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2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline What is Software Quality What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? assurance(SQA)? Quality Concepts. Quality Concepts. Software Quality Assurance Activities. Software Quality Assurance Activities. Software Reviews and their importance Software Reviews and their importance Statistical SQA. Statistical SQA. Software Reliability Software Reliability ISO 9000 approach to SQA ISO 9000 approach to SQA

2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

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Page 1: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007 2

Software Quality Assurance - OutlineSoftware Quality Assurance - Outline

What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)?What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? Quality Concepts.Quality Concepts. Software Quality Assurance Activities.Software Quality Assurance Activities. Software Reviews and their importanceSoftware Reviews and their importance Statistical SQA.Statistical SQA. Software ReliabilitySoftware Reliability ISO 9000 approach to SQAISO 9000 approach to SQA

Page 2: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007 3

What is SQA?What is SQA?

Software Quality Assurance is an umbrella Software Quality Assurance is an umbrella activity that is applied throughout the activity that is applied throughout the software process...software process...

Page 3: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007 4

It encompasses..It encompasses..

A quality management approachA quality management approach Effective software engineering technologyEffective software engineering technology Formal technical reviews that are applied Formal technical reviews that are applied

throughout the software processthroughout the software process A multitiered testing strategyA multitiered testing strategy Control of software documentation and changes Control of software documentation and changes

to itto it A procedure to assure compliance with software A procedure to assure compliance with software

development standardsdevelopment standards

Measurement and reporting techniquesMeasurement and reporting techniques

Page 4: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007 5

Quality ???Quality ???

QualityQuality refers to any measurable refers to any measurable characteristics such as correctness, characteristics such as correctness, maintainability, portability, testability, maintainability, portability, testability, usability, reliability, efficiency, integrity, usability, reliability, efficiency, integrity, reusability and interoperability.reusability and interoperability.

Page 5: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007 6

Quality ConceptsQuality Concepts

Quality of DesignQuality of Design refers to the characteristics that refers to the characteristics that designer’s specify for an item.designer’s specify for an item.

Quality ControlQuality Control is the series of inspections, is the series of inspections, reviews and tests used throughout the reviews and tests used throughout the development cycle to ensure that each work development cycle to ensure that each work product meets the requirements placed upon it.product meets the requirements placed upon it.

Quality of ConformanceQuality of Conformance is the degree to which the is the degree to which the design specifications are followed during design specifications are followed during manufacturing.manufacturing.

Page 6: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007 7

(cont'd)...(cont'd)...

Quality policyQuality policy refers to the basic aims and refers to the basic aims and objectives of an organization regarding quality as objectives of an organization regarding quality as stipulated by the management.stipulated by the management.

Quality assuranceQuality assurance consists of the auditing and consists of the auditing and reporting functions of management.reporting functions of management.

Cost of QualityCost of Quality includes all costs incurred in the includes all costs incurred in the pursuit of quality or in performing quality related pursuit of quality or in performing quality related activities such as appraisal costs, failure costs and activities such as appraisal costs, failure costs and external failure costs.external failure costs.

Page 7: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

20078

(cont'd)...(cont'd)...

Quality planningQuality planning is the process of assessing the is the process of assessing the requirements of the procedure and of the product requirements of the procedure and of the product and the context in which these must be observed.and the context in which these must be observed.

Quality testingQuality testing is assessment of the extent to which is assessment of the extent to which a test object meets given requirementsa test object meets given requirements

Quality assurance planQuality assurance plan is the central aid for is the central aid for planning and checking the quality assurance.planning and checking the quality assurance.

Quality assurance systemQuality assurance system is the organizational is the organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes and structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes and resources for implementing quality management.resources for implementing quality management.

Page 8: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007 9

Relative cost of correcting an errorRelative cost of correcting an error

Page 9: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007 10

Defn. of Software Quality AssuranceDefn. of Software Quality Assurance

Conformance to explicitly stated functional Conformance to explicitly stated functional and performance requirements, explicitly and performance requirements, explicitly documented development standards, and documented development standards, and implicit characteristics that are expected of implicit characteristics that are expected of all professionally developed software.all professionally developed software.

Page 10: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007

Cost of QualityCost of Quality

Prevention costsPrevention costs include include quality planningquality planning formal technical reviewsformal technical reviews test equipmenttest equipment TrainingTraining

Internal failure costsInternal failure costs include include reworkrework repairrepair failure mode analysisfailure mode analysis

External failure costsExternal failure costs are are complaint resolutioncomplaint resolution product return and replacementproduct return and replacement help line supporthelp line support warranty workwarranty work

Page 11: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007 11

SQA Group PlanSQA Group Plan

Evaluations to be performedEvaluations to be performed Audits and reviews to be performed Audits and reviews to be performed Standards that are applicable to the project Standards that are applicable to the project Procedures for error reporting and trackingProcedures for error reporting and tracking Documents to be produced by the SQA groupDocuments to be produced by the SQA group Amount of feedback provided to software Amount of feedback provided to software

project teamproject team

Page 12: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007 12

SQA Group ActivitiesSQA Group Activities

Participates in the development of the Participates in the development of the projects software process descriptionprojects software process description

Reviews software engineering activities to Reviews software engineering activities to verify compliance with the defined software verify compliance with the defined software process.process.

