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Powerpoint Templates  Page 1 THIRD CLASS MR. RA YMOND ARIEF

2.1.Anatomi Ginjal&Nefron

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Page 1

THIRD CLASS

MR. RAYMOND ARIEF

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EXCRETION SYSTEM

• URINARY SYSTEM

• ENDOCRINE SYSTEM• REPRODUCTION SYSTEM

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Major Parts of the Machine

food, water intake oxygen intake

elimination

of carbon

dioxide

Digestive System Respiratory System

Circulatory SystemUrinary System

elimination of

excess water

salts, wastes 

rapid transport to and from all

living cells 

Elimination of food

residues 

nutrients,

water,

salts carbon

dioxide 

watersolutes 

oxygen 

Based on: Starr, C., Biology:

Concepts and Applications,

Brooks/Cole

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Urinary system

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Renal/Urinary System Summary

Functions: 

1. Remove wastes from the body (urine)

2. Regulates fluid balance, maintains homeostasis 

Structures: 

• 2 kidneys - filter blood, produce urine

• 2 ureters - transport urine (kidneys to bladder)

• bladder - reservoir for urine

• urethra - transport of urine

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Anatomy Urinary System

20-2

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 Anatomical structures

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Kidneys

• Reddish-brown incolor

• Shaped like akidney bean

• Measuring 4inches long and 2inches wide, andweighing less than

1/2 pound• The hilum (Latin)

•  is where the renalartery enters andthe renal veins andureter exit thekidney

• The renal capsulesurrounds thekidney

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Ureters

 25 cm long• extend downward posteriorto the parietal peritoneum• parallel to vertebral column• in pelvic cavity, join urinarybladder• wall of ureter

• mucous coat• muscular coat• fibrous coat

•Opening where the ureter joins the bladder•The ureter wall contracts

every 30 seconds to propelurine into the bladder, aprocess known as peristalsis

20-31

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Bladder

20-31

•  A reservoir for storing urine

• Located in the pelvic cavity

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Bladder

Longitudinal section and posterior view of male urinary bladder

20-33

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Urethra

20-31

Urethra

•  A tube that carries urine

from the bladder to the

outside of the body

• The external urethral

sphincter helps to

release or hold backurine

• The urethral meatus is

where the urethra opens

to the outside of the

body

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Cross Section of Urethra

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Urinary Bladder  

Figure 25.18a, b

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Male and Female Urethras

20-35

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Let to see... Our main chapter

It’s about

1. KIDNEY

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Position of the Kidneys

CT abdomen with contrast MRI coronal abdomen

18

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Kidneys

20-4

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• Kidney – macro

anatomy

 – Cortex

 – Medulla

• Pyramids

• Papilla

 – Hilum – Pelvis

• Calyx

• Ureter

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Structure - macro

• Enclosed in a strong fibrous capsule which passes over the lips of the sinusand becomes continuous with the walls of the calices.

• Kidney + capsule are surrounded by pararenal fat

• Each kidney has superior and inferior poles, medial and lateral borders/margins and anterior and posterior surfaces

• Reddish-brown in colour when fresh –  colour varies between cortex andmedulla

• Measure ~12x6x3cm (left often slightly longer than right)

• Weigh ~130g each

• Ovoid in outline but indented medially (the renal sinus) bean-shapedappearance

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Imaging of Kidneys

20-3

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Structure - macro

• Hilum

 –  At the concave part of each kidney

 –  Renal vein exits (anteriorly)

 –  Renal artery enters (posterior to renal vein)

 –  Renal pelvis exits (posterior to artery) 

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Structure - macro

• Renal pelvis

 –  Funnel-shaped

 –  Lined with transitional epithelium with a smooth muscle

and connective tissue wall

 – 

Continuous inferiorly with ureter –  Divides into major and minor calyces

• Urine collecting tubule minor calyx major calyx 

renal pelvis ureters bladder

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Renal Cortex and Renal

Medulla

20-9

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Structure - macro

• Cortex

 –  Beneath capsule, extends towards the pelvis as

renal columns lying between pyramids of medulla

• Apices of several pyramids open together into a renal

 papilla, each of which projects into a renal calyx

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Blood supply to the kidney

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URINARY

SYSTEMG

aa

ea

IA

G

G

 BLOOD FLOW(KIDNEY)

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Renal arteries from abdominal aorta enter hilum and branch:

1. Interlobar arteries - pass through renal columns and reach junctionbetween medulla and cortex

2. Arcuate arteries run parallel with the base of the pyramids

3. Interlobular arteries move up into the cortex and branch to form theafferent arteriole

The peritubular capillaries unite to form the interlobular veins, arcuatevein, interlobar vein, renal vein

