12.2 Subjuntivo, Presente

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    Presente de subjuntivo

    The present subjunctive

    Descubre 2, unidad 3.3

    Living Spanish

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    Living Spanish

    Nombre: ________________________ Hoy es ___________________________

    Presente de subjuntivo / The present s ubjunc t ive

    There are three different verb moods in Spanish: the indicative, theimperative and the subjunctive. Each of them is used to state things differently.

    All the verb forms you have been using have been in the indicative mood, like the present

    tense, the imperfect and the preterite (you will study more indicative tenses in future units,

    such as the perfect tenses, the future and the conditionals). You also studied the imperativemood, with the commands. Lets now start with the subjunctive! Look at this table to compare

    the different moods.

    Mood and tense example Example Writers attitude or intention

    Indicative:

    Present tense

    Preterite tense

    Imperfect tense

    Yo estudiomucho.

    Yo estudimucho ayer.

    Yo estudiabamucho de nio.

    Used to state facts and to express

    actions or states that the speaker

    considers to be real and definite.

    Imperative Estudiamucho para el exmen.Used to make a request or to give

    orders.

    Subjunctive Es bueno que estudiesmucho.

    Used toexpress the speakers

    attitudes toward events, and actions

    or states the speaker views as

    uncertain or hypothetical.

    Felicitaciones! Finalmente llegaste al subjuntivo. Te sugiero que te

    tomes el tiempo de entender el subjuntivo, no slo de estudiarlo.

    Vers que ser mucho ms fcil. Buena suerte!

    Congratulations! You have finally reached the subjunctive. I suggest that

    you take the time to understand the subjunctive, and not only to study it.

    You will see it is a lot easier that wa . Good luck!

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    Living Spanish

    It is all about feeling the subjunctive mood. Think about yourself.

    Your mood changes too.

    There are days when you feel confident, sure about your behavior, you

    tend to use the indicativemood. - Viajo hoy.

    There are days when you feel demanding, you tend to use the imperative

    mood. Viaja ya!

    And there are other days when you feel insecure, you doubt, you put

    conditions; you wish, dream, hope you then use the subjunctive.

    Espero que viajes hoy. Quizs viajemos hoy. No estoy seguro que viaje

    hoy. Ojal viaje hoy.

    In other words:

    SUBJUNCTIVE

    unknown

    subjective

    abstract

    ... in somebody's head!

    INDICATIVE

    truthful

    objective

    factual

    This is really going on!

    Espero que Luis

    vengapronto.

    Luis vienepronto.

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    Living Spanish

    Lets now study how to form it.

    PronounsPresent subjunctive of regular verbs

    hablar comer escribir

    yo

    t

    l/ella/ud.

    nosotros/as

    vosotros/as

    ellos/as, uds.

    hable

    hables

    hable

    hablemos

    hablis

    hablen

    coma

    comas

    coma

    comamos

    comis

    coman

    escriba

    escribas

    escriba

    escribamos

    escribis

    escriban

    To form the present subjunctive, drop the finalo ending of the yoform of the present

    indicative, and replace ir with the subjunctive endings:

    Infinitive Present indicative Verb stem Present subjunctive

    The present subjunctive endings are:

    Hablar

    Comer

    Escribir

    hablo

    como

    escribo

    habl

    com

    escrib

    hable

    coma

    escriba

    ar verbs

    -e

    -es

    -e

    -emos

    -is

    -en

    er and ir verbs

    -a

    -as

    -a

    -amos

    -is

    -an

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    Living Spanish

    Irregular yoforms verbs: they show the same irregularity in all forms of the presentsubjunctive:

    Infinitive Present indicative Verb stem Present subjunctive

    conducir

    conocer

    decir

    hacer

    ofrecer

    or

    parecer

    poner

    tener

    traducir

    traer

    venir

    ver

    conduzco

    conozco

    digo

    hago

    ofrezco

    oigo

    parezco

    pongo

    tengo

    traduzco

    traigo

    vengo

    veo

    conduzc

    conozc

    dig

    hag

    ofrezc

    oig

    parezc

    pong

    teng

    traduzc

    traig

    veng

    ve

    conduzca

    conozca

    diga

    haga

    ofrezca

    oiga

    parezca

    ponga

    tenga

    traduzca

    traiga

    venga

    vea

    Verbs ending incar, -gar, andzar: they have a spelling change in all forms tomaintain the sounds:

