1.The Bank of England · 1.The Bank of England !! The Bank of England, now owned by the Government,...
1 1.The Bank of England The Bank of England, now owned by the Government, was the first privately owned National Bank in the world and is the second oldest Central Bank, the oldest being the Bank of Sweden. Established in 1694, the Bank of England was founded after naval defeats by the French had left the country deeply in debt. King William III needed to raise a large amount of money to re- build the British Navy and regain global power. The King turned to two city merchants who proposed to create a national bank that would raise share-capital and lend it to the Government in return for an 8% interest charge. The Government would guarantee the loan, the national debt, through the Tonnage Act, rising taxes on shipping and alcohol. The commercial activity generated from strengthening the navy transformed the economy. Britain became prosperous and with the new power of the Royal Navy, a dominant world power. In return for more loans to the Government, the South Sea Company secured a monopoly in trade with South America, sending their shares to 10 times their value. This speculation lead to all shares rising out of control causing the famous stock market crash of 1720, ‘South Sea Bubble’. In 1781 The Bank of England became the bankers' bank and was required to keep enough gold in reserves to pay all its issued notes on demand, a promise still printed on every bank note today. Today the Bank is responsible for setting interest rates, controlling the UK’s gold reserves and issuing bank notes in England and Wales. Standing at the center of the UK's financial system it is the model on which most modern central banks have been based. For security reasons the main Bank of England building is not open to the gereneral public. The Bank's museum, which is free to enter, is situated on Bartholomew Lane, off Threadneedle Street.
1.The Bank of England · 1.The Bank of England !! The Bank of England, now owned by the Government, was the first privately owned National Bank in the world and is the second oldest
Text of 1.The Bank of England · 1.The Bank of England !! The Bank of England, now owned by the Government,...
1. The Bank of England
The Bank of England, now owned by the Government, was the first privately owned National Bank in the world and is the second oldest Central Bank, the oldest being the Bank of Sweden. Established in 1694, the Bank of England was founded after naval defeats by the French had left the country deeply in debt. King William III needed to raise a large amount of money to re-build the British Navy and regain global power. The King turned to two city merchants who proposed to create a national bank that would raise share-capital and lend it to the Government in return for an 8% interest charge. The Government would guarantee the loan, the national debt, through the Tonnage Act, rising taxes on shipping and alcohol. The commercial activity generated from strengthening the navy transformed the economy. Britain became prosperous and with the new power of the Royal Navy, a dominant world power. In return for more loans to the Government, the South Sea Company secured a monopoly in trade with South America, sending their shares to 10 times their value. This speculation lead to all shares rising out of control causing the famous stock market crash of 1720, ‘South Sea Bubble’. In 1781 The Bank of England became the bankers' bank and was required to keep enough gold in reserves to pay all its issued notes on demand, a promise still printed on every bank note today. Today the Bank is responsible for setting interest rates, controlling the UK’s gold reserves and issuing bank notes in England and Wales. Standing at the center of the UK's financial system it is the model on which most modern central banks have been based. For security reasons the main Bank of England building is not open to the gereneral public. The Bank's museum, which is free to enter, is situated on Bartholomew Lane, off Threadneedle Street.
2. Royal Exchange, London
The Royal Exchange in London was founded in the 16th century by the merchant Thomas Gresham to act as a centre of commerce for the City of London. The site was provided by the City of London Corporation and the Worshipful Company of Mercers, who still jointly own the freehold. It is trapezoidal in shape and is flanked by Cornhill and Threadneedle Street which converge at Bank junction in the heart of the City. The design was inspired by a bourse Gresham had seen in Antwerp, Belgium, and was Britain's first specialist commercial building.
It has twice been destroyed by fire and rebuilt. The present building was designed by William Tite in the 1840s and is currently up for sale. The site was notably occupied by the Lloyd's insurance market for nearly 150 years. Today the Royal Exchange contains offices, luxury shops and a restaurant.
