3 - Fisiologi Latihan

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  • Exercise PhysiologyThe study of the bodys responses and its adaptation to the stress of exercise.One of most rapidly growing areas of specialization within the fields of physical education, exercise science, and sport.Emerged as a specialized area of study in the mid-1960s and 1970s.Roots go back to the mid-to late 1800s.

  • Exercise PhysiologyDefinition Exercise physiology is the study of the effects of exercise on the body, more specifically with the bodys responses and adaptations to exercise, ranging from the system to the subcellular level.These modifications can be short term or long term.Knowledge of exercise physiology is essential for professionals in physical education, exercise science, and sport.

  • Scope and StatusEncompasses broad range of topics:Effects of various exercise programs on the systems of the body: circulatory, respiratory, nervous, skeletal, muscle, and endocrine systems.Relationship of energy metabolism to performance.Effectiveness of various training programs in promoting gains in specific components on fitness (Nautilus training on strength).

  • Scope and StatusTopics, cont.Effects of various environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, altitude, pollutants, and different environments.Effects of individual differences such as age, sex, initial level of fitness, or disability on fitness development and performance.Identification of factors that limit performance.Effectiveness of ergogenic aids such as drugs or music on performance.Health and therapeutic benefits to be accrued for engaging in physical activity.Effects of nutrition on performance.

  • Scope and StatusPerformance and fitness emphasisSpecialized areasCardiac rehabilitationExercise biochemistryExercise epidemiologyPediatric exercise

  • Physical FitnessOne area of studyThe ability of the bodys systems to function efficiently and effectively.Two types of fitnessHealth fitnessConcerned with better livingPerformance-related or skill-related physical fitnessPerforming sport-related skills better and more efficiently

  • Fitness ComponentsHealth-Related FitnessBody compositionCardiorespiratory enduranceFlexibilityMuscular enduranceMuscular strengthSkill-Related FitnessAgilityBalanceCoordinationPowerReaction timeSpeed

  • Health Risk FactorsA complex interaction of biological, environmental, and behavioral factorsInherited or biological (cannot be changed)Gender, race, ageInherited susceptibility to diseaseEnvironmental (can be changed)Air qualitySocioeconomic factorsBehavioral factors (can be changed)SmokingPoor nutritionPhysical inactivity

  • Dose-Response DebateConcerns the amount of physical activity necessary to achieve health benefits.What kind of activity?How long, what intensity, how often?Moderate-intensity exercise for at least 30 minutes per day for most or all days of the week can improve health and decrease risk for disease.It is never too late to be active!!!!

  • Health BenefitsEnhanced cardiovascular functionDesirable body compositionImproved physical appearanceImproved self-imageImproved muscular strength, muscular endurance and flexibilityContributes to sound mental healthRelease from tensions, stressReduce susceptibility to depressionSocializationIncreased work efficiencyImproved overall general motor performanceMitigate the effects of old agePerson must be active ALL year

  • Fitness DevelopmentEnergy production for physical activityTwo major ways energy is generatedAnaerobicWithout oxygenEnergy for tasks that demand a high rate of energy for a short periodAerobicWith oxygenEnergy for longer periods of timeThe two may function simultaneouslyAnaerobic and aerobic systems of the body can be improved through training

  • Principles of Fitness TrainingPrinciple of overloadEssentialFor improvements one must perform MORE than ones normal amount of exercisePrinciple of specificitySpecific goalsDemands of sportIndividuals initial level of fitnessProgressionDepends on individualSteady

  • Principles of Fitness Training, continuedIndividual differencesNeeds and objectivesAmount of stressElements of a training programWarm-upWorkoutCool-downSafetyBehavioral factorsMotivation

  • Planning a Fitness ProgramMust be on a regular basisMust cross the threshold of trainingThe minimum level of exercise needed to achieve desired benefitsMust exercise within the fitness target zoneBegins at the threshold of training and defines the upper limits of training

  • FITT FrequencyNumber of exercise sessions per weekIntensityDegree of effort or exertion put forthUsually described as a % of maximum effortOften view as the most importantTimeHow long, expressed in minutesTypeModeDepends on goals ( 25/01/08) sampai sini

