(1831) The Naval Gallery of Greenwich

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1831 - Edward Hawke Locker, 1777-1849


<p>UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH</p> <p>Uarlington Alemorial Library</p> <p>2^</p> <p>THE</p> <p>NAVAL GALLERYOF</p> <p>GREENWICH HOSPITAL;COMPRISING A SERIES OF</p> <p>PORTRAITS AND MEMOIRSOF CELEBRATED</p> <p>NAVAL COMMANDERS.BY</p> <p>EDWARD HAWKE LOCKER,</p> <p>Esq. F.R.S. F.S.A.</p> <p>ONE OF THE COMMISSIONERS OF THE INSTITUTION.</p> <p>HARDING AND LEPARD,MDCCCXXXI.</p> <p>LONDON: PRINTEP UY WILLIAM NICOL, AT THE</p> <p>TO THE</p> <p>KING'S</p> <p>MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY.</p> <p>SIRE,</p> <p>The</p> <p>accession of</p> <p>Your Majesty</p> <p>to the</p> <p>Throne</p> <p>of your Fathers, has opened the most cheering prospect to</p> <p>your subjects, and especially to those of the HonourableProfession in which during a course of active service in</p> <p>every successive rank,</p> <p>Your Majesty</p> <p>acquired that</p> <p>inti-</p> <p>mate knowledge ofso</p> <p>its</p> <p>true interests, which was applied with</p> <p>much</p> <p>zeal</p> <p>and</p> <p>solicitude in the important station of</p> <p>Lord High Admiral.In an undertaking designed to do honour to the Royal</p> <p>Navy</p> <p>in</p> <p>which</p> <p>I</p> <p>have passed through a long and arduoushave hesitated to submitit</p> <p>service, I should</p> <p>to a</p> <p>judgementwere I</p> <p>so well skilled as</p> <p>Your Majesty's</p> <p>in</p> <p>Naval</p> <p>affairs,</p> <p>not encouraged by the gracious readiness with which your</p> <p>Royal Patronage was conferred onlayingit</p> <p>this</p> <p>Work, and</p> <p>in</p> <p>now</p> <p>at</p> <p>Your Majesty's</p> <p>feet, I</p> <p>may</p> <p>be permitted thus</p> <p>publicly to express the profound gratitude for this distin-</p> <p>guished favour, which bindsto</p> <p>me</p> <p>with increased attachment</p> <p>Your Majesty's</p> <p>service, as a loyal subject</p> <p>and</p> <p>faithful</p> <p>servant.</p> <p>EDWARD HAWKE LOCKER.Royal Hospital, Greenwich, January 1, 1831.</p> <p>Digitized by tine Internet Arciiivein</p> <p>2010</p> <p>witii</p> <p>funding from</p> <p>University of Pittsburgii Library</p> <p>System</p> <p>littp://www.arcliive.org/details/navalgalleryofgrOOIock</p> <p>MEMOIRSOF</p> <p>CELEBRATED NAVAL COMMANDERS,ILLUSTRATED BV</p> <p>ENGRAVINGS FROM ORIGINAL PICTURESIN</p> <p>THE NAVAL GALLERYOF</p> <p>GREENWICH HOSPITAL,BY</p> <p>EDWARD HAWKE LOCKER,</p> <p>Esq. F.R.S. F.S.A.</p> <p>ONE OF THE COMMISSIONERS OF THE INSTITUTION.</p> <p>HARDING AND LEPARD.MDCCCXXXII.</p> <p>LONDON</p> <p>:</p> <p>PRINTED BY WILLIAM NICOL, AT THE</p> <p>ADVERTISEMENT.</p> <p>The Workfair</p> <p>here offered to the Pubhc has been curtailed of</p> <p>its</p> <p>proportion owing to the declining health of the Author, and</p> <p>other circumstances which have obliged</p> <p>him</p> <p>to hmit his labours toit</p> <p>a single volume.least four</p> <p>The;</p> <p>original plan</p> <p>would have extended</p> <p>to atar-</p> <p>volumes</p> <p>and these Memoirs when chronologically</p> <p>ranged, and illustrated by the whole series of Pictures in the Galleryof Greenwich Hospital, would have presented a connected historyof the Royal</p> <p>Navy</p> <p>of England, in a biographical form.