    Sacar: saque, saques, saque, saquemos, saquis, saquen

    Jugar:juegue, juegues, juegue, juguemos, juguis, jueguen

    Almorzar: almuerce, almuerces, almuerce, almorcemos, almorcis, almuercen

    Of course, there are irregular verbs in the present tense of the

    subjunctive mood. But you are so use to them by now that it will be

    easy to recognize them.

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    Living Spanish

    Present subjunctive of stem-changing verbs:

    -aranderstem changing verbs: they have the same changes as in the presentindicative (with the boot form, that is, no stem changes for nosotros/as and vosotros/asforms):

    -irstem-changing verbs: they have the same changes as in the present indicative, with astem change in the nosotros/as and vosotros/as forms: unstressed echanges to i,

    unstressed ochanges to u.

    Irregular verbs in the present subjunctive:

    These fiveverbs are irregular in the present subjunctive. Also, the subjunctive form ofhay(there is, there are) is irregular: haya.

    PronounsIrregular verbs in the present subjunctive

    dar estar ir saber ser

    yo

    t

    l/ella/ud.

    nosotros/as

    vosotros/as

    ellos/as, uds.

    d

    des

    d

    demos

    deis

    den

    est

    ests

    est

    estemos

    estis

    estn

    vaya

    vayas

    vaya

    vayamos

    vayis

    vayan

    sepa

    sepas

    sepa

    sepamos

    sepis

    sepan

    sea

    seas

    sea

    seamos

    seis

    sean

    pensar (e:ie): piense, pienses, piense, pensemos, pensis, piensen

    mostrar (o:ue):muestre, muestres, muestre, mostremos, mostris, muestren

    entender (e:ie): entienda, entiendas, entienda, entendamos, entendis, entiendan

    volver (o:ue): vuelva, vuelvas, vuelva, volvamos, volvis, vuelvan

    pedir (e:i): pida, pidas, pida, pidamos, pidis, pidan

    sentir (e:ie): sienta, sientas, sienta, sintamos, sintis, sientan

    dormir (o:ue): duerma, duermas, duerma, durmamos, durmis, duerman

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    Living Spanish

    General uses of the subjunctive

    There are three points that will help you determine whether you need to use the subjunctive

    mood or not:

    The subjunctive is mainly used to express:

    1) will and influence

    2) emotion

    3) doubt, disbelief, and denial

    4) indefiniteness and nonexistence

    The subjunctive is most often used in sentences with two clauses: a main clause and a

    subordinate clause. The main clause contains a verb or expression that triggers the useof the subjunctive. These two clauses are connected by the conjunction que.

    smuy importante que estudiespara el examen.sbueno que tengastu habitacin limpia.

    smalo que uisest tan nervioso.

    snecesario que la ayudemosa mudarse.

    Impersonal expressions: these impersonal expressions are always followed by clausesin the subjunctive:

    s bueno que

    Is good that

    s importante que

    Its important that

    s mejor que

    Is better that

    s necesario que

    Ists necessary that

    s malo que

    Is bad that

    s urgente que

    Its urgent that

    Main clause

    in indicative

    Subordinate clause

    in subjunctive

    Connector

    que

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    Living Spanish

    1. Tu turno: Escribe el presente de subjuntivo de estos verbos/Write the presentsubjunctive of the these verbs:

    almorzar, poner, ser

    cocinar, dormir, ir

    barrer, hacer, pasear

    comprar, viajar, dar

    volver, llamar, escribir

    or, mostrar, jugar

    lavar, conducir, hablar

    traducir, quitar

    Ustedes

    Nosotros

    Yo

    Ella

    T

    Vosotros

    Ellos

    Usted

    ______________, ______________, _____________

    ______________, ______________, _____________

    ______________, ______________, _____________

    ______________, ______________, _____________

    ______________, ______________, _____________

    ______________, ______________, _____________

    ______________, ______________, _____________

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