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1501-1736 Safavid Empire. Safavids Considered an heir to the Persian line Persian Empire Seleucids Parthians Sasanids Safavids

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Considered an heir to the Persian line  Persian Empire  Seleucids  Parthians  Sasanids  Safavids

Text of 1501-1736 Safavid Empire. Safavids Considered an heir to the Persian line Persian Empire Seleucids...

Safavid Empire Safavids Considered an heir to the Persian line Persian Empire Seleucids Parthians Sasanids Safavids Safavids Ethnically mixed Shiite Kingdom (Shia is the minority group in Islam) Religious mission and Sacred ruler Founded by Shah Ismail Expansion (halted by Ottomans) Shah Abbas Peak of Dynasty Goal of culture and trade Capital built at Isfahan Safavid Kingdom Shortest lived of the Islamic Kingdoms Was caught between very powerful empires Ottomans to the West Mughals to the East (an Islamic empire in India) European sea power to the south Russians to the north This effected trade and territory Trade had to be diverted through Russia Constant border wars on all sides Decline Despite having globally desired goods (Persian rugs), trade was difficult. Constant border wars on all sides Popular unrest and revolt Ruling family was kicked out by the warriors Zand Dynasty rules until 1794 Qajar Dynasty Qajar Dynasty had failed to curtail Russian advances Modernization takes place similar to Turkey Early on met with resistance Dynasty turned to Russia and Great Britain to protect itself from its own people This outside influence encouraged a Persian national movement Nationalist Movement Part of movement was to prevent Russian advance in northwest and curtail European influence on Persian industry (Profits seemed to disappear into hands of dynastys ruling elite) Opposition to the regime Peasants and Merchants (religiously supported) 1906 popular pressures forced the shah to grant a constitution on the Western model Problems Modernizers moved to quickly (similar to Turkey) Shah was able to maintain control only with British and Russian support Spheres of influence Oil discovered 1908, but profits from exports went to British investors Mutiny 1921 Reza Khan (an officer in the army) led a mutiny Seized power in Tehran (the new capital) Wanted to establish a republic Traditional forces resisted and impeded his efforts Became Shah and started a new dynasty Followed Ataturks example in reform Reform Modernized civilian and military bureaucracy Established modern economic infrastructure Changed the name of the nation to Iran Differed from Ataturk: Did not attempt to destroy the power of Islamic beliefs (He did, however, encourage western-style education and forbade the veiling of women). Exploitation of women was not destroyed (textile industry) During WWII, Soviets and British sent troops into Iran Reza Khan resigned in protest and soon died (Background, Soviets are communist, so therefore neither wants the other to have control of Iran. Why? You guessed it: oil) Mohammad Reza Pahlavi takes over as Shah (Khan Rezas son) Thanks to oil, Iran is he richest of the Middle East countries With U.S. help (via alliance), Iran tries to become a stable force. Social and Economic reforms Per capita income increased Literacy rates improved Modern communications infrastructure took shape Middle class emerged Problems still exist Peasants are landless High unemployment among intellectuals Inflation Extreme Housing costs Religious discontent Demonstrations against government riots Workers strikes Government collapsed (1979 Revolution) Replaced by a republic Ayatollah Khomeini headed republic Reign of terror Attacks against the U.S. Embassy hostages U.S. was source of corruption as well as protection of Israel Hostages only freed to free frozen Iranian assets in the U.S. (economy was pretty bad.) After hostages were released, 1981, government displayed some tolerance Clamped down in the 1990s Censorship Universities were purged of disloyalty Homes were raided to check for blasphemous activities New President in 1997 loosened things up Definite power struggle with traditionalists Two important leaders Shah Ismael Abbas the Great