The Royal Exchange was officially opened on 23 January 1571 by Queen Elizabeth I who
awarded the building its royal title and licence to sell alcohol. During the 17th century, stockbrokers were not allowed in the Royal Exchange because of their rude manners, hence they had to operate from other establishments in the vicinity, such as Jonathan's Coffee-House. Gresham's original building was destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666. A second complex was built on the site, designed by Edward Jarman, and opened in 1669, but was also destroyed by fire on 10 January 1838. It had been used by the Lloyd's of London insurance market, which was forced to move temporarily to South Sea House following the 1838 fire.
With the outbreak of the Second World War, trading at the Royal Exchange virtually
ended. At the War's end, the building had survived the Blitz, albeit with some near misses.
3. Paul Julius Reuter
In 1851 Paul Julius Reuter established a telegraphic news office, the Reuters news
agency, at No. 1, Royal Exchange Buildings (opposite and to the east of the Royal Exchange) in
1851. It later moved to Fleet Street. It became one of the major financial news agencies of the
world. In time nearly all the London newspapers subscribed to his service. Undersea cables
helped him extend his service to other continents. Reuter retired in 1878. He died in Nice,
France, on Feb. 25, 1899
4. Jamaica Wine House
A secretive drinking den in an alley that manages to evoke memories of countless
handshakes, tip-offs and clandestine collusions: it's in suh pubs that City business has been
done for centuries. (Time Out)
Tucked away in St Michael's Alley, part of a labyrinth of charming medieval courts and
alleys off Cornhill and Lombard Street in the City, the Jamaica Wine House was originally
London's first coffee house which opened in 1652 and was visited by English diarist Samuel
Pepys in 1660.
Jamaica Wine House has historic links with the sugar trade and slave plantations of the
West Indies and Turkey. There is a plaque on the wall which reads 'Here stood the first London
Coffee house at the sign of the Pasqual Rosee's Head 1652.' Pasqua Rosée, the proprietor was
the servant of a Levant Company merchant named Daniel Edwards, a trader in Turkish goods,
who imported the coffee and assisted Rosée in setting up the establishment. The coffee house,
which opened in 1652, is known in some accounts as The Turk's Head.
The building which currently stands on the site is a 19th-century public house. This pub's
licence was acquired by Shepherd Neame and reopened after a restoration which finished in
5. Leadenhall Market
Leadenhall Market is a restored Victorian covered market that sells traditional game,
poultry, fish and meat. Although there has been a forum (market place) on where Leadenhall
Market stands today since the first century AD, the current wrought iron and glass building
was designed in 1881 by Sir Horace Jones (architect of Old Billingsgate and Smithfield
The market, with its unique environment, has been used as a film location for many
movies including Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone and Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy.
Erasure used the market to film the video for Love to Hate You and it is was on the marathon
route of the 2012 Summer Olympics.
6. Sculpture in The City
The popular public art exhibition, Sculpture in the City, returns this summer with a selection of contemporary art pieces in and around the Square Mile.
Set amongst London's iconic architectural landmarks, such as the Gherkin by Norman Foster and the Lloyd’s building by Richard Rogers, this open air exhibition draws visitors into the City transforming the EC3 insurance area..
The exhibition includes works from internationally renowned artists: Cerith Wyn Evans, Lynn Chadwick, Ben Long, Julian Wild, Nigel Hall, Paul Hosking, Peter Randall-Page, Antony Gormley, Jim Lambie and Richard Wentworth.
In its fourth year, Sculpture in the City aims to enhance our urban environment with cutting-edge contemporary works from leading artists sited in both busy thoroughfares and quieter, green spaces.
Sculpture in the City is a unique collaboration between the City of London Corporation (the elected body which looks after the Square Mile global business district around St Paul’s), local businesses and the art world, providing the opportunity to engage new audiences with established and emerging contemporary artists.
