1st Australian Counter Terrorism .1st Australian Counter Terrorism Conference 30 November to 2 December,

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  • The Proceedings of the

    1st Australian Counter Terrorism

    Conference

    30 November to 2 December, 2010

    The Duxton Hotel, Perth, Western Australia

  • Proceedings of the

    1st Australian Counter Terrorism Conference

    Published By

    secau Security Research Centre

    School of Computer and Security Science

    Edith Cowan University

    Perth, Western Australia

    Edited By

    Dr Anne Aly

    secau Security Research Centre

    School of Computer and Security Science

    Edith Cowan University

    Perth, Western Australia

    a.aly@ecu.edu.au

    Copyright 2010, All Rights Reserved

    ISBN 978-0-7298-0684-8

    CRICOS Institution Provider Code 00279B

    mailto:a.aly@ecu.edu.au

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  • Table of Contents

    The Internet as Ideological Battleground 1

    Anne Aly

    Hearts and Minds, Psuedo Gangs and Counter Insurgency: Based Upon

    Experiences from Previous Campaigns in Kenya (1952-60), Malaya (1948-60)

    & Rhodesia (1964-1979) 7

    Bill Bailey

    The Malarkey of Money Transfers: Overlooking E-Bay whilst the

    Hawaladars are Hunted 15

    David M. Cook and Timothy Smith

    The Piracy and Terrorism Nexus: Real or Imagined? 24

    Karine Hamilton

    Review: Disillusionment with Radical Social Groups 31

    Kira J. Harris

    Moral Disengagement: Exploring Support Mechanisms for Violent

    Extremism Among Young Egyptian Males 40

    Dr Paul S Lieber, Dr Yael Efreom-Lieber and Dr (LTC) Christopher Rate

    The Emergent Challenges for Policing Terrorism: Lessons from Mumbai 45

    Simon ORourke

    Make A Bomb In Your Mums Kitchen: Cyber Recruiting and Socialisation

    of White Moors and Home Grown Jihadists 54

    Robyn Torok

    Countering Home-Grown Terrorists in Australia: An Overview of Legislation,

    Policy and Actors Since 2001 62

    Michael G Crowley

  • Proceedings of the 1st Australian Counter Terrorism Conference

    Conference Foreword

    Welcome to the 1st Australian Counterterrorism Conference proceedings. This is the inaugural

    conference to be held as part of the secau Congress. The conference brings together academics and

    practitioners in a forum to discuss emerging trends in terrorism and counterterrorism and, more

    broadly, their implications for human security.

    The range of papers presented in these proceedings attests to the diversity of the field of

    counterterrorism studies. Since the devastating terrorist attacks on the Twin Towers in New York in

    2001, terrorism and counterterrorism studies have attracted much attention. There has been a

    staggering 400 percent increase in publications on terrorism and related fields since 2001. Yet, the

    field is still developing as an area of academic interest and will no doubt continue to develop as the

    international community faces new threats and novel challenges to peace and stability.

    As a relatively new field of study, counterterrorism draws from the disciplines of psychology,

    political science, international relations, defence studies, media studies and security. These

    proceedings include papers that cover such diverse areas of interest as piracy and terrorism, terrorist

    recruitment, group psychology, policing, terrorism laws, terrorist operations and the use of new

    technologies.

    All submitted papers were subject to a double blind peer review process. Of the 11 papers submitted

    9 were accepted for final presentation and subsequent publication. This year the best paper award is

    sponsored by the Western Australian Police. The award will be presented on the night of the

    Congress dinner.

    I take this opportunity to thank the contributors to these proceedings who have devoted their time

    and professionalism. I would also like to thank the conference committee and the paper reviewers for

    their efforts in ensuring that the proceedings are of a high standard.

    I trust that you will enjoy reading the papers in these proceedings and that they will inspire your

    thoughts about terrorism, its challenges and indeed, its resolutions.

