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1 Spring 2009 Dr. Halligan CHM 236 Carboxylic Acids and the Acidity of the O-H Bond Chapter 19

111111 Spring 2009Dr. Halligan CHM 236 Carboxylic Acids and the Acidity of the O-H Bond Chapter 19

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Page 1: 111111 Spring 2009Dr. Halligan CHM 236 Carboxylic Acids and the Acidity of the O-H Bond Chapter 19

111111

Spring 2009 Dr. HalliganCHM 236

Carboxylic Acids and the

Acidity of the O-H Bond

Chapter 19

Page 2: 111111 Spring 2009Dr. Halligan CHM 236 Carboxylic Acids and the Acidity of the O-H Bond Chapter 19

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Structure and Bonding

• Carboxylic acids are compounds containing a carboxy group (COOH).

• The structure of carboxylic acids is often abbreviated as RCOOH or RCO2H, but keep in mind that the central carbon atom of the functional group is doubly bonded to one oxygen atom and singly bonded to another.

Page 3: 111111 Spring 2009Dr. Halligan CHM 236 Carboxylic Acids and the Acidity of the O-H Bond Chapter 19

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Structure and Bonding

• The C—O single bond of a carboxylic acid is shorter than the C—O bond of an alcohol.

• This can be explained by looking at the hybridization of the respective carbon atoms.

• Because oxygen is more electronegative than either carbon or hydrogen, the C—O and O—H bonds are polar.

Page 4: 111111 Spring 2009Dr. Halligan CHM 236 Carboxylic Acids and the Acidity of the O-H Bond Chapter 19

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Nomenclature—The IUPAC System

• In the IUPAC system, carboxylic acids are identified by a suffix added to the parent name of the longest chain with different endings being used depending on whether the carboxy group is bonded to a chain or a ring.

If the COOH is bonded to a chain, find the longest chain containing the COOH, and change the “e” ending of the parent alkane to the suffix “oic acid”.

If the COOH is bonded to a ring, name the ring and add the words “carboxylic acid”.

Number the carbon chain or ring to put the COOH group at C1, but omit this number from the name.

Apply all the other usual rules of nomenclature.

Page 5: 111111 Spring 2009Dr. Halligan CHM 236 Carboxylic Acids and the Acidity of the O-H Bond Chapter 19

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Nomenclature—The IUPAC System

• Here are some examples of carboxylic acid nomenclature.

OH

O

12

34

5 OH

O

propenoic acidpentanoic acid

OH

O

O

2-methoxybutanoic acid

CO2H

trans-3-methylcyclopentanecarboxylic acid

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Common Nomenclature

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Nomenclature

• Greek letters are used to designate the location of substituents in common names.

• The carbon adjacent to the COOH is called the carbon, followed by the carbon, followed by the carbon, the carbon and so forth down the chain.

• The last carbon in the chain is sometimes called the carbon.• The carbon in the common system is numbered C2 in the IUPAC

system.

Page 8: 111111 Spring 2009Dr. Halligan CHM 236 Carboxylic Acids and the Acidity of the O-H Bond Chapter 19

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Nomenclature

• Compounds containing two carboxy groups are called diacids. Diacids are named using the suffix –dioic acid.

• Metal salts of carboxylate anions are formed from carboxylic acids in many reactions. To name the metal salt of a carboxylate anion, put three parts together:

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Nomenclature

Figure 19.2Naming the metal salts of

carboxylate anions

Page 10: 111111 Spring 2009Dr. Halligan CHM 236 Carboxylic Acids and the Acidity of the O-H Bond Chapter 19

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Physical Properties

• Carboxylic acids exhibit dipole-dipole interactions because they have polar C—O and O—H bonds.

• They also exhibit intermolecular hydrogen bonding.• Carboxylic acids often exist as dimers held together by two

intermolecular hydrogen bonds.

Figure 19.3Two molecules of acetic acid(CH3COOH) held together by

two hydrogen bonds

Page 11: 111111 Spring 2009Dr. Halligan CHM 236 Carboxylic Acids and the Acidity of the O-H Bond Chapter 19

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Physical Properties

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Spectroscopic Properties

• Carboxylic acids have very characteristic IR and NMR absorptions.

• In the IR:

-The C=O group absorbs at ~ 1710 cm-1.

-The O—H absorption occurs from 2500-3500 cm-1.

• In the 1H NMR:

-The O—H proton absorbs between 10-12 ppm.

-The protons absorb between 2-2.5 ppm.

• In the 13C NMR, the C=O appears at 170-210 ppm.