7. Lloyd’s of London
Lloyd’s of London is the world’s leading insurance market where Names (members)
provide capital and form syndicates to insure (underwrite) specialist types of risk. Lloyd’s was
formed in 1688 by Edward Lloyd who owned and ran a coffee-house in the City near the River
Thames. As London’s importance grew as a maritime trade centre in the 17th century, Lloyds
Coffee House became a common meeting place for ship-owners, merchants and sailors who
would exchange important information and arrange insurance, through Brokers, for their
ships and cargo. As his trade and network of contacts expended, Lloyd started to collect
shipping movements from all over the world and publish the information in a news sheet,
Lloyd’s News. Still published today, Lloyd’s List is the world's oldest continuously-running
journal and was London’s 1st daily newspaper.
Lloyds of London is famous for its high-tech building which was completed in 1986.
Designed by the architect Sir Richard Rogers, its unique design is internationally recognised.
Like the Pompidou Centre in Paris, which Rogers also worked on, all the services and utilities;
electrics, gas, water, heating, air-conditioning, waist and lifts run in pipes and ducts on the
out-side of the building. The buildings architecture, Structural Expressionism, was initially
out of keeping with its historic surroundings, but less so today, as it sits next to 21st century
sky-scrappers, the Gherkin and Willis building. As the world-wide insurance business has
grown Lloyd’s of London has needed to moved building several times within the City. Although
the present building at No 1 Lime Street is less than 30 years old, it hides many historic and
8. 30 St Mary Axe (The Gherkin)
30 St Mary Axe, commonly known as the Gherkin, was designed by internationally
renowned architect, Lord Norman Foster. Opened in 2004 London’s first environmentally
sustainable sky-scrapper was constructed for Swiss-Re, the largest re-insurance company in
the world. The Gherkin, was sold for over £600 million in 2007, making it the most expensive
location in Britain to have an office.
Built in the heart of the City, Foster’s building is on the site of London’s historic Baltic
Exchange which was severely damaged by a bomb in 1992. The Baltic Exchange, which trades
in the sale of merchant vessels and transportation of industrial bulk commodities, originated
back to 1744 and like Lloyd’s of London, was started by ship owners and brokers meeting in a
coffee house. Constructed exactly 100 years before completion of the Gherkin, surviving parts
of the Victorian Exchange building were sold and are being re-constructed in Tallinn, the
capital of the Baltic country Estonia.
At the top of the Gherkin, on the 40th floor, there is a private bar featuring a 360°
panoramic view of London. Despite the building being rounded, the ‘lens’ shaped glass roof
above the bar is the only curved glass in the building and is similar in design to the glass dome
which covered part of the ground floor of the old Baltic Exchange.
The smooth clean lines of the building cover a high tech and environmentally designed
interior. Double-glazed gaps in each floor create vertical corridors that serve as natural
insulation in the winter and ventilation in the summer. This, coupled with all the natural light
flooding in through the windows, results in the building needing much less energy.
9. Willis Building
The Willis Building is a spectacular 28-story skyscraper positioned directly across the
street from Lloyd’s, in the world’s original insurance capital, the City of London.
Designed by world-renowned architects Foster + Partners , It features a "stepped"
design, which was intended to resemble the shell of a crustacean, with setbacks rising at 97 m
(318 ft) and 68 m (223 ft).
10. Tower 42
At 601 feet, Tower 42 was the first skyscraper in the City of London when it was officially
opened in June 1981. Originally it was constructed for the National Westminster Bank - hence
the 'NatWest Tower' name - and seen from a bird's eye view, the top of the building looks like
the NatWest logo. The tower's three facades - made of tinted glass and brushed stainless steel
mullions - point with almost perfect alignment towards the three great markets: Spitalfields,
Old Billingsgate and Smithfield.
11. All Hallows by the Tower
All Hallows by the Tower is the oldest church in the City of London and was founded 300
years before the Tower of London by nearly three hundred years, having been founded by the
Abbey of Barking in 675AD. An arch from the Saxon church can still be seen today. In the crypt
beneath is a Roman pavement, discovered in 1926, evidence of city life on this site for nearly
two thousand years.
