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2-1 Chapter 2 Consumer Behavior, Consumer Behavior, Eighth Edition Eighth Edition SCHIFFMAN & KANUK Consumer Research

2-1 Chapter 2 Consumer Behavior, Eighth Edition Consumer Behavior, Eighth Edition SCHIFFMAN & KANUK Consumer Research

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Page 1: 2-1 Chapter 2 Consumer Behavior, Eighth Edition Consumer Behavior, Eighth Edition SCHIFFMAN & KANUK Consumer Research

2-1

Chapter 2

Consumer Behavior,Consumer Behavior,Eighth EditionEighth Edition

SCHIFFMAN & KANUK

Consumer Research

Page 2: 2-1 Chapter 2 Consumer Behavior, Eighth Edition Consumer Behavior, Eighth Edition SCHIFFMAN & KANUK Consumer Research

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Quantitative Research

• Descriptive in nature.

• Enables marketers to “predict” consumer behavior.

• Research methods include experiments, survey techniques, and observation.

• Findings are descriptive, empirical and generalizable.

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PositivismPositivism

A consumer behavior research approach that regards the consumer behavior discipline as an applied marketing

science.

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Qualitative Research

• Consists of depth interviews, focus groups, metaphor analysis, collage research, and projective techniques.

• Administered by highly trained interviewer-analysts.

• Findings tend to be subjective.• Small sample sizes.

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InterpretivismInterpretivism

A postmodernist approach to the study of consumer behavior that focuses on the

act of consuming rather than on the act of buying.

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Table 2.2 Comparisons between Positivism and Interpretivism

PURPOSEPURPOSE

METHODOLOGYMETHODOLOGY

PositivismPositivism

Prediction of consumer actions

PositivismPositivism

Prediction of consumer actions

InterpretivismInterpretivism

Understanding consumption practices

InterpretivismInterpretivism

Understanding consumption practices

PositivismPositivism

Quantitative

PositivismPositivism

Quantitative

InterpretivismInterpretivism

Quantitative

InterpretivismInterpretivism

Quantitative

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Table 2.2 continuedASSUMPTIONS

PositivismPositivism

•Rationality; consumers make decisions after weighing alternatives

•The causes and effects of behavior can be identified

•Individuals are problem solvers

•A single reality exists•Events can be objectively measured

InterpretivismInterpretivism

•No single, objective truth•Reality is subjective•Cause and effect cannot be isolated

•Each consumption experience is unique

•Researcher/respondent interactions affect research findings

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The Consumer Research Process

• Six steps– defining the objectives of the research– collecting and evaluating secondary data– designing a primary research study– collecting primary data– analyzing the data– preparing a report on the findings

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Figure 2.1 The Consumer Research Process

Develop Objectives

Collect Secondary Data

Design Qualitative Research• Method• Screener questionnaire• Discussion guide

Prepare Report

Analyze Data(Subjective)

Conduct Research(Using highly trained

interviewers) Exploratory Study

Prepare report

Analyze Data(Objective)

Collect Primary Data(Usually by field staff)

Design Quantitative Research• Method• Sample design• Data collection instrument

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Developing Research Objectives

• Defining purposes and objectives helps ensure an appropriate research design.

• A statement of objectives helps to define the type and level of information needed.

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Secondary Versus Primary Data

• Secondary data: data that has been collected for reasons other than the specific research project at hand

• Primary data: data collected by the researcher for the purpose of meeting specific objectives

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Table 2.2 Major Sources of Secondary Data

Government Publications

Internal Sources

Periodicals &

Books

Commercial Data

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Data Collection Methods

Observation

Experimentation

Surveys

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Observational Research

• Helps marketers gain an in-depth understanding of the relationship between people and products by watching them buying and using products.

• Helps researchers gain a better understanding of what the product symbolizes.

• Widely used by interpretivist researchers.

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Experimentation

• Can be used to test the relative sales appeal of many types of variables.

• Only one variable is manipulated at a time, keeping other elements constant.

• Can be conducted in laboratories or in the field.