</p> <p>He muchnow bewill</p> <p>regrets that a design</p> <p>which promised sospirit</p> <p>well,</p> <p>and which was prose-</p> <p>cuted with so hberal a</p> <p>by</p> <p>his Pubhshers, should</p> <p>reduced to a selection of detached Memoirs, which perhapsread with interest only by those</p> <p>be</p> <p>who</p> <p>are</p> <p>more or</p> <p>less</p> <p>connected</p> <p>with the persons and the transactions here recorded.</p> <p>But although the Author has been thus disappointedto complete the whole undertaking,tion of having succeeded</p> <p>in his wishsatisfac-</p> <p>he enjoys the higher</p> <p>beyond</p> <p>his</p> <p>hopes in the formation of a</p> <p>Naval Gallery. His ancestors for some generations having servedwith honour in the Naval Profession, and being himself associated</p> <p>with</p> <p>it</p> <p>during the greater part of his</p> <p>life,</p> <p>he no sooner became</p> <p>officially</p> <p>connected with Greenwich Hospital, than he formed the</p> <p>design of founding there a Gallery of Paintings illustrative of the</p> <p>eminent services of the Royal Navy.ingly proposed the</p> <p>In the year 1823, he accord-</p> <p>scheme to the</p> <p>late Directors of the Institution,</p> <p>suggesting that the " Painted Hall," (originally erected as the Refectory of the Pensioners, but which had then remained unoccupied</p> <p>ADVERTISEMENT.nearly a century,) oiFered the most appropriate receptacle for aCollection of Paintings and Sculpture;</p> <p>and</p> <p>after obtaining the con-</p> <p>current opinion of Sir</p> <p>Thomas Lawrence, Mr. Chantrey, and Mr.it</p> <p>Smirke, as to the fitness of the building for this object,adopted.tures,</p> <p>was</p> <p>finally</p> <p>As theits</p> <p>Institution at that time possessed only a few pic-</p> <p>and</p> <p>funds could not be employed in the pm-chase of</p> <p>Works</p> <p>of Art, he</p> <p>made</p> <p>great personal exertions to secure the success of</p> <p>the Gallery, by obtaining donations to the Collection, and so wellsucceeded, that within three years he had the gratification of seeingthe walls covered with portraits of most of the distinguished Naval</p> <p>Commanders, and representations of their</p> <p>actions.</p> <p>Through the medium ofborough, he hadin</p> <p>his</p> <p>much-valued friend Lord Fam-</p> <p>the</p> <p>first</p> <p>instance submitted the plan of the</p> <p>Naval Gallery to</p> <p>his late</p> <p>Majesty King George the Fourth, who</p> <p>was pleasedmediately</p> <p>to</p> <p>entertain the proposition</p> <p>most graciously, and im-</p> <p>commanded</p> <p>that the whole of the Naval Portraits in the</p> <p>Royal Palaces of Windsor and Hampton Court should be removed to</p> <p>Greenwich</p> <p>;</p> <p>and</p> <p>in</p> <p>succeeding years, the King further contributed</p> <p>several valuable pictures from his private collection.</p> <p>To the</p> <p>effectual</p> <p>influence of</p> <p>Lord Farnborough, the Gallery was</p> <p>also indebted for</p> <p>four large historical paintings, recording the principal victories of thelast</p> <p>war, which</p> <p>the Directors of the British Institution for theArts, ordered to be painted</p> <p>Encouragement of the Finesented to theliberal donors,</p> <p>and preotherlate</p> <p>Naval Gallery.following</p> <p>His Lordship, withmunificent</p> <p>many</p> <p>theall</p> <p>example of their</p> <p>Sovereign, have presented</p> <p>the pictures which have been since</p> <p>added</p> <p>to the Collection.spirit</p> <p>The same</p> <p>which prompted these donations</p> <p>will doubtless</p> <p>extend to others, and gradually enrich the Gallery with worksstill</p> <p>wanting to render</p> <p>it</p> <p>complete, especially historical subjects in</p> <p>ADVERTISEMENT.whichliarit</p> <p>is</p> <p>chiefly defective.</p> <p>Many</p> <p>of our readers</p> <p>who</p> <p>are fami-</p> <p>with the annals of the British Navy, will have seen, in some of</p> <p>the private Collections of this country, works of great merit peculiarly</p> <p>appropriate to Greenwich Hospital, and though the proprietors</p> <p>of such pictures have not been persuaded to present</p> <p>them</p> <p>to this</p> <p>National Depository,able artists</p> <p>we cannot doubt</p> <p>that Hberal patrons as well as</p> <p>will hereafter</p> <p>be found to contribute other pictures,</p> <p>representing the most brilliant exploits of our seamen which have</p> <p>not hitherto been so commemorated, and that the Naval Gallerythus become a splendid memorial of their services.</p> <p>will</p> <p>Such a Collection cannot</p> <p>fail</p> <p>of attracting pubhc interest, andfifty</p> <p>it</p> <p>deserves mention that not less thanvisit</p> <p>thousand persons annually</p> <p>the Painted Hall, where the small fee required for admission</p> <p>now produces an amount which forms an importantRevenues of this NobleInstitution.</p> <p>item in the</p> <p>E. H. L.</p> <p>Oreenwick Hospital,1st</p> <p>August, 1832.</p> <p>CONTENTS.1.</p> <p>Charles Howard, Earl of Nottingham, K. G. Lord</p> <p>High Admiral.</p> <p>2. 3.</p> <p>Robert Blake, Admiral and General of the Parliament Forces.</p> <p>George Monk, Duke of Albemarle, K. G. Lord General of the Forcesby Land and Sea.</p> <p>4.</p> <p>Edward Montague,of England.</p> <p>First Earl of Sandwich,</p> <p>K. G. Lieutenant Admiral</p> <p>5. Sir 6.7.</p> <p>George Rooke, Knt. Lieutenant Admiral of England.</p> <p>Vice Admiral John Benbow.</p> <p>Edward</p> <p>Russell, Earl of Orford, Admiral, First Commissioner of the</p> <p>Admiralty.8.</p> <p>George Byng, Viscount Torrington, K. B. Admiral,of the Admiralty.</p> <p>First</p> <p>Commissioner</p> <p>9.</p> <p>Edward, Lord Hawke, K. B. Admiral,Admiralty.</p> <p>First Commissioner of the</p> <p>10. Sir</p> <p>Charles Saunders, K. B.</p> <p>Admiral,</p> <p>First Commissioner of the</p> <p>Admiralty.11.</p> <p>Rear Admiral John Kempenfelt.Alexander, Viscount Bridport, K. B. Admiral.</p> <p>12. 13. 14.</p> <p>Captain James Cook.</p> <p>Hon. Samuel Barrington, Admiral.</p> <p>15. Cuthbert,16. 17.</p> <p>Lord CoUingwood, Vice Admiral.</p> <p>Lieutenant Governor William Locker.</p> <p>The Harry Grace</p> <p>a Dieu, a</p> <p>first rate</p> <p>Ship, bearing</p> <p>King Henry VIIL</p> <p>to Calais, 1520.18.19.</p> <p>The Defeat</p> <p>of the Spanish Armada, 1588.</p> <p>TheThe</p> <p>Victory off Ushant by Earl Howe, 1794. Victory off the Nile by Sir Horatio Nelson, 1798.</p> <p>20.</p> <p>CII.MM.l'.S</p> <p>IIOWAIv'l),</p> <p>I'.AIvM. Ol''</p> <p>\()'ril.\(,ll.\M,</p> <p>1\</p> <p>(V</p> <p>|-\IN'CI'.l)</p> <p>i:V</p> <p>ZIII'IIKI;,</p> <p>I'KKSK.N'i'i'.ii Til</p> <p>i;i;i,i;\\\</p> <p>nil</p> <p>iii</p> <p>isrri_\i.</p> <p>in</p> <p>iiis</p> <p>m\ii;siv kint,</p> <p>(ii-.dki^-.</p> <p>tiik fiu'ktii.</p> <p>IJHJ..11 J'ttl'Ux/iA/ iltif</p> <p>tja.K</p> <p>iff</p> <p>//an/dfty .t</p> <p>UfhirJ f\JI Mu/I</p> <p>t:u^t.</p> <p>CHARLES HOWARD,EARL OF NOTTINGHAM,K. G.</p> <p>LORD HIGH ADMIRAL</p> <p>OF ENGLAND.