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Asian Institute of Technology School of Environment Resource and Development Regional and Rural Development Planning Field of Study. ED77.01Rural and Regional Development Planning. 22 Nov 2008. Information and Communication Technology for Development (ICT4D) in Cambodia. Presented by: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of 22 Nov 2008

  • 22 Nov 2008Asian Institute of Technology School of Environment Resource and DevelopmentRegional and Rural Development Planning Field of Study

    Information and Communication Technology for Development (ICT4D) in Cambodia Presented by: Young Sokphea ID: 108042CambodianED77.01Rural and Regional Development Planning

    ICT4D Cambodia

    ContentsFact SheetWhat is ICT?What is ICT for Development?Current ICT StatusLevel of ICT DevelopmentStakeholders in ICT DevelopmentICT Development ConstraintsICT for DevelopmentCurrent ICT Development ProjectsDoes ICT Help the Poor?Conclusion and Recommendation References

    ICT4D Cambodia

    Cambodia: Fact Sheet

    ICT4D Cambodia

    What is ICT?

    ICT Consists of thehardware, software, networks, and media for the collection, storage, processing, transmission and presentation of information (voice, data, text, images), as well as related services (WB, 2008)ICT covers any product that store, retrieve, manipulate, transmit or receive information electronically in a digital form (tutor2u.net, retrieved on 10 Nov 2008)ICT sector is a combination of manufacturing and services industries that capture, transmit and display data and information electronically (OEDC, 2007)

    ICT4D Cambodia

    What is ICT for Development?Is the application ICT within the field of socio-economic development. ICT assist donors, NGOs and Government to improve socio-economic condition (Wikipedia.org, 08 Nov 2008) ICT for Millennium Development Goals 8: "In cooperation with the private sector make available the benefits of new technologies, specifically information and communication.ICT can improve the performance of businesses and the efficiency of markets, empower citizens and communities, increase their access to knowledge, and help to strengthen and redefine governance at all institutional levels (UN-GAID, 2008)

    ICT4D Cambodia

    Current ICT Status in CambodiaNational ICT Policy DraftingICT Policy in Education Cambodia is latecomer to internet service only launched in 1997 (ITU, 2002)There are roughly 40,000 Internet users (0.28 per cent of the total population) There are approximately 200 computer hardware companies, 100 software (Brian Unger and Naomi Robinson, 2007)

    ICT4D Cambodia

    Current ICT Status (Cont)ICT status in Cambodia

    ICT4D Cambodia

    Telecom Service ProvidersFixed lines operators (4): Telecom Cambodia Camintel Camshin (Shinawatra) OnlineMobile operators (8): TMIC (Hello 016) Excell ( CDMA 018) ) Latelz (010) Camshin (011) GSM (Mobitel 012) Applifone (Star Cell 098) Cadcomms (QB 013) Viettel Cam ( Coming up soon 097)

    Source: Nouy Song, 2008 (NiDA)

    Current ICT Status (Cont)

    ICT4D Cambodia

    Current ICT Status (cont) Clicknet Online Ezecom Wireless IP Wicam Camintel Telecom Cambodia

    Source: Nouy Song, 2008 (NiDA) Guesys Telesurf CityLink Casacom Gogetel CamTech Ankgor Net Mekong NetServices provided include dial-up, xDSL, broadband wireless, and leased line connections There are currently 15 ISPs in Cambodia:

    ICT4D Cambodia

    Current ICT Status (Cont)Source: NIS, 2004Communication Equipments in Cambodia (2004)

    ItemCambodiaStratumPhnom PenhOther urbanRuralNumber%Number%Number%Number%Radio/stereo 1,355,66051.8153,28573.9158,02756.71,044,34849.0TV 1,207,54346.1181,13087.3158,27456.8868,13840.7Cell phone/ Tel. 338,32912.9135,37565.378,33828.1124,6175.8VCR 160,1256.153,82526.036,53613.169,7643.3Camera 57,6602.225,71912.411,4704.120,4721.0Satellite dish 12,6380.51,4730.71,5790.69,5860.4

    ICT4D Cambodia

    Level of ICT Development of CambodiaKhmerOS initiative in 2004, translating and producing free computer applications in Khmer language (word processing, spreadsheets, Internet software, e-mail, etc.) Based on International Telecommunication Union (ITU) measured the level of development of ICT globally by using Digital Access Indic (DIA), which ranked countries around the world into strength and weakness (Low Access, Medium Access, Upper Access, and High Access)The calculation based on five areas, those are availability of infrastructure, affordability of access, educational level, quality of ICT services, and Internet usage ( ITU, 2002)

    ICT4D Cambodia

    Level of ICT Development (Cont)UNESCO cited in GKP 2003 Comparison ICT Development within the Region and World

    ICT4D Cambodia

    Phones SubscribersLevel of ICT Development (Cont)1.5 million (WB, 2007)

