113708 Thesis on Ponnappa Nadar

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HISTORY OF PONNAPPA NADAR - A STUDY-P.L.Subila Preface Thiruvithancore, which was a part of Cheranadu was under the rule of Tamil Kings at the initial stages. Latter it changed into Malayalee rule. Namboodries have introduced Marumakkal vazhi Manmiyam to reduce the authority of Tamil Kings and the powers of Tamil Kings were diminished and were replaced by Malayali Kings. Because of this, the Tamil peoples were put to untold miseries. They were treated like less than animals. To my research view, it is like the miseries of the Israel people who suffered as slaves under the rule of Parvone King in Egypt. Likewise the Tamil people suffered in their own country. Many wise men tried to liberate these people. To be specific, the foreign Christian priests, the Indian incarnations like Vaikunda swami, Narayanaguru, Iyangali, Pulippanam Isakkimadan have struggled individually and through some organisations. Lastly, Kumari Thanthai Marshal Nesamani waged war through Thiruvithancore Tamilnadu Congress and succeeded the final victory and liberated the oppressed and in particular the Tamil people. Thiru. Ponnappa Nadar stood in shoulder to shoulder status while being served as a junior in legal profession to Marshal Nesamani and participated in the agitations with clean and honest hands. The agitational life of Thiru. Ponnappa Nadar is taken up for a research. Aim To disclose how Venadu, a part of Cheranadu changed into Thiruvithancore, how the sons of soil of Thiruvithancore suffered under the atrocities of Malayalis, how the Malayalam reigned over the Tamil language, how the ruling Tamils were changed into slaves, how they waged war to liberate themselves from the oppressive sufferings and above all how the Kumari Komethagam Ponnappa

2 Nadar waged his struggled life in the joint fight along with Marshal Nesamani, the founder of Thiruvithancore Tamilnadu Congress, are all the aim of this research. The field of research Cheranadu was one of the countries ruled by the triple kings. Venadu was a part of Cheranadu. Thiruvithancore is an expansion of Venadu. All the Tamil parts of Thiruvithancore such as Kumari District, Nedumangadu, Neyyatinkarai, Devikulam and Peermedu, where the Tamils struggled are adopted as the field of research. Adopted Tactics Historical books, the dailies Dinamalar and Thinathanthi and interviews with sacrificers are the inputs to the research, besides the interviews and collections from the home of Ponnappa Nadar.

The Approach Explanatory research approach is adopted with historical examples in this research. Documents Collection of news for the research is an important task. The collected documents can be divided into two parts. 1. Primary Sources 2. Secondary Sources

3 1. Primary Sources The primary sources are inducted from the Thiruvithancore Gazetteer, Thiruvithancore State Manual, Old age scripts, the order of Kings, Assembly and Parliament recordings. 2. Secondary Sources The secondary sources are inducted from the dailies, short books, the home of Ponnappa Nadar, his relatives and from the sacrificers. Informants The informations are collected from the sacrificers. Tools used To record the collected information, cardboards, pen and tape recorders are used. Language of the research This research is written in English. However, Tamil and Malayalam words are used in some places in English alphabet, but in the respective accent. Research segregation This research is segregated into 7 parts. In the first part, it contains preface, research heading, explanatory notes, aim, field, tactics, approach, tools used and the language of the research.

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In the second part, research was carried out about the geographical status and the boundary of Thiruvithancore, the kings, the good things they did and the forts they constructed. In the part which deals with the agitations of Tamils and the organization, the research was made as to how the Tamil was replaced by Malayalam; the sufferings of the Tamils by this imposition and how this oppressed class struggled through the agitations. In the youth part, the parents of Ponnappa Nadar, his places of education, his friends, his ability, his marriage and how he had reformed himself as Kumari Komethagam (Kumari Sardonyx) are dealt with. The agitation was held under the leadership of Kumarithanthai Nesamani. Thousands of cadres and hundreds of leaders took part in the agitations. At the peak, some persons deserted and joined in other parties. But Ponnappa Nadar remained a staunch fighter with Nesamani till the end. He remained to be a most reliable person. Maya Ponnappan was another name he earned. The above details are dealt with in the part the role of Ponnappa Nadar in the agitations of Tamils. After his acquiring the degree in Law, he joined as a junior to Marshal Nesamani. He was a man of extreme patience. He used to file cases only after getting thorough information from the client. Generally his submissions to the court would be very polite and calm in support of his clients. He conducted cases to the Tamil agitators without collecting any fee. He took up honest cases only. Most of the cases ended a victory to him. Generally he used to compromise by negotiating between both the parties. Such legal related matters are dealt with in the part Ponnappa Nadar as an Advocate. The seventh part is the conclusion. The facts disclosed in the research are compiled and cogently given in this part. The Annexure contains the list of persons who were interviewed and the reference books. At the end of each part, the collected news and facts are given in concise form. The notes marked in each page are given at the bottom of the page.

