2 Lean Construction

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Civil Construction,Manajemen Mutu, Lean Construction, SubContractor

Text of 2 Lean Construction

  • Lean Construction Productivity & Quality

    Jati Utomo Dwi Hatmoko

  • Lean Construction (LC)

    Lean = slim, not fat Goal :

    better meeting customer needs while using less of everything.

    to avoid muda (Japanese terminology for the waste of energy, money, talent and time).

    LC maximizes value and reduces waste LC is a way to design production systems to

    minimize waste of materials, time, and effort in order to generate the maximum possible amount of value (Koskela et al. 2002)

  • Lean construction results from the application of a new form of production management to construction.

    Essential features of lean construction include: a clear set of objectives for the delivery process,

    aimed at maximizing performance for the customer at the project level,

    concurrent design of product and process, and

    the application of production control throughout the life of the product from design to delivery.

  • LC uses Supply Chain Management (SCM) and Just-In-Time (JIT) techniques as well as the open sharing of information between all the parties involved in the production process.

    LC emphasizes seamless integration of production facilities/processes, vendors, suppliers, and subcontractors.

  • Construction Context

    Sowards stated (2004) the priority for all construction work is to:

    keep work flowing so that the crews are always productive installing product;

    reduce inventory of material and tools and

    reduce costs.

  • HISTORY OF LEAN PRODUCTION Developed by Toyota led by Engineer Taichi Ohno 1950s

    Ohno had observed mass production at Ford Motor Corporations manufacturing facilities in the U.S. and recognized that there was much waste everywhere.

    Ohno identified seven wastes in mass production systems :


    waiting time,


    processing itself,

    having unnecessary stock on hand,

    Using unnecessary motion

    producing defective goods.

    Ohno visualized a failure to meet customers needs as waste

    The term lean was coined by the research team working on international auto production to reflect both the waste reduction nature of the Toyota production system and to contrast it with craft and mass forms of production


    He developed a simple set of objectives for the design of the production system: Produce a car to the requirements of a specific customer, deliver it instantly, and maintain no inventories or intermediate stores.

    Rework due to errors could not be tolerated as it reduced throughput, the time to make a car from beginning to end, and caused unreliable workflow.

    Ohno also decentralized shop floor management by making visible production system information to everyone involved with production. Transparency allowed people to make decisions in support of production system objectives and reduced the need for more senior and central management.


    Lean construction accepts the Ohnos production system design criteria as a standard of perfection.

    But how does the Toyota system, lean production, apply in construction?

  • The construction industry has rejected many ideas from manufacturing because of the belief that construction is different.

    Manufacturers make parts that go into projects but the design and construction of unique and complex projects in highly uncertain environments under great time and schedule pressure is fundamentally different from making tin cans.

  • What is waste??

    Examples of waste??

  • WASTE Anything that Consumes Resources but Does Not Provide Value for the Customer

    1. Overproduction 2. Waiting 3. Inventory

    4. Movement 5. Effort 6. Rework of Errors 7. Processing

  • Waste : anything that consumes resources but creates no value for the customer.


    1. Over production:

    * Putting as much work in place as possible, making it harder to do priority work. * Ordering additional material because or poor quality.

    2. Waiting: for materials, direction, imformation or prerequesite work.

    3. Inventory : Information or material delivered before it is needed.

    4. Movement : Moving materials frome one place to another place before it installing.

    5. Effort :

    * Returning to the shop to pick up plans, materials or tools not at the site * Hunting to information or tools.

    6. Rework : Re-doing work because of errors.

    7. Processing :

    * Recreating work because it cannot to be shared * Expediting materials not ordered on time.

    * Excessive coordination of multiple levels of suppliers.

  • The seven types of waste found in construction


    Everyone in construction understands this type of waste. It includes doing the wrong installation, defects in fabrication, and errors in punch lists. Not meeting the required code is waste. Rework in construction is rarely measured.

    Overproduction of goods .

    This happens when we fabricate material too early or stockpile material in the warehouse or at the job site. Estimating and bidding jobs that are not won is a form of this waste. Printing more blueprints or making more copies of a report than needed is overproduction.


    This waste occurs when we move material around the shop, when we load it on the truck or trailer, when we haul it to the job site, when we unload it, and when we move the material from the lay-down or staging area to the installation point.

  • The seven types of waste found in construction


    Construction is full of this waste, including when a crew waits for instructions or materials at the job site, when a fabrication machine waits for material to be loaded, and even when payroll waits for the always-late timesheets.


    This waste includes overengineering, requiring additional signatures on a requisition, multiple handling of timesheets, duplicate entries on forms, and getting double and triple estimates from suppliers.


    These treasure hunts happen when material is stored away from the job or when workers look for tools, material, or information. This waste also occurs in the office or job site trailer, when looking for files, reports, reference books, drawings, contracts, or vendor catalogues.

  • The seven types of waste found in construction

    Overproduction / Inventory .

    This includes uncut materials, work in process, and finished fabrications.

    Some contractors claim that they have no inventory because they job-cost all material. While this may work for accounting, if the material is not yet installed and isnt being used by the customer, its waste. This waste includes spare parts, unused tools, consumables, forms and copies, employee stashes, and personal stockpiles. One could argue that the unfinished facility is inventory and is waste until operational.

  • Lean Construction Tools

    Last Planner System other lean tools already proven in manufacturing have

    been adapted to the construction industry with equal success. 5S Kanban, Kaizen events, quick setup/changeover, Poka Yoke, Visual Control Five Whys


  • 5 S / 5 R 5S is the name of a workplace organization methodology that uses a list of five

    Japanese words which, transliterated and translated into English, start with the letter S.

    The list describes how items are stored and how the new order is maintained. The decision making process usually comes from a dialogue about standardization which builds a clear understanding among employees of how work should be done. It also instills ownership of the process in each employee.

    Phase 1 - Seiri () Sorting:

    Phase 2 - Seiton () Straighten or Set in Order:

    Phase 3 - Seis () Sweeping or Shining or Cleanliness (Systematic Cleaning):

    Phase 4 - Seiketsu () Standardizing:

    Phase 5 - Shitsuke () Sustaining the discipline:

    5R - Ringkas, Rapi , Resik , Rawat , Rajin

  • 5 S Phase 1 - Seiri () Sorting:

    Go through all tools, materials, etc., in the plant and work area.

    Keep only essential items.

    Everything else is stored or discarded.

    Phase 2 - Seiton () Straighten or Set in Order: There should be a place for everything and everything should be in its place.

    The place for each item should be clearly labeled or demarcated.

    Items should be arranged in a manner that promotes efficient work flow.

    Workers should not have to repetitively bend to access materials.

    Each tool, part, supply, piece of equipment, etc. should be kept close to where it will be used (i.e. straighten the flow path).

    Seiton is one of the features that distinguishes 5S from "standardized cleanup".

  • 5S

    Phase 3 - Seis () Sweeping or Shining or Cleanliness (Systematic Cleaning):

    Keep the workplace clean as well as neat.

    At the end of each shift, clean the work area and be sure everything is restored to its place.

    This makes it easy to know what goes where and insures that everything is where it belongs.

    A key point is that maintaining cleanliness should be part of the daily work - not an occasional activity initiated when things get too messy.

  • 5 S Phas