Page 13: 111111 Spring 2009Dr. Halligan CHM 236 Carboxylic Acids and the Acidity of the O-H Bond Chapter 19

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Spectroscopic Properties

Figure 19.4The IR spectrum of butanoic

acid, CH3CH2CH2COOH

Page 14: 111111 Spring 2009Dr. Halligan CHM 236 Carboxylic Acids and the Acidity of the O-H Bond Chapter 19

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Spectroscopic Properties

Figure 19.5The 1H and 13C NMR spectra

of propanoic acid

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Spectroscopic Properties

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Interesting Carboxylic Acids

Butanoic acid is an oxidation product that contributes to the disagreeable smell of body odor. Its common name, butyric acid, is derived from the Latin word butyrum, meaning “butter,” because butyric acid gives rancid butter its peculiar odor and taste.

Acetic acid is the sour component of vinegar. The air oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid is the process that makes “bad” wine taste sour. Acetic acid is an industrial starting material for polymers used in paints and adhesives.

Formic acid has an acrid odor and a biting taste, and is responsible for the sting of some types of ants. The name is derived from the Latin word formica, meaning “ant”.HCOOH

CH3COOH

CH3CH2CH2COOH

Page 17: 111111 Spring 2009Dr. Halligan CHM 236 Carboxylic Acids and the Acidity of the O-H Bond Chapter 19

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Interesting Carboxylic Acids

Caproic acid, the common name for hexanoic acid, has the foul odor associated with dirty socks and locker rooms. Its name is derived from the Latin word caper, meaning “goat”.

Oxalic acid and lactic acid are simple carboxylic acids that are quite prevalent in nature.

CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2COOH

Page 18: 111111 Spring 2009Dr. Halligan CHM 236 Carboxylic Acids and the Acidity of the O-H Bond Chapter 19

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Interesting Carboxylic Acids

• Salts of carboxylic acids are commonly used as preservatives. Sodium benzoate is a fungal growth inhibitor and is also used is a preservative used in soft drinks.

• Potassium sorbate is an additive that prolongs the shelf-life of baked goods and other foods.

Page 19: 111111 Spring 2009Dr. Halligan CHM 236 Carboxylic Acids and the Acidity of the O-H Bond Chapter 19

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Aspirin, Arachidonic Acid, and Prostaglandins

Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is a synthetic carboxylic acid, similar in structure to salicin, a naturally occurring compound isolated from willow bark, and salicylic acid, found in meadowsweet.

Page 20: 111111 Spring 2009Dr. Halligan CHM 236 Carboxylic Acids and the Acidity of the O-H Bond Chapter 19

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Aspirin, Arachidonic Acid, and Prostaglandins

• Aspirin lessens pain and decreases inflammation because it prevents the synthesis of prostaglandins, the compounds responsible for both of these physiological responses.

• Aspirin inactivates cyclooxygenase, an enzyme that converts arachidonic acid to PGG2, an unstable precursor of PGF2 and other prostaglandins.

Page 21: 111111 Spring 2009Dr. Halligan CHM 236 Carboxylic Acids and the Acidity of the O-H Bond Chapter 19

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Preparation of Carboxylic Acids

[1] Oxidation of 1° alcohols

[2] Oxidation of alkyl benzenes

Page 22: 111111 Spring 2009Dr. Halligan CHM 236 Carboxylic Acids and the Acidity of the O-H Bond Chapter 19

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Preparation of Carboxylic Acids

[3] Oxidative cleavage of alkynes

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Reactions of Carboxylic Acids

The most important reactive feature of a carboxylic acid is its polar O—H bond, which is readily cleaved with base.

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Reactions of Carboxylic Acids

• The nonbonded electron pairs on oxygen create electron-rich sites that can be protonated by strong acids (H—A).

• Protonation occurs at the carbonyl oxygen because the resulting conjugate acid is resonance stabilized (Possibility [1]).

• The product of protonation at the OH group (Possibility [2]) cannot be resonance stabilized.

Page 25: 111111 Spring 2009Dr. Halligan CHM 236 Carboxylic Acids and the Acidity of the O-H Bond Chapter 19

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Reactions of Carboxylic Acids

• The polar C—O bonds make the carboxy carbon electrophilic. Thus, carboxylic acids react with nucleophiles.

• Nucleophilic attack occurs at an sp2 hybridized carbon atom, so it results in the cleavage of the bond as well.

Page 26: 111111 Spring 2009Dr. Halligan CHM 236 Carboxylic Acids and the Acidity of the O-H Bond Chapter 19

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Carboxylic Acids—Strong Organic BrØnsted-Lowry Acids

• Carboxylic acids are strong organic acids, and as such, readily react with BrØnsted-Lowry bases to form carboxylate anions.

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Carboxylic Acids—Strong Organic BrØnsted-Lowry Acids

• An acid can be deprotonated by a base that has a conjugate acid with a higher pKa.