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Geographical status and the Kings of Thiruvithancore

Geographical status In ancient days Tamil was the spoken language in the entire Kumari Kandam which was submerged under the sea by tsunami. Kanyakumari District is one among the balance part of the land. After the submerging of the Kumari Kandam under the sea, the newly formed Himalayas was conquered and ruled by the Chera Kings. Thenkumari vada perunkal, Kuna kuda kadala ellai. (Kurunkozhiyur Kizhar- Purananooru- Ka.e) From the above poem in Purananooru, it is evident that the Tamil areas were bound North by Himalayas, South by Kumari, and East and West by Sea. Cheran was the first to enter Himalayas. Hence he was conferred with the title Imayavaramban. (Purananooru- ka. e) After the arrival of Ariyar, the boundary of Tamil areas was North by Venkadam, South by Kumari and East and West by Seas. Tamil area was divided into 13 zones at that time. They are: Pandi, Thenpandi, Kuttam, Kudam, Karka, Venn, Poozhi, Pantri, Aruva, Aruva vadathalai, Seetham, Maladu and Punnadu. Poozhi or sand laden area is considered as the part extending from Alappuzhai river bank to Ponnali river estuary of present day Kerala. This is sand

6 laden flat surface. Kudam or Kudanadu extended from Ponnali river estuary to the southern end of Periyar River estuary near Ernakulam. Kuttam or land of backwater is the area covering from the present day Kottayam to Quilon. Kuttanadu, the granary of present day Kerala State is situated in this land area. Ven or Venadu is situated south of Kuttam and it extends from south of Quilon up to Kanyakumari. Valleys and small mountains in this area consist of full of bamboo forests. Ven denotes the bamboo. Hence, Venadu means a place brimming with bamboo forests. Karka or land with rocks is situated east of Kudanadu. The hilly area of present day Vayanad District of Kerala and Coodalure area of Tamilnadu falls under the Karkanadu. Hence it is evident that the ancient Cheranadu consisted of the area between the Western range of mountains and Arabian Sea which covered a vast area of Boominadu, Kudanadu, Kuttanadu, Karkanadu, Venadu, Kongunadu, Cheethanadu and Pantrinadu. One among the above is the Venadu comprising Kanyakumari District.

Venadu Venadu means a country with full of bamboos. It also derived its name as it contained thirst quenching toddy. There is yet another reason of deriving the name as this area was ruled by a society of people called Vells. The Vells were the small area Kings under the rule of Chera Kings. Elanthottam Sugumaran had given a different definition to Venadu that it got its name as it was ruled by the Kings who were the descendants of Lord Muruga. This Venn Nadu got its name of Venadu in due course.

7 The areas covering the present day Kanyakumari District, Thiruvananthapuram District and certain part of Quilon District is denoted as Venadu. Venadu was the area between Quilon and Athancode as noted by Yavanar. As per the recording of Kanakasabai, the area south of Kuttanadu up to Kanyakumari was known as Venadu. The area between Quilon and Thiruvananthapuram was Venadu as per another claim. Of these, the findings of Sreedara Menon are acceptable. The capital of Venadu was Kalkulam. There is a fort at Kalkulam. It was known as Kalkulam Fort. Anantha Padmanaban was the Chief of Army at the beginning of the ruler Marthandavarma Maharaja. The above fort was built in his name and then changed as Padmanaban Fort in his memory.

How Venadu transformed into Thiruvithancore The credit of the creation of Thiru Koorai fully goes to the King Marthandavarma. He brought the areas of Senkottai, Kottarakarai, Quilon, Kottayam, Kayankulam, Ambalakarai and Nedumangadu under his control and expanded his country from Kanyakumari to Kochi. The name of Venadu was changed as Thiruvithancore. Later it was changed as Thiruvancode and then as Thiru + Ayan + Kodu and in due course it became Thirivithancode. It was called as Thiruvancore in English from the Sanskrit word Sree Vazhum Code. The definition of Sreedara menon claims the English name Travancore was derived from the original Malayalam word Thiruvithancore. The word Thiru + Athan + Code Thirivithancode was called as Thiruvithancor