The renal vein exits at hilus and joins the IVC

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Blood supply to kidney  p955

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• Kidney – microanatomy

 – Nephron

• Glomerulus

• Bowman’s capsule 

• Proximal collecting

tubule

• Henle’s loop 

• Distal collecting tubule

• Collecting duct

Note:

cortex has everything

medulla has only:

loop of HenleCollecting tubules

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Structure - micro

• Nephrons

 – Functional and histological subunit

 – ~106 per kidney – = glomerulus + tubules

 – glomerulus

• tuft of capillaries surrounded bypodocytes

• projects into Bowman’s capsule 

 – tubule system

• epithelium continuous with Bowman’scapsule

• proximal convoluted tubule Loop ofHenle distal convoluted tubule 

collecting tubule and collecting duct – glomeruli and convoluted tubules are in

cortex

 – ducts lie in the medulla

 – glomerular capillaries supplied by afferentarteriole and drained by efferent arteriole

N

E

P

H

R

O

N

S

 

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Nephron= Functional unit of the kidney, ~ 1 million nephrons per kidney!

Tubular components:1. Glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule  – double-walled cup – simple squamous epithelium

2. Proximal convoluted tubule - coiled 1st section – simple cuboidal epithelium with microvilli

3. Loop of Henle - hair-pin loop – thin descending limb, thick ascending limb

4. Distal convoluted tubule - last section – simple cuboidal epithelium

 – specialised region - Juxta glomerular apparatus

Distal convoluted tubule opens into the collecting systemcollecting ducts papillary ducts minor calyx… 

St t i

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Structure - micro

St t i

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Structure - micro

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Continue to

2. nephron

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Before i give explanation ... remember again our last

chapter about nephron

What functions ofnephrons ????

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• Production of filtrate

• Reabsorption of organic nutrients

• Reabsorption of water and ions

• Secretion of waste products into tubular fluid

Nephron functions include:

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Nephron

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Part of

nephron

GLOMERULAR (B ’ ) CAPSULE

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GLOMERULAR (Bowman’s) CAPSULE 

Renal corpuscle

filters fluidPlasma is filtered

• Double walled epithelial cup surrounds glomerulus

• Visceral layer = filtration membrane with slits &pores

 – Podocytes

• Between walls = Bowman’s (capsular) space

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Glomerular Capsule

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PROXIMAL CONVOLUTED TUBULE

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PROXIMAL CONVOLUTED TUBULE

PROXIMAL CONVOLUTED TUBULES

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PROXIMAL CONVOLUTED TUBULES

• Simple cuboidal

• epithelial cellswith prominentbrush bordersof microvilli.

DECENDING LIMB OF THE LOOP OF HENLE

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DECENDING LIMB OF THE LOOP OF HENLE

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DECENDING LIMB OF THE LOOP OF

HENLE

•Simple squamous

epithelial cells

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 ASCENDING LIMB OF THE LOOP OF

HENLE

ASCENDING LIMB OF THE LOOP OF HENLE

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 ASCENDING LIMB OF THE LOOP OF HENLE

• Simple cuboidal

• epthelial to low

columnar cells.

DISTAL CONVOLUTED TUBULE

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DISTAL CONVOLUTED TUBULE

DISTAL CONVOLUTED TUBULES

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DISTAL CONVOLUTED TUBULES

•Simple cuboidal

epthelial cells.

THE NEPHRON TISSUES

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THE NEPHRON TISSUES

1. Proximal convolutedtubule

2. Descending limb ofLoop of Henle

3. Ascending Limb ofLoop of Henle

4. Distal convolutedtubules

1. Simple cuboidalepithelial cells with

prominent brushborders of microvilli.2. Simple squamous

epithelial cells3. Simple cuboidal to

low columnarepithelial cells.

4. Simple cuboidalepthelial cells.

V l t f h

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Vascular component of nephron

(blood vesssel of nephron)

1. Glomerulus - network of capillaries within Bowman’s capsule 

2. Afferent arteriole - leading into glomerulus

3. Efferent arteriole - leading out of glomerulus

4. Peritubular capillaries - surrounding tubules

5. Vasa recta - specialised loops of blood vessels around longLoop of Henle (juxtamedullary nephrons)

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Renal Blood Vessels

20-6

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Type of nephron

Nephrons: 85% are cortical, 15% are juxtamedullary Martini p957

TYPES OF NEPHRONS

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TYPES OF NEPHRONS

• Cortical nephron:

 – Originates in outer 2/3of cortex.

 – Involved in solutereabsorption.

• Juxtamedullary nephron:

 – Originates in inner 1/3

cortex.

• Important in theability to produce aconcentrated urine.

 – Has longer Loop of

Henle.

Insert fig. 17.6

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