• Because the pKa values of many carboxylic acids are ~5, bases that have conjugate acids with pKa values higher than 5 are strong enough to deprotonate them.

Page 28: 111111 Spring 2009Dr. Halligan CHM 236 Carboxylic Acids and the Acidity of the O-H Bond Chapter 19

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Carboxylic Acids—Strong Organic BrØnsted-Lowry Acids

Page 29: 111111 Spring 2009Dr. Halligan CHM 236 Carboxylic Acids and the Acidity of the O-H Bond Chapter 19

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Carboxylic Acids—Strong Organic BrØnsted-Lowry Acids

• Carboxylic acids are relatively strong acids because deprotonation forms a resonance-stabilized conjugate base—a carboxylate anion.

• The acetate anion has two C—O bonds of equal length (1.27 Å) and intermediate between the length of a C—O single bond (1.36 Å) and C=O (1.21 Å).

Page 30: 111111 Spring 2009Dr. Halligan CHM 236 Carboxylic Acids and the Acidity of the O-H Bond Chapter 19

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Carboxylic Acids—Strong Organic BrØnsted-Lowry Acids

• Resonance stabilization accounts for why carboxylic acids are more acidic than other compounds with O—H bonds—namely alcohols and phenols.

• To understand the relative acidity of ethanol, phenol and acetic acid, we must compare the stability of their conjugate bases and use the following rule:

- Anything that stabilizes a conjugate base A:¯ makes the starting acid H—A more acidic.

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Carboxylic Acids—Strong Organic BrØnsted-Lowry Acids

• Ethoxide, the conjugate base of ethanol, bears a negative charge on the O atom, but there are no additional factors to further stabilize the anion. Because ethoxide is less stable than acetate, ethanol is a weaker acid than acetic acid.

• Phenoxide, the conjugate base of phenol, is more stable than ethoxide, but less stable than acetate because acetate has two electronegative O atoms upon which to delocalize the negative charge, whereas phenoxide has only one.

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Carboxylic Acids—Strong Organic BrØnsted-Lowry Acids

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Carboxylic Acids—Strong Organic BrØnsted-Lowry Acids

• Structures 2-4 have the negative charge on a C atom, a less electronegative element than O. Thus structures 2-4 are less stable than structures 1 and 5.

• Structures 1 and 5 have intact aromatic rings, whereas structures 2-4 do not. This too makes structures 2-4 less stable than 1 and 5.

Figure 19.6The relative energiesof the five resonance

structures for phenoxideand its hybrid

Page 34: 111111 Spring 2009Dr. Halligan CHM 236 Carboxylic Acids and the Acidity of the O-H Bond Chapter 19

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Carboxylic Acids—Strong Organic BrØnsted-Lowry Acids

• Note that although resonance stabilization of the conjugate base is important in determining acidity, the absolute number of resonance structures alone is not what is important!

Figure 19.7Summary: The relationship

between acidity and conjugatebase stability for acetic acid,

phenol, and ethanol

Page 35: 111111 Spring 2009Dr. Halligan CHM 236 Carboxylic Acids and the Acidity of the O-H Bond Chapter 19

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The Inductive Effect in Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids

Page 36: 111111 Spring 2009Dr. Halligan CHM 236 Carboxylic Acids and the Acidity of the O-H Bond Chapter 19

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The Inductive Effect in Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids

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Substituted Benzoic Acids

Recall that substituents on a benzene ring either donate or withdraw electron density, depending on the balance of their inductive and resonance effects. These same effects also determine the acidity of substituted benzoic acids.

[1] Electron-donor groups destabilize a conjugate base, making an acid less acidic—The conjugate base is destabilized because electron density is being donated to a negatively charged carboxylate anion.

Page 38: 111111 Spring 2009Dr. Halligan CHM 236 Carboxylic Acids and the Acidity of the O-H Bond Chapter 19

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Substituted Benzoic Acids[2] Electron-withdrawing groups stabilize a conjugate base, making

an acid more acidic. The conjugate base is stabilized because electron density is removed from the negatively charged carboxylate anion.

Page 39: 111111 Spring 2009Dr. Halligan CHM 236 Carboxylic Acids and the Acidity of the O-H Bond Chapter 19

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Substituted Benzoic Acids

Figure 19.8How common substituents

affect the reactivity of abenzene ring towards

electrophiles and the acidity ofsubstituted benzoic acids

Page 40: 111111 Spring 2009Dr. Halligan CHM 236 Carboxylic Acids and the Acidity of the O-H Bond Chapter 19

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ExtractionExtraction is a technique that permits the separation of mixtures of compounds based on acid-base principles, and solubility differences.

• Recall that when two immiscible liquids come into contact, two layers are formed.

• The two layers can be separated using a piece of glassware called a separatory funnel.

