, won every election Economy developed rapidly but severe issues: millions of ppl lacked jobs and land huge foreign debt 1994: Mexico joined NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement): removed trade barriers between the US, Canada, and Mexico
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  • In 2000 end of PRI rule by electing center-right candidate Vicente Fox Fox advocated for: reforming police ending political corruption utilizing free market forces tried to negotiate with US for amnesty for illegal Mexican immigrants THE PRI LOSES CONTROL
  • Slide 8
  • Argentina struggled to establish a democracy 1946 workers supported army officer Juan Peron who won Presidency then est a dictatorship Peron and his wife, Eva (aka Evita), set up a welfare state, offered social programs with limited freedoms Eva died 1952, Perons popularity declined and his enemies ousted him in 1955 ARGENTINA: POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC DISORDER
  • Slide 9
  • Military controlled politics for many years; mid-1970s Argentina in chaos 1982 military govt went to war, and lost, against Britain over the Falkland Islands Generals were disgraced, stepped down 1983 first free election in 37 years, elected Raul Alfonsin as President Since then debt has been a major issue in Argentina