Located next to the Tower of London, the church has cared for numerous beheaded
bodies brought for temporary burial following their executions on Tower Hill, including those
of Thomas More, Bishop John Fisher and Archbishop Laud.
In 1666 the Great Fire of London started in Pudding Lane, a few hundred yards from the
church. All Hallows survived through the efforts of Admiral Penn (William Penn's father) who,
along with his friend Samuel Pepys, watched London burn from the tower of the church.
William Penn, founder of Pennsylvania, was baptised in the church and educated in the old
John Quincy Adams, sixth president of the USA, was married in All Hallows in 1797 and
the Marriage Register entry is on display in the Undercroft Museum.
The church suffered extensive bomb damage during World War II and only the tower
and the walls remained. The church was rebuilt after the war and was rededicated in 1957. The
vicar at the time was the Rev'd "Tubby" Clayton, founder of the Toc H movement whose lamp
of maintenance still shines in the Lady Chapel.
12. Art installation Blood Swept Lands and Seas of Red at the Tower of London
It marks one hundred years since the first full day of Britain's involvement in
the First World War. Created by ceramic artist Paul Cummins, with setting by stage designer
Tom Piper, 888,246 ceramic poppies will progressively fill the Tower's famous moat over the
summer. Each poppy represents a British military fatality during the war.
The poppies will encircle the iconic landmark, creating not only a spectacular display visible
from all around the Tower but also a location for personal reflection. The scale of the
installation intends to reflect the magnitude of such an important centenary creating a powerful
On 17 July 2014, YS Crawford Butler, the longest serving of the Tower of London’s iconic
Yeoman Warders, planted the first of the poppies. The poppies will be installed by a team of
over 8,000 volunteers from across the UK and the last poppy will be planted on Armistice Day,
11 November 2014.
The ceramic poppies are available to buy for £25 each and the net proceeds, hoped to be in
excess of £15 million if all poppies are sold, will be shared equally amongst a group of carefully
selected Service charities including the Legion.
Throughout the installation period (5 August to 11 November) at twilight, the public will
be able to witness from Tower Hill terrace the names of 180 serving military killed during the
First World War being read out in a roll of honour. Members of the public can nominate a
name for the roll of honour using a weekly 'first come, first served' nomination system which
will allow those with the relevant information to put a name forward for the roll of honour to be
read the following week.
13. St Katherine Docks
The Docks are built on a site with over 1000 years of history. The roots of the buildings on today's site can be traced back to the 10th Century when King Edgar gave 13 acres of land to 13 Knights, with the right to use the land for trade. There is evidence of there having been a dock at St Katharine's since 1125 and throughout the ages it has housed a Hospital and Monastery.
The first use of the name St Katharine Docks has been traced back to Elizabethan times, when the area around the hospital was thriving with busy wharves. By the end of the 18th Century, St. Katharine's was a prosperous settlement with its own court, school and alms houses along with the hospital the area housed around 3000 people.
However, the Industrial Revolution came to London, and the River Thames became a super-highway for the rapidly growing city. London's existing docks could not handle the amount of trade and Parliament authorised the construction of new, purpose built docks.
When The St Katharine Docks Bill was passed in 1825, which allocated the staggering sum of £1,352,752 towards the creation of the docks, the area contained 1250 slum houses in colourfully named roads such as Dark Entry, Cat's Hole and Pillory Lane. Along with the church and St Katharine's Hospital, these were cleared to make way for the ambitious centre for London's industry and commerce. The Times reported enthusiastically about the dramatic improvements made to the area.
St Katharine Docks gained a reputation for handling valuable cargoes from Europe, the West Indies, Africa and the Far East such as sugar, rum, tea, spices, perfumes, ivory, shells, marble, indigo, wine and brandy and the docks thrived with bustle and commerce.
As late as the 1930s, St Katharine Docks enjoyed a roaring trade of these goods, and was described as a focal point for the World's greatest concentration of portable wealth.