    Dr Anne Aly

    Conference Chair

    Conference Organising Committee

    Conference Chair: Dr Anne Aly

    Congress Chair: Professor Craig Valli

    Executive Chair: Professor Murray Lampard

    Track Chair: Dr Andrew Woodward

    Track Chair: Dr Trish Williams

    Track Chair Dr Dave Brooks

    Track Chair: Dr Christopher Bolan

    Committee Member: David Cook

    Committee Member: Peter Hannay

    Committee Member: Patryk Szewczyk

    Committee Member: Ken Fowle

    Congress Organiser: Lisa McCormack

  • Proceedings of the 1st Australian Counter Terrorism Conference

    1 | P a g e

    The Internet as Ideological Battleground

    Anne Aly

    secau Security Research Centre

    School of Computer and Security Science

    Edith Cowan Univesity

    Perth, Western Australia

    a .aly@ecu.edu.au

    Recent global events that have brought to light the use of new technologies by terrorist groups have focused attention

    on the role of the internet in the radicalisation of vulnerable individuals and groups towards a violent extremism. In

    2007, the case of Abdul Basheer, a law graduate in Singapore arrested for attempting to join the Taliban in

    Afghanistan drew attention to the use of the Internet as a source of inspiration and information for would be

    terrorists. More recently Sydney man Belal Khazaal became the first person to be convicted on the charge of making

    a document connected with assisting in a terrorist act after using material already available on the internet to develop

    his own publication "The Rules of Jihad - Short Judicial Rulings and Organisational Instructions For Fighters And

    Mujahideen Against Infidels". Both cases point to the developing role of the Internet in the process of radicalisation

    and suggest that the Internet has become an important tactical tool in the terrorists repertoire. The role of the Internet

    in radicalisation and the extent to which it contributes to the process through which latent beliefs translate into

    violent actions is not fully understood. However, with the developing strand of terrorism studies that deals with the

    diffusion of intent as an integral component of counter terrorism efforts has come an understanding of terrorism as a

    battle of words and ideas. Nowhere is this more evident than on the internet.

    RADICALISATION

    Radicalisation may be described as a process by which individuals progress from a passive or inactive belief in a

    particular political, social or ideological dogma to extreme or violent action. Several theories have been put forward

    to describe this progression, particularly in the context of radical or extreme Islamism. Many draw on the

    behavioural sciences for theoretical models of how terrorist groups indoctrinate and influence members. The

    combined works of Kuran (1998), Sustein (2002) and Koker and Yordan (2006), for example, place group pressure

    as fundamentally sustaining the dynamics of terrorist groups. According to Koker and Yordan (2006)

    Terrorist organisations are pressure groups with an inner hard core of activists and an outer ring of non-

    activists. By definition, hardcore activists seek recruits by propagating their views in order to win more

    support for their particular cause. Recruits, who tend to be non-activists at the time of recruitment, increase

    the organisations power base. The resulting collectivity professes support for a specific cause, forming a

    pressure group.

    Despite an increased awareness and understanding of radicalisation, the reasons why some individuals become

    radicalised to violence remain ambiguous. Experts on terrorism are still at odds with regards to any kind of

    psychological predilection for terrorism and have concluded that it is difficult, if not impossible to, profile terrorists.

    The absence of any viable psychological profile of terrorists, suggests Payne (2009, p.116), is indicative of the

    limited success of al Qaeda propaganda which he contends has failed to mobilize the masses, or to control any

    significant territory. Yet, most scholars are in agreement that terrorism relies on the circulation and proliferation of

    key messages that construct the world in terms of a battle between good and evil: where Islam is under threat of annihilation at the hands of Western forces and where They [the West] are aiming to destroy us [Islam] ... we are

    under attack, we are being destroyed (Aly 2007, p.36).

    The counter terrorism responses of Western nations reflect a concern with the ideological battleground and

    recognition of the need to incorporate measures that address four dimensions of security: