12- Mumps (Parotitis)

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    DR. MOHAMMED ARIF

    ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR

    CONSULTANT VIROLOGIST

    HEAD OF THE VIROLOGY UNIT

    Mumps (parotitis)

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    Mumps (parotitis)

    Inflammation of the salivary glands.

    Mainly the parotid glands are affected.

    There are three pairs of salivary glands. Two parotid glands, the largest, one in each cheek, over the

    angle of the jaw , in front of the ear.

    Two sub mandibular glands at the back of the mouth.

    Two sub-lingual glands, under the floor of the mouth.

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    Salivary glands .

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    Viral etiology

    Caused by mumps virus.

    Family: paramyxoviridae.

    Genus: parainfluenza virus. Pleomorphic, enveloped with helical nucleocapsid.

    The viral genome is ss-RNA, with negative polarity.

    The viral envelope is covered with two glycoprotein spikes,

    the HN which posses both hemagglutinine andneuraminidase activities , and the fusion glycoprotein.

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    Viral etiology

    The fusion protein enables the virus to formmultinucleated giant cell by fusing infected cells together.

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    Transmission

    By inhalation of respiratory droplets, during sneezing andcoughing.

    The virus sheds in saliva.

    Also, the virus can be transmitted by direct contact withsaliva.

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    Clinical features

    Mumps is a highly infectious child-hood disease.

    IP, about three weeks.

    Mumps starts with moderate fever, malaise, pain onchewing or swallowing, particularly acidic liquids.

    Followed by inflammation of the salivary glands,particularly the parotid glands.

    The swelling appears in front of the ear.

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    Parotitis .

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    Parotitis .

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    Complications

    Aseptic meningitis.

    Encephalitis.

    Orchitis, after puberty. Inflammation of one or bothtesticles. Usually unilateral , rarely leads to sterility .

    Pancreatitis.

    Oophoritis.

    Thyroiditis.

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    Prognosis & lab diagnosis

    In the absence of complications recovery is usual.

    Lab. Diagnosis, by detection of IgM antibody to mumpsvirus.

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    Prevention

    A live attenuated vaccine is available (MMR).

    It contains mumps, measles and rubella attenuated

    virus strains. Administered in one dose, intramuscularly or

    subcutaneously.

    The vaccine is protective.

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    treatment

    There is no specific anti-viral drug therapy.

    Treatment is supportive by treating symptoms, usingantipyretics and analgesics.

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    Child care

    The child must rest in bed until the fever goes away.

    Isolate the child, to prevent spreading the disease toother.

    Use analgesics and anti-pyretic to ease symptoms.

    Avoid food that require chewing.

    Avoid sour foods that stimulate saliva production.

    Drink plenty of water. Use cold compress to ease the pain of swelling

    glands.