Audits designated software work products Audits designated software work products to verify compliance with those defined as to verify compliance with those defined as part of the software process.part of the software process.

Page 13: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007 13

(cont'd)...(cont'd)...

Ensures that deviations in software work Ensures that deviations in software work and work products are documented and and work products are documented and handled according to a document handled according to a document procedure.procedure.

Records any non-compliance and reports to Records any non-compliance and reports to senior management.senior management.

Page 14: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007 14

Software ReviewsSoftware Reviews

‘‘Filter’ for the software engineering processFilter’ for the software engineering process ‘‘Purify’ the software work products that Purify’ the software work products that

occur as a result of analysis, design, and occur as a result of analysis, design, and coding.coding.

Achieve technical work of more uniform, Achieve technical work of more uniform, greater and more predictable quality.greater and more predictable quality.

Detect errors and problems at the earliest Detect errors and problems at the earliest possible time.possible time.

Page 15: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007 15

Formal Technical ReviewsFormal Technical Reviews

To uncover errors in function, logic, or To uncover errors in function, logic, or implementation for any representation of the implementation for any representation of the softwaresoftware

To verify that software meets its requirementsTo verify that software meets its requirements To ensure that software representation meets To ensure that software representation meets

predefined standardspredefined standards To achieve software development in a uniform To achieve software development in a uniform

mannermanner To make projects more manageableTo make projects more manageable

Page 16: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007

The PlayersThe Players

reviewreviewleaderleader

producerproducer

recorderrecorder reviewerreviewer

standards bearer (SQA)standards bearer (SQA)

maintenance maintenance oracleoracle

user repuser rep

Page 17: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007

Conducting the ReviewConducting the Review

be prepared—evaluate be prepared—evaluate product before the reviewproduct before the review

review the product, not review the product, not the producerthe producer

keep your tone mild, ask keep your tone mild, ask questions instead of questions instead of making accusationsmaking accusations

1.1.

2.2.

3.3.

stick to the review agendastick to the review agenda

raise issues, don't resolve themraise issues, don't resolve them

avoid discussions of style—stick to technical avoid discussions of style—stick to technical correctnesscorrectness

schedule reviews as project tasksschedule reviews as project tasks

record and report all review resultsrecord and report all review results

4.4.

5.5.

6.6.

7.7.

8.8.

Page 18: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007

trained leadertrained leader agenda establishedagenda established reviewers prepare in advancereviewers prepare in advance producer presents productproducer presents product ““reader” presents productreader” presents product recorder takes notesrecorder takes notes checklists used to find errorschecklists used to find errors errors categorized as founderrors categorized as found issues list createdissues list created team must sign-off on resultteam must sign-off on result

IPR—informal peer review WT—WalkthroughIPR—informal peer review WT—Walkthrough IN—Inspection RRR—round robin reviewIN—Inspection RRR—round robin review

Review Options MatrixReview Options Matrix

IPRIPR WTWT ININ RRRRRR

nonomaybemaybemaybemaybemaybemaybenonomaybemaybenononononononono

yesyesyesyesyesyesyesyesnonoyesyesnonononoyesyesyesyes

yesyesyesyesyesyesnonoyesyesyesyesyesyesyesyesyesyesyesyes

yesyesyesyesyesyesnonononoyesyesnonononoyesyesmaybemaybe

**

Page 19: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007

Metrics Derived from ReviewsMetrics Derived from Reviews

inspection time per page of documentationinspection time per page of documentationinspection time per KLOC or FPinspection time per KLOC or FP

errors uncovered per reviewer hourerrors uncovered per reviewer hourerrors uncovered per preparation hourerrors uncovered per preparation hourerrors uncovered per SE task (e.g., design)errors uncovered per SE task (e.g., design)number of minor errors (e.g., typos)number of minor errors (e.g., typos)

number of errors found during preparationnumber of errors found during preparation

number of major errorsnumber of major errors (e.g., nonconformance to req.) (e.g., nonconformance to req.)

inspection effort per KLOC or FPinspection effort per KLOC or FP

Page 20: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007

Defect Amplification ModelDefect Amplification Model

Page 21: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007

Defect Amplification with ReviewsDefect Amplification with Reviews

Page 22: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007

Cost Comparison of Error RepairCost Comparison of Error Repair

Page 23: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007 16

Review Guidelines..Review Guidelines..

