# 1.Positions - Poziţiile

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Positions=Poziiile

Longitudine i latitudine

The earth can be regarded as a spherical object, and since we're dealing with a 3-dimensional shape we need coordinates of a different form than the usual x- and y-axes. Though adding an extra z-axes would make sense for submarines, we willmost likely be found on the surface of this sphere while using another system ofcoordinates, that covers our planet with imaginary lines called meridians andparallels, see figure 1. All these lines together provide the grid which enables us todescribe any position in longitudes and latitudes. = Pmntul poate fi consideratca un obiect sferic, i pentru c suntem a face cu un 3-dimensionale forma avemnevoie de coordonatele o form diferit dect de obicei i x-y-axe. Dei adugarea

unei suplimentare z-axe ar avea sens pentru submarine, celmai probabil, vom fi gsit pe suprafaa acestei sfere n timpce folosii un alt sistem de coordonate, care acoper planetanoastr cu linii imaginare numit meridiane i parallels, Ase vedea figura 1. Toate aceste linii ofer mpreun grila,care ne permite s descrie orice poziie n longitudinile ilatitudinile.

The obvious place to divide the Northern and SouthernHemispheres was the equator. But the division of theEastern and Western hemispheres was the source of much

political turmoil. Greenwich (Great Britain) won, placing forexample The Netherlands in the Eastern and Ireland in theWestern Hemisphere. = Locul evident s-i mpart de Nordi de Sud emisfere a fost de ecuator. Dar, divizia de

emisfere de Est i de Vest a fost sursa de turbulenele de mult politice. Greenwich(Marea Britanie) a ctigat, introducerea, de exemplu, rile de Jos, n Est i nIrlanda n emisfera vestic.

It takes the earth 24 hours for a full rotation of 360. Thus, every hour we rotate15 longitude, see figure 2. =Este nevoie de pmnt 24 de ore pentru o rotaiecomplet de 360 . Astfel, n fiecare or putem roti 15 longitudine, a se vedea

figura 2.When it is 12:00 UTC (international standard time) - anywhere in the world - it is12:00 Local Time in Greenwich and 24:00 Local Time at the other side of theplanet: 180 E or 180 W: the date line. Crossing this special meridian changesnot only the hour but also the date. =Cnd este 12:00 UTC (ora InternationalStandard) - oriunde n lume - este 12:00 Ora local n Greenwich i 24:00 oralocal de la cealalt parte a planetei: 180 E sau 180 W: linie de data.

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Traversarea acestei modificri speciale de meridianul nu numai or, dar, deasemenea, data.

The North Pole has a latitude of 90 N and the South Pole 90 S. The meridianscover twice this angle up to 180 W or E.Meridians converge at the poles, whereas parallels run parallel to each other andnever meet. All meridians and the equator - the biggest parallel - form greatcircles, and the remaining parallels form so-called small circles. A great circledivides the earth in two exact halves. = Polul Nordare o latitudine de 90 N i la Polul Sud la 90 S.meridianele acoperire de dou ori pe acest unghi depn la 180 W sau E.Meridianele converg la poli, n timp ce paraleleledesfoar n paralel cu unele de altele i niciodatnu se intalnesc. Toate meridianele i Ecuator - celmai mare paralel - formular cercurile de mare,Precum i paralelele rmase formularul de aa-

numitul cercuri mici. Un cerc mare mparte pmntn dou jumti exact.

In figure 3 the position of Boston in the UnitedStates is shown using latitude and longitude indegrees, minutes and seconds:42 21' 30" N , 71 03' 37" W =n figura 3 poziiaBoston n Statele Unite este afiat folosind latitudinei longitudine n grade, minute i secunde:42 21 '30 "N, 71 03' 37" W

Most sailors will actually notate seconds in metric fractions of minutes:42 21,5' N , 71 03,6' W or42 21.5' N , 71 03.6' W , see the notation style guide .=Cele mai multe marinariva notate efectiv de secunde n fraciuni metrice de minute:42 21,5 'N, W 71 03,6' sauN 42 21.5 ', 71 03.6' W , A se vedea notaie Ghid de stil .

On small scaled charts we want to be accurate within one minute or one nauticalmile. On larger scaled charts the accuracy is more likely to be within a tenth of amile (a cable). = Asupra ntreprinderilor mici diagrame scalate vrem s fie corecte

n termen de un minut sau o mile nautice. La mai mare scalate topurile acurateeaeste mai probabil s se afle la o zecime de mile (un cablu).