Between the two world wars, the World's trade ships grew too large for St Katharine Docks and it was instead employed in war work. Although the site was a victim of The Blitz, some images of the 19th century buildings can still be seen today, as the modern office blocks such as International House and Commodity Quay, which house internationally renowned businesses, sympathetically mirror the architecture of the imposing warehouses that stood on the site before them.
Ivory House, built in 1852, still stands with its distinctive clock tower and today it houses luxury warehouse apartments, smart restaurants and shops.
14. Tower Bridge
Tower Bridge (built 1886–1894) is a combined bascule and suspension bridge in London which crosses the River Thames. It is close to the Tower of London, from which it takes its name, and has become an iconic symbol of London.
History London Bridge (not to be confused with Tower Bridge) was originally the only crossing for
the Thames. As London grew, so more bridges were added, although these were all built to the west of London Bridge, since the area east of London Bridge had become a busy port. In the 19th century, the East End of London became so densely populated that public need mounted for a new bridge to the east of London Bridge, as journeys for pedestrians and vehicles were being delayed by hours. Finally in 1876, the City of London Corporation, responsible for that part of the Thames, decided the problem could be delayed no longer.
• 1910 - the high-level walkways, which were designed so that the public could still cross the
bridge when it was raised, were closed down due to lack of use.
• 1952 - a London bus driven by Albert Gunton had to leap from one bascule to the other
when the bridge began to rise with the number 78 bus still on it.
• 1977 - Tower Bridge was painted red, white and blue to celebrate the Queen's Silver Jubilee.
(Before that, it was painted a chocolate brown colour).
• 1982 - Tower Bridge opened to the public for the first time since 1910, with a permanent
exhibition inside called The Tower Bridge Experience.
• Bridge lifts are available at no charge, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year to any vessel with a
mast or superstructure of 30ft (9m) or more wishing to enter or leave the Upper Pool of
London. They only need to book at least 24 hours in advance of a lift.
15. Butler's Wharf
Butler's Wharf was built between 1871-73 as a shipping wharf and warehouse
complex, accommodating goods unloaded from ships using the port of London. It contained
what was reputedly the largest tea warehouse in the world. During the 20th century,
Butler's Wharf and other warehouses in the area fell into disuse.
From 1975-78, the artists' space at 2B Butler's Wharf was a key venue for early UK
video art and performance art, used among others by Derek Jarman and the artists and
dancers of X6 Dance Collective who published a magazine called New Dance for a number
of years. Some of these people subsequently founded Chisenhale Studios and Chisenhale
Dance Space, including Philip Jeck.
In 1984, Butler's Wharf and the portion of Shad Thames running behind it featured
prominently in the Doctor Who serial Resurrection of the Daleks.
Since the 1980s, Butler's Wharf has been transformed from a derelict site into luxury
flats, with restaurants and shops on the ground floor. Terence Conran owns several of the
restaurants, which include Butler's Wharf Chop House, Le Pont de la Tour and Cantina del
Butler's Wharf is Grade II listed.
16. City Hall
City Hall is the headquarters of the Greater London Authority (GLA), which
comprises the Mayor of London and the London Assembly. It is located in Southwark, on
the south bank of the River Thames near Tower Bridge. It was designed by Norman Foster
and opened in July 2002, two years after the Greater London Authority was created.
City Hall was constructed at a cost of £43 million  on a site formerly occupied by
wharves serving the Pool of London. The building does not belong to the GLA but is leased
under a 25-year rent. Despite its name, City Hall is neither located in nor does it serve a
city), often adding to the confusion of Greater London with the City of London, whose
headquarters is in the Guildhall, north of the Thames.
A 500-metre (1,640 ft) helical walkway, reminiscent of that in New York's Solomon R.
Guggenheim Museum, ascends the full height of the building. At the top of the ten-story
building is an exhibition and meeting space called "London's Living Room", with an open
viewing deck which is occasionally open to the public. The walkway provides views of the
interior of the building, and is intended to symbolise transparency.