Review the product, not Review the product, not producerproducer

Set an agenda and maintain Set an agenda and maintain itit

Limit the debate Limit the debate Enunciate problem areas, Enunciate problem areas,

not to solve every problem not to solve every problem notednoted

Take written notesTake written notes Allocate resources and Allocate resources and

time schedule for FTR’stime schedule for FTR’s

Limit the number of Limit the number of participants and insist participants and insist upon advance preparationupon advance preparation

Develop a checklist for Develop a checklist for each work product to be each work product to be reviewedreviewed

Training for all Training for all reviewer’sreviewer’s

Reviewing earlier reviewsReviewing earlier reviews

Page 24: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007

Additional StructuresAdditional Structures

Requirements Control BoardRequirements Control Board All requirement changes must be formally All requirement changes must be formally

reviewed and approvedreviewed and approved

Software Control BoardSoftware Control Board All design changes must be formally reviewed All design changes must be formally reviewed

and approvedand approved

Interface Control BoardInterface Control Board

Page 25: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007

Statistical SQAStatistical SQA

ProductProduct& Process& Process

measurement

... an understanding of how to improve quality ...

Collect information on all defectsFind the causes of the defectsMove to provide fixes for the process

Page 26: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007 17

Statistical Quality AssuranceStatistical Quality Assurance

Implies information about software defects is Implies information about software defects is collected and categorized collected and categorized

An attempt is made to trace each defect to its An attempt is made to trace each defect to its underlying causeunderlying cause

Isolate the vital few causes of the major Isolate the vital few causes of the major source of all errorssource of all errors

Then move to correct the problems that have Then move to correct the problems that have caused the defectscaused the defects

Page 27: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007

Categories of ErrorsCategories of Errors

Incomplete or erroneous specification (IES)Incomplete or erroneous specification (IES) Misinterpretation of customer comm (MCC)Misinterpretation of customer comm (MCC) Intentional deviation from specification (IDS)Intentional deviation from specification (IDS) Violation of programming standards (VPS)Violation of programming standards (VPS) Error in data representation (EDR)Error in data representation (EDR) Inconsistent module interface (IMI)Inconsistent module interface (IMI) Error in design logic (EDL)Error in design logic (EDL)

Page 28: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007

Categories of Errors (cont'd)Categories of Errors (cont'd)

Incomplete or erroneous testing (IET)Incomplete or erroneous testing (IET) Inaccurate or incomplete documentation (IID)Inaccurate or incomplete documentation (IID) Error in programming lang. Translation (PLT)Error in programming lang. Translation (PLT) Ambiguous or inconsistent human-computer Ambiguous or inconsistent human-computer

interface (HCI)interface (HCI) Miscellaneous (MIS)Miscellaneous (MIS) Most often IES, MCC and EDR are the vital few Most often IES, MCC and EDR are the vital few

causes for majority of errors.causes for majority of errors.

Page 29: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007 18

DefinitionsDefinitions

EEi i = = the total number of errors uncovered the total number of errors uncovered

during the iduring the ith th step in the software engineering step in the software engineering processprocess

SSii = the number of serious errors = the number of serious errors

MMii = the number of moderate errors = the number of moderate errors

TTii = the number of minor errors = the number of minor errors

PS = size of the product (LOC, design PS = size of the product (LOC, design statements, pages of documentation)statements, pages of documentation)

Page 30: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007 19

error indexerror index

Phase index for each step and then error Phase index for each step and then error index is calculatedindex is calculated

PIPIii = w = wss(S(Sii/E/Eii)+w)+wmm(M(Mii/E/Eii)+w)+wtt(T(Tii/E/Eii))

Formula:Formula:

( ) /

( ) /

i PI PS

PI PI PI iPI PS

X i

i

1 2 32 3

Page 31: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007 20

Software ReliabilitySoftware Reliability

Defined as the probability of failure free operation Defined as the probability of failure free operation of a computer program in a specified environment of a computer program in a specified environment for a specified time.for a specified time.