Figure 19.9Using a separatory funnel

for extraction

Page 41: 111111 Spring 2009Dr. Halligan CHM 236 Carboxylic Acids and the Acidity of the O-H Bond Chapter 19

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Extraction

Suppose you had a mixture of benzoic acid and NaCl.

• As you know, benzoic acid will be soluble in an organic solvent such as CH2Cl2, and NaCl will dissolve in water.

• If a combination of two immiscible liquids, such as CH2Cl2 and H2O are added to the benzoic acid/NaCl mixture, the benzoic acid will be solubilized by the CH2Cl2, and the NaCl will be solubilized by the H2O.

• Since CH2Cl2 and H2O are immiscible, you now have two layers. The more dense bottom layer (CH2Cl2) will contain the benzoic acid, and the less dense top layer (H2O) will contain the NaCl.

• If the mixture of liquids is transferred to a separatory funnel, the two layers can be separated by simply draining away the bottom layer.

• Once the two layers are separated, the solvents can be evaporated away, leaving behind pure benzoic acid and NaCl.

Page 42: 111111 Spring 2009Dr. Halligan CHM 236 Carboxylic Acids and the Acidity of the O-H Bond Chapter 19

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Extraction

How could a mixture of benzoic acid and cyclohexanol be separated?

• Both compounds are organic, and as a result, both are soluble in an organic solvent such as CH2Cl2, and insoluble in H2O.

• If a mixture of benzoic acid and cyclohexanol was added to a separatory funnel with CH2Cl2 and water, both would dissolve in the CH2Cl2 layer, and the two compounds would not be separated from one another.

Page 43: 111111 Spring 2009Dr. Halligan CHM 236 Carboxylic Acids and the Acidity of the O-H Bond Chapter 19

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Extraction

Since there is a significant enough difference in acidity between benzoic acid and cyclohexanol, extraction can be used to separate the two compounds.

• When benzoic acid is treated with NaOH, it is deprotonated, forming sodium benzoate. Since sodium benzoate is ionic, it is water soluble, but insoluble in organic solvents.

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Extraction

A similar acid-base reaction does not occur when cyclohexanol is treated with NaOH because alcohols are much weaker acids than carboxylic acids.

• NaOH is not a strong enough base to deprotonate cyclohexanol.

• Therefore, benzoic acid and cyclohexanol can be separated by converting benzoic acid into a water soluble compound. Thus, it will dissolve in water, whereas the cyclohexanol will remain in CH2Cl2.

• The two layers can then be separated with a separatory funnel, and evaporation of the solvent from the separate layers yields pure cyclohexanol, and the purified sodium salt of benzoic acid.

Page 45: 111111 Spring 2009Dr. Halligan CHM 236 Carboxylic Acids and the Acidity of the O-H Bond Chapter 19

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Extraction

Figure 19.10Separation of

benzoic acid andcyclohexanol by

an extractionprocedure

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Sulfonic Acids

• Sulfonic acids have the general structure RSO3H.

• The most widely used sulfonic acid is p-toluenesulfonic acid.

• Sulfonic acids are very strong acids because their conjugate bases (sulfonate anions) are resonance stabilized, and all the resonance structures delocalize negative charge on oxygen.

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Amino Acids• Amino acids contain two functional groups—an amine group (NH2) and a

carboxy group (COOH).• Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.

• The simplest amino acid, glycine, has R = H. When R is any other group, the carbon is a stereogenic center.

Page 48: 111111 Spring 2009Dr. Halligan CHM 236 Carboxylic Acids and the Acidity of the O-H Bond Chapter 19

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Amino Acids

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Amino Acids• An amino acid is both an acid and a base.• Amino acids are never uncharged neutral molecules. They exist as salts,

so they have very high melting points and are very water soluble.

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Amino Acids

An amino acid can exist in three different forms depending on pH.

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Amino Acids

Thus, alanine exists in three different forms depending on the pH of the solution in which it is dissolved.

As the pH of a solution is gradually increased from 2 to 10, the following process occurs:

Page 52: 111111 Spring 2009Dr. Halligan CHM 236 Carboxylic Acids and the Acidity of the O-H Bond Chapter 19

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Amino Acids

Figure 19.11Summary of the acid–base

reactions of alanine

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Amino Acids—Isoelectric Point

Because a protonated amino acid has at least two different protons that can be removed, a pKa value is reported for each of these protons.

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Natural Product Amino Acids

• Amino acids are carboxylic acids that have an amino group on the -carbon.

• Chains of amino acids are linked by amide bonds and form peptides and proteins.

H3NO

R

O

an amino acid

N

NN

N

O

CH3

O

CH3

H3C

caffeine

NO

HN

H HS

O

CO2-K+

penicillin G