    ICT4D Cambodia

    Stakeholders in ICT Development in CambodiaWorld Bank, cited in IIC, 2006

    ICT4D Cambodia

    ICT Development Constraints in Cambodia The prolonged civil war in Cambodia destroyed nearly all of the country's infrastructures including education and telecommunication systems.Cambodia's started from near zero in 1994 and the lack of clear, consistent, forward-looking policy and regulation place the country's ICT sector far behind those of its neighbor Cost of telecommunications still high to help businesses and people at large. ICT should be made to work for the betterment of the poor.Adult literacy 69.6% (NIS, 2004)Electric grid coverage only 10 % (IIC, 2006)The more Kwh consumed, the higher price (Phnom Penh)

    ICT4D Cambodia

    ICT Development Constraint (Cont) Source: Philippine Senate Economic Planning Office (2005) Source: ITU (2002)

    ICT4D Cambodia

    ICT for Development in Cambodia No high level of research on ICT and development, (Norbert Klien, 2007) Yet case studies are available - Health - Education - E-government

    ICT4D Cambodia

    ICT for Development (Cont) The iREACH (ICT for Rural Empowerment and Community Health) http://www.ireach.org.kh/ - Provided important service network to community such as computers, internet, e-mail and community sound information program which related with health, agriculture and educationetc.- 2 provinces (6 communes) Love and Health for youth (http://www.healthandlove.org/)- Love and Friendship, Sexual health - Birth spacing - HIV/AIDs- Drug Telephone call & Access to web site: 4000 people per month INTHANOU (http://www.inthanou.org), - 200 calls per day- HIV/AIDs, Man sex with Men, Drug Health SectorHIV/AIDS among population aged 15-49 has remarkably declined from 2.8% in 2002 to 1.9% in 2004.

    ICT4D Cambodia

    Education SectorMinistry of Education Youth and Sport At least 50 out of the 283 High Schools in Cambodia have some computers for education. The number of computers in these High Schools varies from 10 to 100 (Sok T., 2008)UniversitiesKhmer Open Source Initiative (KhmerOS) www.khmeros.info Development software in Khmer Language Digital Divide Data (DDD) www.digitaldividedata.com2001, it is a social enterprise which provides work opportunities for disadvantaged groups by providing outsourced data servicesCenter for Information Systems Training (CIST) www.cistrain.orgA French NGO called Enfants du Mekong established CIST as a school for disadvantaged students to get a qualified job as ICT professionals in the country in 2005American Assistance for Cambodia/Japan Relief for Cambodiawww.cambodiaschools.com, focusing on isolated villages to be connected to the global village, by providing access to the internetICT for Development (Cont) Source: www.afact.org

    ICT4D Cambodia

    ICT for Development (Cont)E-government (http://www.nida.gov.kh/) Now, 27 ministriesPhnom Penh Municipality7 districts 76 communes into online Source: NiDA

    ICT4D Cambodia

    Current ICT for Development Projects

    ICT4D Project in CambodiaMost donors, have focused on human capacity development, and infrastructure development has been through bilateral cooperation (Miyata 2006, cited in Brian Unger and Naomi Robinson )

    ICT4D Cambodia

    Does ICT Help the Poor? YesRatanakiri Province 550 Km from Phnom Penh, around 1.5 day to reach thereEarly every morning, five Honda motorcycles leave the hub in the provincial capitol of Banlung where a satellite dish, links the provincial hospital and a special skills school to the Internet for telemedicine and computer training. The moto drivers equipped with a small box and antenna at the rear of their vehicle, that downloads and delivers e-mail through a wi-fi (wireless) card, begin the day by collecting the e-mail from the hub's dish, which takes just a few seconds. Then, as they pass each school and one health center, they transmit the messages they downloaded and retrieve any outgoing mail queued in the school or health center computer that is also equipped with a similar book-sized transmission box, and go on to the next school. At the end of the day they return to the hub to transmit all the collected e-mail to the Internet for any point on the globe.13 Villages and the central province get benefit from this programhttp://www.ratanakiri.com/

    ICT4D Cambodia

    ConclusionCambodia's ICT sector is developing at a slower rate compared to its neighboring countries and other LDCs. There is a lack of decisive and progressive government action towards implementing modern telecommunication and ICT policy and regulation. (Unger and Robinson, 2007)ICT for Development has positive impact on poor, yet partial of poor people get benefit recently Mostly control by government, social/development issue is not much brought to discussion by electronic means Monopoly

    ICT4D Cambodia

    RecommendationFurther research on the impact of ICT for Development Promote Investment on ICT for Development Project or Digital Aid to enhance livelihoodPromote competitive investment on ICT Promote solar energy Generate more electricity Improve the infrastructure in terms of telecommunicationBring down the price of telecommunication Expand the optic fiber to the isolated areas/provincesPromote Khmer Language softwareFinalize and implement policyElaborate ICT in study curriculum from the basic education

    ICT4D Cambodia

    References1. World Bank