  • Health-Related Fitness Components

  • Cardiorespiratory EnduranceThe bodys ability to deliver oxygen effectively to the working muscles Regarded as the most important component of health fitnessCan help prevent hypokinetic diseaseDiseases caused by insufficient physical activityConcerned with the aerobic efficiency of the bodyWell-conditioned heartEfficient lungs

  • Cardiorespiratory Endurance, cont.Benefits of aerobic exerciseAbility to use more oxygen during strenuous exerciseA lower heart rate at workProduction of less lactic acidGreater enduranceImproved efficiency of the heart and reduced blood pressureImportant for the performance of many sport activities

  • Cardiorespiratory Endurance, cont.Can be improved and maintained through a well-planned programHeart rate used to monitor intensity of exerciseTo realize training benefits, the heart rate must be elevated to a predetermined level (the threshold of training) and maintained within a certain range (target heart rate zone).Can be measured

  • Heart RateAmerican College of Sports Medicine recommends an intensity of 55/65% - 90% of maximum heart rate (HRmax) or 40%/50% - 85% of Heart Rate Reserve (HRR) or maximum oxygen uptake reserve (VO2R).

  • Heart Rate, cont.Maximal heart rate (HRmax) for both males and females is estimated to be 22- beats per minute (bpm) and is related to age. HRmax = 220 ageHeart rate reserve (HRR) is the difference between resting heart rate (RHR) and HRmaxHRR = HRmax RHRTarget heart rateTHR = (Target Intensity)(HRmax)

  • Calculations of Heart RateCalculation of training heart rate for working at 65% intensity for a 20-year old with a resting heart rate of 70 bpmHeart Rate Maximum (HRmax)220220 - Age- 20Predicted Maximum HR200X %Intensityx65%Training Heart Rate130 bpm Training Heart Rate

  • Calculations of Heart Rate, cont.Heart Rate Reserve (HRR) 220220 -Age-20Predicted Maximum HR200 - Resting HR- 70130 x % Intensityx 65%84.5 + Resting Heart Rate+70Training Heart Rate154.5 155 bpm

  • Body CompositionA description of the body in terms of muscle, bone, fat, and other elements.Refers to the % of body weight composed of fat as compared with fat-free or lean tissue.Poor body composition associated with numerous health problemsDetermination of the cause of obesity is important

  • Body Composition, cont.Influenced by nutrition and physical activityEnergy balance is important to achieving a favorable body compositionBody composition can be improvedSound practices should be followed in losing fatBody composition can be measured

  • Muscular strength and enduranceImportant to good healthHigh levels of muscular strength and endurance are important to athletesIsometric, isotonic, and isokinetic exercises can be used to develop muscular strength and enduranceMuscular strength and endurance can be improvedMuscular strength and endurance can be measured

  • FlexibilityCan be defined as the maximum range of motion possible at a jointImportant to good healthGood postureImportant for the performance of physical activitiesDecreased flexibility can be caused by many factorsAgeExcess of body fatMuscle tensionCan be improvedSwimmingStretches ballistic, static or contract-relax techniqueCan be measured

  • Conducting Fitness ProgramsShould include cognitive and affective educational goals as well as physical activityFitness should be FUNFitness goals should be established, and a plan of action developedFitness programs should be monitoredFitness requires a maintenance programImprovements and maintenance are a PERSONAL responsibility

  • Effects of TrainingTrained vs untrainedTrained individualBetter state of physical fitnessLower oxygen consumptionLower pulse rateLess rise in blood pressureUntrained individualSoft and flabbyIn poor physical condition

  • Physical Activity Recommendations for Good HealthFor adults 30 minutes or physical activity on most or all days of the weekActivity can be accumulated in bouts of 8-10 minutes, but 30 min. sessions preferredCan be measured by caloric expenditure as an indication of the energy expendedRecommended 1,000 1,500 calories be expended a week in regular physical activity

  • Special Considerations for FitnessEnvironmental conditionsSafetyCaution in extreme heat or coldNutritionYou are what you eatWell-balanced dietErgogenic aidsWork-producing substances to increase performanceMechanical aids weight beltsPsychologicalHypnosisCaffeineCarb loadingSports drinksCreatineSupplementSteroids