</p> <p>AT</p> <p>the period</p> <p>when</p> <p>this distinguished</p> <p>nobleman was raised</p> <p>to the</p> <p>supreme command of the Royal Navy of England, that Navy hadas yet few of the characteristics of a regular service of arms.</p> <p>So</p> <p>often as the nation</p> <p>was threatened by foreign invasion, or was</p> <p>engaged</p> <p>in hostile expeditions against other states, the sovereigns</p> <p>who preceded Ehzabeth ontions of ships</p> <p>the throne of England, levied contributheir subjects.</p> <p>and seamen from</p> <p>At</p> <p>that time the</p> <p>Cinque Ports of Hythe, Sandwich, Queenborough, Rye and Dover,facing the coast of France, possessed the</p> <p>most immediate commerce</p> <p>with foreign nations.in this traffic,</p> <p>London,</p> <p>Bristol,</p> <p>and Harwich indeed sharedlittle</p> <p>but Portsmouth and Plymouth were as yet;</p> <p>more</p> <p>than fishing towns</p> <p>and Liverpool, which now almost equals the was notcalled into existence</p> <p>Metropohs</p> <p>in the extent of its trade,</p> <p>for a century afterwards.cipal maritime</p> <p>On</p> <p>occasions of naval warfare, the prinfiirnish</p> <p>towns were required to</p> <p>an established quota</p> <p>of vessels of suitable burthen, and of mariners to navigate them.</p> <p>The King appointedfor the sole</p> <p>officers</p> <p>and</p> <p>soldiers to;</p> <p>embark on board themat the conclusion of the</p> <p>duty of fighting the battle</p> <p>and</p> <p>service these troops</p> <p>were re-landed, and the ships being disarmedin the</p> <p>were restored to their owners, to be employedoccupations of commerce.perty of the</p> <p>more peacefulwere the pro-</p> <p>Thein</p> <p>ships which actually</p> <p>Crown were few</p> <p>number, and maintained rather as a</p> <p>part of the royal state of the monarch, than for the protection of the</p> <p>realm.</p> <p>When</p> <p>he embarked in person, crews were hired to navigate</p> <p>them, and, while so employed, were paid and clothed as a part of theroyal household.</p> <p>The</p> <p>admirals and captains appointed by King1</p> <p>!</p> <p>CHARLES HOWARD,Henry the Eighth, were allowed awith the royalreigns, forinitials,</p> <p>suit of scarlet</p> <p>and gold, powderedtwo subsequentstill</p> <p>and</p> <p>this</p> <p>was continued</p> <p>in the</p> <p>which one or more of the warrants</p> <p>may</p> <p>be seen in</p> <p>the British</p> <p>Museum.of</p> <p>The name</p> <p>Howardas naval</p> <p>stands high, both in date and in renown,</p> <p>on the annals of the English Navy.</p> <p>Among</p> <p>those</p> <p>who werewere the</p> <p>most celebrated</p> <p>commanders,</p> <p>in Henry's reign,</p> <p>noble brothers Sir Edward, and Sir Henry Howard, each ofsuccessively bore the office of</p> <p>whomtheirser-</p> <p>Lord High Admiral, and by</p> <p>eminent conduct greatly contributed to the future glory of thatvice,</p> <p>which</p> <p>in after times</p> <p>became the pride and protection of theit</p> <p>British nation.officers,</p> <p>We</p> <p>think</p> <p>was the</p> <p>first</p> <p>of these distinguished</p> <p>of</p> <p>whom</p> <p>it is</p> <p>recorded, that while in the act of boardingfell</p> <p>the French Admiral he</p> <p>between the two</p> <p>ships,</p> <p>and was seen to</p> <p>brandish his golden whistle (then thewhilestill</p> <p>emblem</p> <p>of high</p> <p>command)</p> <p>cheering his crew, and then sunk to a seaman's grave</p> <p>These vahant men were uncles to the Lord William Howard, whobeing created Baron of EflSngham, succeeded to theoflSce</p> <p>of</p> <p>Lord</p> <p>High Admiral, and by</p> <p>his marriage with Margaret, daughter of Sir</p> <p>Thomas Gamagethis</p> <p>of Glamorgan,</p> <p>became the</p> <p>father of the subject of</p> <p>memoirwho,</p> <p>in 1536.