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Survey Data Collection Methods

Personal Interview

Mail

Telephone

Online

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Table 2.4 Comparative Advantages

MAIL TELEPHONEPERSONAL INTERVIEW

ONLINE

Cost Low Moderate High LowSpeed Slow Immediate Slow FastResponse rate

Low Moderate HighSelf-

selectionGeographic flexibility

Excellent Good Difficult Excellent

Interviewer bias

N/A Moderate Problematic N/A

Interviewer supervision

N/A Easy Difficult N/A

Quality of response

Limited Limited Excellent Excellent

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ValidityValidity

The degree to which a measurement

instrument accurately reflects

what it is designed to measure.

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ReliabilityReliability

The degree to which a measurement instrument is

consistent in what it measures.

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Attitude Scales

• Likert scales: easy for researchers to prepare and interpret, and simple for consumers to answer.

• Semantic differential scales: relatively easy to construct and administer.

• Rank-order scales: subjects rank items in order of preference in terms of some criteria.

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Figure 2.4 Example of a Likert ScalePlease place the number that best indicates how strongly you agree or disagree with each of the following statements about shopping online in the space to the left of the statement.

1 = Agree Strongly2 = Agree3 = Neither Agree or Disagree4 = Disagree5 = Disagree Strongly

_____ a. It is fun to shop online._____ b. Products often cost more online._____ c. It is a good way to find out about new products.

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Figure 2.4 Semantic Differential Profiles of Three Pay-Per-Movie Services

1

2

3

4

5

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Figure 2.5 Rank-Order Scales

Rank the following computer manufacturers in terms of hotline help by placing a 1 next to the one who provides the best telephone help, a 2 next to the second best, until you have ranked all six.

_____ IBM _____Hewlett Packard_____ Dell _____ Gateway_____ Compaq _____ NEC

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Qualitative Data Collection Methods

Depth Depth InterviewsInterviews

Projective Projective TechniquesTechniques

FocusFocusGroupsGroups

Metaphor Metaphor AnalysisAnalysis

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Focus GroupFocus Group

A qualitative research method in which eight

to ten persons participate in an

unstructured group interview about a product or service

concept.

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Figure 2.5 Selected Portions of a Discussion Guide

1. Why did you decide to use your current cellular company? (Probe)2. How long have you used you current cellular company? (Probe)3. Have you ever switched services? When? What caused the change? (Probe)4. What do you think of the overall quality of your current service? (Probe)5. What are the important criteria in electing a cellular service? (Probe)

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Projective Projective TechniquesTechniques

Research procedures designed to identify

consumers’ subconscious feelings

and motivations.

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Metaphor Analysis

• Based on belief that metaphors are the most basic method of thought and communication.

• Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET) combines collage research and metaphor analysis to bring to the surface the mental models and the major themes or constructs that drive consumer thinking and behavior.

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Customer Satisfaction Data Collection Instruments (Table 2.5)

• Customer Satisfaction Surveys

• Gap Analysis of Expectations versus Experience

• Mystery Shoppers

• Critical Incident Technique

• Customer Complaint Analysis

• Analysis of Customer Defections

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Sampling Plan Decisions

Whom to survey?

Whom to survey?

How many?How many?

How toselect them?

How toselect them?

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Table 2.6 Probability Sampling Designs

Simple random sample

Every member of the population has a known and equal chance of being selected.

Systematic random sample

A member of the population is selected at random and then every “nth” person is selected.

Cluster (area) sample

The population is divided into mutually exclusive groups (such as blocks), and the researcher draws a sample of the groups to interview.

Stratified random sample

The population is divided into mutually exclusive groups (such as age groups), and random samples are drawn from each group.

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Table 2.6 Nonprobability Sampling Designs

Convenience sample

The researcher selects the most accessible population members from whom to obtain information (e.g., students in a classroom)

Judgment sample The researcher uses his or her judgment to select population members who are good sources for accurate information (e.g., experts in the relevant field of study).

Quota sample The researcher interviews a prescribed number of people in each of several categories (e.g., 50 men and 5 women).