If the earth were a perfect sphere with acircumference of roughly 40000 kilometres all greatcircles - meridians plus the equator - would have thesame length and could be used as a distance unitwhen divided into 360 degrees, or 360 x 60' =21600' minutes. In 1929, the international communityagreed on the definition of 1 international nautical mile

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as 1852 metres, which is roughly the average length of one minute of latitude i.e.one minute of arc along a line of longitude (a meridian).Or to put it shortly: 1 nm = 1' = Dac pmntul a fost o sfer perfect, cu ocircumferinta de aproximativ 40,000 de kilometri toate cercurile mare -meridianele, plus ecuator - ar avea aceeai lungime i ar putea fi folosit ca o unitatede distan atunci cnd mprit n 360 de grade, sau 360 x 60 'minute = 21600 ".n 1929, comunitatea internaional a fost de acord cu privire la definirea 1 milemarine internaionale, astfel cum a 1852 de metri, care este aproximativ mediudurata de un minut de latitudine i anume un minut de arc de-a lungul unei linii delongitudine (a meridianul).Sau, pentru a pus-o la scurt timp: 1 nm = 1 '

We are now able to describe any position in latitudes and longitudes. Moreover, wecan state the distance between two of those positions using nautical miles orminutes. All we need now is a proper way to define speed. For that, sailors useknots, the number of nautical miles an hour. = Suntem acum posibilitatea de adescrie orice poziie n latitudini si longitudini. Mai mult dect att, putem afirma

distana dintre dou dintre aceste poziii folosind mile marine sau de minute. Toiavem nevoie acum este o modalitate buna de a defini viteza. Pentru c, marinariutilizare legaturi, Numrul de mile marine de o or.

RYA &ASA sailing schools= RYA Si coli Sailing ASA

To put this navigation course into practice a Royal Yachting Association orAmerican Sailing Association approved sailing course is recommended.

Sailing schools in Greece and Turkey for:RYA competent crewRYA day skipper (non-tidal)

RYA coastal skipper (non-tidal)

ASA basic coastal cruising (103)

ASA bareboat chartering (104)

coli Sailing n Grecia i Turcia pentru:RYA echipaj competent

RYA comandantul zi (non-a mareelor)

RYA comandantul de coast (non-a mareelor)

AAS de coast de baz de croazier (103)

ASA navlosire navei nude (104)

ASA de navigare de coast (105)

And the most enjoyable way to learn how to sail is by combining such courses witha yachting vacation in Greece or Turkey. Ideal areas for sailing courses are theSaronic Gulf near Athens and the Ionian Islands to the west of Greece, which

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provide reliable and gentle winds, dolphins and ancient Greek monuments andtemples. =Pentru a pune acest curs de navigare n practic o Royal YachtingAssociation sau American Sailing de asociere a aprobat curs Sailing esterecomandat. =Iar modul cel mai plcut pentru a nva cum s navigheze esteprin combinarea astfel de cursuri, cu o vacan de yachting n Grecia sau Turcia.

Ideal pentru zonele de cursuri de navigaie se Saronic Gulf lng Atena siInsulele Ionice la vest de Grecia, care ofer South fiabile i blnd, delfini imonumente antice greceti i temple.

A little History=Un pic de istorie

Sailingissues.com

Mariners during the 15th century relied on charts called "portolans" to assist them

on their voyages. Portolan comes from the Italian word portolani , which weremedieval pilot books. =Marinari in secolul al 15-bazat pe topurile numit "portolans"pentru a le acorda asisten n curse lor. Portolan vine de la cuvntul italianportolani , Care au fost medievale cri-pilot.

The portolans contained maps of coastlines, locations of harbours, rivermouths, and man-made features visible from the sea. They were acompilation of centuries of seafarer observations. As sailors' skillsimproved and the use of the compass was more widespread, portolansimproved in accuracy. =Portolans coninea harti ale liniilor de coast,locatii de porturi, gurilor de ru, i de om caracteristici vizibile de la

mare. Ei au fost o compilaie de secole de observaii marinarului. nceea ce competenelor marinari "mbuntit i utilizarea busola a fostmult mai rspndit, portolans mbuntit n precizie.

Also Columbus used these portolans on his journeys. Portuguese chart makersadded the meridian line, a point useful for latitude sailing as well as for navigatingsolely by compass. A geographic feature could now be located through the use ofits distance in degrees of latitude from a ship's point of departure. Note that theuse of latitude and longitude was understood since the time of Ptolemy , thesecond century CE.=De asemenea, Columbus a folosit aceste portolans privindcltoriile sale. Factorii de decizie hart portughez adaug linia de meridianul, unpunct de util pentru navigatie latitudine, precum i pentru navigarea numai debusola. O caracteristic geografic a putut fi localizat acum prin utilizarea dedistana n grade de latitudine din punctul unei nave de plecare. Reinei cutilizarea de latitudine i longitudine a fost neles de la momentul de Ptolemeu ,CE doilea secol.