</p> <p>In training to service at sea, Charles Howard,</p> <p>while yet a boy, accompanied his father intions;</p> <p>many</p> <p>of his expedi-</p> <p>in</p> <p>one of these, having but twenty-eight ships under grand Spanishfleet of</p> <p>his flag, fell in with theships, bearing</p> <p>one hundred and sixtyhis fatal nuptials with</p> <p>Phihp the Second of Spain toof England.</p> <p>Queen Mary</p> <p>The</p> <p>royal standard of Spain was flying</p> <p>at the mast-head of the Spanish Admiral,</p> <p>who was</p> <p>disposed to pass</p> <p>the English fleet without observation, but Lordshot, insistedsails, in</p> <p>Wilhamin the</p> <p>firing</p> <p>a</p> <p>upon</p> <p>their striking colours</p> <p>and lowering</p> <p>their top-</p> <p>acknowledgement of the English sovereigntytill</p> <p>narrow</p> <p>Seas; and this being conceded, he, not</p> <p>then, fired the salute</p> <p>due to the betrothed husband of his own Sovereign.</p> <p>On thewho</p> <p>accession of Elizabeth, he presented his son to the Queen,</p> <p>received</p> <p>him with marks of unusual courtesy out of the favour2</p> <p>EARL OF NOTTINGHAM,she bore to his father.</p> <p>K. G.</p> <p>Onit,</p> <p>the rebellion of the Earls of</p> <p>Northum-</p> <p>berland and Westmoreland in the North, the Earl of</p> <p>Warwick was</p> <p>despatched to suppresswith</p> <p>and Charles Howard served under himIn 1571, he was appointedof Austria to Spain, and;</p> <p>much</p> <p>credit as</p> <p>General of Horse.</p> <p>with a squadron of ships to convey</p> <p>Anne</p> <p>soon after was chosen to serve in Parliament for Surreyfather dying the following year (1572)</p> <p>but his</p> <p>he inheritedoffice;</p> <p>his title</p> <p>and</p> <p>honours, and acquired with them the</p> <p>of Lord Privy Seal,ftu'ther favours</p> <p>which the Queen immediately conferred on himsoon bestowed,for,</p> <p>were</p> <p>not long</p> <p>after,</p> <p>he was made I^ord Chamberlain,</p> <p>elected Knight of the Garter,</p> <p>and on the death of the Earl of Lin-</p> <p>coln in 1585, appointed to the high office of</p> <p>Lord High Admiral,his family.</p> <p>which seemed thus to have become almost hereditary in</p> <p>The Queen, who</p> <p>possessed remarkable sagacity in weighing thefull</p> <p>character of her public servants, saw the</p> <p>value of Lord Effingspirit,</p> <p>ham's straight forward, undisguised and uprightstriking</p> <p>which bore a</p> <p>contr^t to the deep designing ambition of the Earl of</p> <p>Leicester.</p> <p>She therefore formed the wise resolution of advancing</p> <p>her Lord Chamberlain to the higher trust of Lord Admiral, therebyinvesting</p> <p>him with a power and</p> <p>dignity which served as an effective</p> <p>counterpoise to the dangerous popularity of her favourite.</p> <p>This</p> <p>mark</p> <p>of favour was highly acceptable to the seamen, by</p> <p>whom Lord</p> <p>Effingham wastowards him attical</p> <p>much beloved, while it marked her entire confidence a period when the safety of her Crown, and the poliwere endangered by the</p> <p>and</p> <p>religious liberties of her people, at length</p> <p>secret,</p> <p>and</p> <p>avowed</p> <p>pui-pose of Philip of Spain, to</p>...