It can measured, directed and estimated It can measured, directed and estimated A measure of software reliability is A measure of software reliability is mean time mean time

between failuresbetween failures where where MTBF = MTTF + MTTRMTBF = MTTF + MTTR MTTF = MTTF = mean time to failuremean time to failure MTTR = MTTR = mean time to repairmean time to repair

Page 32: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007 21

Software AvailabilitySoftware Availability

Availability =MTTF/(MTTF + MTTR) * 100%Availability =MTTF/(MTTF + MTTR) * 100% Software availabilitySoftware availability is the probability that a is the probability that a

program is operating according to requirements at program is operating according to requirements at a given point in time a given point in time

Page 33: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007

Software SafetySoftware Safety

Processes that help reduce the probability that Processes that help reduce the probability that critical failures will occur due to SWcritical failures will occur due to SW

Hazard analysesHazard analyses Identify hazards that could call failureIdentify hazards that could call failure Develop fault treeDevelop fault tree Identify all possible causes of the hazardIdentify all possible causes of the hazard Formally review the remedy for eachFormally review the remedy for each

RedundancyRedundancy Require a written software safety planRequire a written software safety plan Require independent verification & validationRequire independent verification & validation

Page 34: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007

Example Fault Tree -- ThermalExample Fault Tree -- Thermal

Loss of heatLoss of heat

Power failurePower failure Computer failureComputer failure IncorrectIncorrect

inputinput

SW failed SW failed to throw to throw switchswitch

......

Computer failureComputer failure SW failed SW failed to throw to throw switchswitch

......Logic reversedLogic reversed

Page 35: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007

Software SafetySoftware Safety

RedundancyRedundancy Replicated at the hardware levelReplicated at the hardware level Similar vs.. dis-similar redundancySimilar vs.. dis-similar redundancy

VerificationVerification Assuring that the software specifications are metAssuring that the software specifications are met

ValidationValidation Assuring that the product functions as desiredAssuring that the product functions as desired

IndependenceIndependence

Page 36: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007 22

Overview of SQA PlanOverview of SQA Plan

Purpose of PlanPurpose of Plan ReferencesReferences Management Management DocumentationDocumentation Standards, Practices and Standards, Practices and

ConventionsConventions Reviews and AuditsReviews and Audits TestTest Problem Reporting and Problem Reporting and

Corrective actionCorrective action

Tools, Techniques and Tools, Techniques and MethodologiesMethodologies

Code ControlCode Control Media ControlMedia Control Supplier controlSupplier control Records Collection, Records Collection,

Maintenance and Maintenance and RetentionRetention

Training Training Risk ManagementRisk Management

Page 37: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007 23

ISO 9000 Quality StandardsISO 9000 Quality Standards

ISO 9000 describes quality assurance elements in ISO 9000 describes quality assurance elements in generic terms that can be applied to any business.generic terms that can be applied to any business.

It treats an enterprise as a network of It treats an enterprise as a network of interconnected processes.interconnected processes.

To be ISO-complaint processes should adhere to To be ISO-complaint processes should adhere to the standards described.the standards described.

Elements include organizational structure, Elements include organizational structure,

procedures, processes and resources.procedures, processes and resources. Ensures quality planning, quality control, quality Ensures quality planning, quality control, quality

assurance and quality improvement. assurance and quality improvement.

Page 38: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007 24

ISO 9001ISO 9001

An international standard which provides An international standard which provides broad guidance to software developers on broad guidance to software developers on how to Implement, maintain and improve a how to Implement, maintain and improve a quality software system capable of ensuring quality software system capable of ensuring high quality softwarehigh quality software

Consists of 20 requirements...Consists of 20 requirements... Differs from country to country..Differs from country to country..

Page 39: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007 25

ISO 9001 (cont'd)..requirementsISO 9001 (cont'd)..requirements

Management Management responsibilityresponsibility

Quality systemQuality system Contract reviewContract review Design ControlDesign Control Document and data Document and data

controlcontrol PurchasingPurchasing

Control of customer Control of customer supplied productsupplied product

Product identification Product identification and traceabilityand traceability

Process controlProcess control Inspection and testingInspection and testing Control of inspection, Control of inspection,

measuring and test measuring and test equipmentequipment

Page 40: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007 26

ISO 9001 (cont'd)..ISO 9001 (cont'd)..

Inspection and test Inspection and test statusstatus

Control of non-Control of non-confirming productconfirming product

Corrective and Corrective and preventive actionpreventive action

Handling, storage, Handling, storage, packaging, preservation packaging, preservation and deliveryand delivery

Control of quality Control of quality recordsrecords

Internal quality auditsInternal quality audits TrainingTraining ServicingServicing Statistical techniquesStatistical techniques

Page 41: 2007 2 Software Quality Assurance - Outline ä What is Software Quality assurance(SQA)? ä Quality Concepts. ä Software Quality Assurance Activities. ä Software

2007 27

Summary-Summary-

SQA must be applied at each stepSQA must be applied at each step SQA might be complexSQA might be complex Software reviews are important SQA activitiesSoftware reviews are important SQA activities Statistical SQA helps improve product quality Statistical SQA helps improve product quality

and software processand software process Software Safety is essential for critical systems Software Safety is essential for critical systems ISO 9001 standardizes the SQA activitiesISO 9001 standardizes the SQA activities