17. MORE LONDON ESTATE !
27/08/2014 09:59More London estate art
Page 1 of 2http://www.morelondon.com/estate/estate-art/
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More London combines award-winningcontemporary architecture with upliftingopen spaces - providing a safe,pedestrian friendly environment.Specially commissioned sculptures,strategically located in both prominentand unexpected locations around MoreLondon’s 13.5 acre riverside estate,enrich and enliven this unique setting.
Stephen Balkenhol’s poignant andpowerful ‘Couple’ is located aboveeye-line and prompts the viewer tolook up and see the individualsculptures of a man and a woman, setapart but so clearly a couple. Thesculptor works almost exclusively inwood, working with speed andretaining the chisel marks. Once thecarving was completed, he paintedeach figure with a simple andeconomic range of colours to highlightfacial features and clothing. The malesculpture is dressed in a white shirtand black trousers, reflecting theclothing so many office workers wear,and is placed on its own tall plinth,while the female figure is a shortdistance away on the same eye level,
Fiona Banner’s glistening black andbold ‘Full Stop’ sculptures arepositioned around the spacious publicplaza on the More London riverfrontwith Tower Bridge as a contrastingbackdrop. Each sculpture invitesclose inspection and the five separateFull Stops have become a major drawto visitors with their particularly tactilesurfaces. Each form is an accurate3D, vastly enlarged version of a fullstop from a variety of commonly usedtypefaces, which lend their namesand titles for each sculpture –‘Slipstream’, ‘Optical’, ‘Courier’,‘Klang’ and ‘Nuptail’ - all cast inbronze and coated in shiny blackpaint, the same appropriately as thatof London Taxis, giving a highly
David Batchelor’s vibrant‘Evergreen’ ensures light and colour,even on the darkest winter day, sitedwithin a cluster of real trees, it shinesout like a playful beacon invitingvisitors into discover and explore theMore London Estate. As theneighbouring trees change throughoutthe seasons, losing and re-growingfoliage, ‘Evergreen’ remains apermanently illuminated, neverchanging its dynamic spring greencolour at the top of its highly polishedstainless steel trunk, thatcomplements the surrounding glassand steel architecture of the MoreLondon buildings.
18. Hay's Wharf
Hay's Galleria is named after its original owner, the merchant Alexander Hay, who
acquired the property - then a brewhouse - in 1651. In around 1840 John Humphrey Jnr
acquired a lease on the property. He asked William Cubitt (who was father-in-law to two
of Humphrey's sons) to convert it into a 'wharf', in fact an enclosed dock, in 1856 and it was
renamed Hay's Wharf.
During the nineteenth century, the wharf was one of the chief delivery points for ships
bringing tea to the Pool of London. At its height, 80% of the dry produce imported to
London passed through the wharf, and on this account the Wharf was nicknamed 'the
Larder of London'. The Wharf was largely rebuilt following the Great Fire of Southwark in
June 1861 and then continued in use for nearly a century until it was badly bombed in
September 1940 during the Second World War. The progressive adoption of
containerisation during the 1960s led to the shipping industry moving to deep water ports
further down the Thames and the subsequent closure of Hay's Wharf in 1970.
Redevelopment - Hay's Galleria
In the 1980s, with the increasing urban regeneration of the Thames Corridor and
nearby London Docklands, the majority of the area was acquired by the St Martin's
Property Corporation, the real estate arm of the State of Kuwait. The easterly end of the
site was developed as London Bridge City of which Hay's Galleria' forms part.
19. THE NAVIGATORS
Time & tides ebb & flow past its dock at HAYS GALLERIA, a reconstructed
Thameside wharf once Known as the “Larder of London”
I built the NAVIGATORS way back in the Yuppy Daze of 1986. I was commissioned by
LONDON BRIDGE CITY ,& I invented the beast in collaboration with the Galleria
architect, BOB CLEMENTS, who designed the pool to reflect the Victorian buildings &
their Thames-side location.
The NAVIGATORS was inspired by the historic wharf, stories of maritime