During the fifteenth century Portugal led the European world in sea exploration. Thegolden age of discovery for Portugal lasted almost a century until the Dutcheventually seized their trade routes from them. =n secolul al cincisprezecelea

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Portugalia a condus lumea european n explorare mare. Epoca de aur adescoperire pentru Portugalia a durat aproape un secol, pn cnd n cele din urmolandez puse sub sechestru rutele lor comerciale de la ei.As we move to the next chapter of this course we enter the sixteenth century whenthe Mercator chart was invented. =Pe masura ce trecem la capitolul urmtor alacestui curs vom intra n secolul XVI cnd graficul Mercator a fost inventat.

Glossary

Parallels: Circles parallel to the equator, ranging from 0 to 90 N or S.Only the equator is a great circle. =Paralele: Cercuri paralel cu ecuatorul, variindde la 0 la 90 N sau S. Numai ecuator este un cerc mare.

Meridians: half-circles converging at the poles, ranging from 0 to 180 E orW. Each pair of opposing meridians forms a great circle.=Meridiane: O jumtatede cercuri convergente la poli, variind de la 0 la 180 E sau V. Fiecare pereche dea se opune meridiane formeaz un cerc mare.

Prime meridian: 0 or the Greenwich meridian which - together with thedate line meridian - divides the Western and Eastern hemispheres.=MeridianPrime: 0 sau de meridianul Greenwich, care - mpreun cu meridianul data delinie - mparte emisfera de Vest i de Est.

Great circle: The intersection of a sphere and a plane that passes throughthe sphere's centre. =Cercul Marii: Intersecia dintre o sfer i un plan care treceprin centrul sferei lui.

Small circle: The intersection of a sphere and a plane that doesn't passthough the sphere's centre. =Cercul mici: Intersecia dintre o sfer i un plan carenu trece dei sfera de centru.

Time zones: By convention 24 zones, each 15 longitude wide. Hence, noonat Greenwich gives midnight at 180 E. =Fusul orar: Prin convenie 24 de zone,fiecare longitudine 15 larg. Prin urmare, la prnz la Greenwich d miezul nopii,la 180 E.

GMT, UTC, Zulu: The outdated accronym GMT (Greenwich Mean Time) isroughly the same as UTC or Zulu, and is also the local time at Greenwich whendaylight saving isn't used. Note that UTC is an atomic time scale which onlyapproximates GMT, so best to use the modern term UTC. Antonym: Local timeelsewhere. For example, local time in Athens = UTC + 2.=GMT, UTC, Zulu:Depite accronym GMT (Greenwich Mean Time) este aproximativ aceeai ca UTCsau zulu, i este, de asemenea, ora local de la Greenwich atunci cnd ora de varnu este folosit. Reinei c UTC este o scar atomic de timp pe care doar seaproximeaz GMT, astfel nct cele mai bune de a utiliza termenul modern "UTC".Antonimul: Timpul local n alt parte. De exemplu, ora local de la Atena = UTC +2.

Date line: The 180 meridian which extends from or is opposite to the primemeridian. Here, not only the hour changes when crossing the meridian, but also the

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date.=Linie de Date: Meridianul 180 care se ntinde de la sau este opus lameridianul de prim. Aici, nu numai or modificri la trecerea meridianului, dar, deasemenea, data.

Latitude: Position property defined by the number of degrees north or southof the equator, varies from 0 to 90. =Latitudine: Proprietate de poziie definit

de numrul de grade nord sau sud de Ecuator, variaz de la 0 la 90 .

Longitude: Position property defined by the number of degrees east or westof the prime meridian, varies from 0 to 180. =Longitudinea: Proprietate depoziie definit de numrul de grade est sau la vest de meridianul prim, variaz dela 0 la 180 .

Position: Latitude first and longitude second. For example: Athens in Greece37 58' N , 23 43' E.=Position: Latitude prima i longitudine al doilea. Deexemplu: Atena, n Grecia 37 58 'N, E. 23 43'

Nautical mile: One nm is one minute (') on the vertical scale on the chart.

1' equals 1852 metres. Nautical miles are divided into 10 cables. =Mil marin:Unul nm este de un minut ( ") pe scara vertical pe hart. 1 'este egal cu 1852 demetri. De mile marine sunt mprite n 10 de cabluri.

Knots: Nautical miles per hour. =Noduri: De mile marine pe or.