1.1. Welcome & Introductions

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1.1. Welcome & Introductions. Food Security Cluster Needs Assessment Workshop Dhaka, Bangladesh 19 20 February 2012. Welcome. Introductions. Please tell us your: Name Position Organisation Main expectation for this workshop - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Monitoring and impact evaluation of emergency seed and tools distribution projects

1.1. Welcome & IntroductionsFood Security Cluster Needs Assessment Workshop Dhaka, Bangladesh19 20 February 2012

WelcomeIntroductionsPlease tell us your:NamePositionOrganisationMain expectation for this workshop(Please write your main expectation on a piece of paper and hand it to facilitators for compiling)Overall PurposeStrengthen coordination knowledge, skills, and attitudes of participants in order to enhance the effectiveness of the food security clusterWorkshop ObjectivesAfter this workshop, participants should be able to:Explain a number of fundamental food security concepts Explain the phased approach to food security assessment (initial, rapid, and in-depth food security assessment)Describe the primary and secondary data collection tools associated with each type of food security assessmentIdentify a number of food security response optionsIdentify the key stakeholders in food security in Bangladesh and who is responsible for what (re: administration, logistics, and technical aspects of a food security assessment)

AgendaDay 1: Fundamentals of Food Security AssessmentWelcome, Objectives & Introductions (background of GFSC)Markets & FSFood Security: Fundamentals and FrameworksFood Security Assessments: Phases & Tools The Current Situation: FS Assessment in Practices in BangladeshWorking groups on the rapid assessment tools. Day 2: Coordinating Food Security AssessmentsGroup PresentationsMarket Analysis The Need: Coordinating FS assessment and analysisFS Assessment Responsibilities: Who does (or should do!) what?Overview of Food Security Response Options IPCNext Steps

6One rule that you will perceive as entirely unfair and unjust but, well, thats life

Multi-tasking is a fancy word we all use for not really focusing on anything: No laptops during sessions unless requested by facilitatorsPlease feel free to not really focus during the breaks

Humanitarian Reform - HistoryReview FindingsGapsLimited linkages Erratic coordinationInsufficient accountabilityInconsistent donor policies

Independent Humanitarian Response Review (August 2005)Changing EnvironmentProliferation of actorsChanging role of UNCompetitive fundingIncreased public scrutinyNew humanitarian actors

Humanitarian Reform Process (September 2005)In August 2005, an independent Humanitarian Response Review was conducted commissioned by the United Nations Emergency Relief Coordinator and Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs. The review assessed the humanitarian response capacities of the UN, NGOs, Red Cross/Red Crescent Movement and other key humanitarian actors including the International Organization for Migration (IOM), to identify critical gap areas and to make recommendations to address them.

Main Findings of this report were:There are well-known, long standing gaps that are not being resolvedLimited linkages between NGOs, UN agencies, Red Cross/Red Crescent Movement, and othersCoordination is erratic and dependent on personalitiesInsufficient accountability (particularly for IDPs)Inconsistent donor policies

In addition, the environment for humanitarian operations was changing:Proliferation of humanitarian actorsChanging role of the UN (less direct implementation, more standard-setting and facilitation)Competitive funding environmentIncreased public scrutiny of humanitarian actionEmergence of new humanitarian actors, military, private companies

Following the recommendations of the Review and based on the changes in the operational environment, the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) agreed in September 2005 on a Humanitarian Reform process seeking to improve the effectiveness of humanitarian response by ensuring greater predictability, accountability and partnerships between NGOs, international organizations, the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and UN agencies: an ambitious effort by the international humanitarian community to reach more beneficiaries, with more comprehensive needs-based relief and protection, in a more effective and timely manner.

The IASC is an inter-agency forum for coordination, policy development and decision-making involving the key UN and non-UN humanitarian partners, including United Nations agencies, the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, the International Organization for Migration, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), NGO consortia and the World Bank.8Aim - Build a stronger, more predictable humanitarian response system


Strong partnerships between all parties


Adequate capacity and predictable leadership in all sectors1HUMANITARIAN COORDINATORS (HCs)

Effective leadership and coordination in humanitarian emergencies


Adequate, timely and flexible financing3Three pillars of reform and the foundation:Humanitarian Reform Key ComponentsThe aim of the Humanitarian Reform is to build a stronger, more predictable humanitarian response system. Three initiatives are taken to achieve this:

Establishment of a Cluster Approach, to 1) ensure high standards of predictability, accountability and partnerships in all sectors or areas of activity, 2) have more strategic responses and 3) enable better prioritization of available resources. Clusters, led and coordinated by Cluster Lead Agencies, are IASC designated groupings of humanitarian organizations (both UN and non-UN) in each of the main sectors of humanitarian action. They operate both on global and country level. Humanitarian Coordinators, to establish effective leadership and coordination in humanitarian emergencies. This entails the development of a comprehensive strategy for identifying, selecting, training, mentoring and support and holding accountable of individuals. This to ensure effective leadership in humanitarian emergencies. Action to strengthen the HC system are for example: i) establishment of broad-based humanitarian country team, ii) greater inclusiveness, transparency, and ownership in the appointment of Humanitarian Coordinators, iii) development of a RC/HC score card, iv) training and induction and v) support to HCs during emergencies and in transitionHumanitarian financing: measures to ensure adequate, timely and flexible financing. Actions taken to improve humanitarian financing: i) good humanitarian donorship (GHD) initiative (piloted in Burundi and DRC), ii) establishment of the Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF), iii) other initiatives.

Partnership was added as foundation of reform in 2007, based on a Global Humanitarian Platform* meeting.

The Humanitarian Reform is about making the international humanitarian community more structured, accountable and professional, so that it can be a better partner for host governments, local authorities and local civil society. This should lead to more strategic responses and better prioritization of available resources.

* What is the GHP? The GHP is a forum bringing together the three main families of the humanitarian community - NGOs, the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, and the UN and related international organisations. These families have a shared responsibility in enhancing the effectiveness of humanitarian action.What is the purpose of GHP? The overall goal of the Global Humanitarian Platform (GHP) is to enhance the effectiveness of humanitarian action. It is premised on the belief that no single humanitarian agency can cover all humanitarian needs and that collaboration is, therefore, not an option, but a necessity. Collaboration among a diverse group of humanitarian agencies can take different forms. The GHP aims at maximising complementarity based on our different mandates and mission statements. Based on the principle of diversity, the GHP does not seek to convince humanitarian agencies to pursue a single mode of action or work within a unique framework.

910To assure high standards of predictability, accountability and partnership in all sectorsMore strategic responsesBetter prioritization of available resourcesGeneral Humanitarian KnowledgeThe Cluster ApproachThe Cluster ApproachSector groups of international and national agencies at global and country levelsCoordinated by designated Cluster Lead Agencies (CLAs)What are clusters?Why clusters?Clusters are sectoral groupings of international and national agencies/NGOs coordinated by designated Cluster Lead Agencies (CLAs), to support and/or complement wherever possible the efforts of national authorities in key sectors of preparedness and response. The objectives are:

To ensure effective coordination of humanitarian and early recovery assistance, especially among international assistance organizations with and in support of national entities, andTo enhance predictability, accountability and partnerships in response (especially international response) through, in particular, the designation of CLAs reporting to the humanitarian coordinator with clearly-defined responsibilities (this being the principal difference between the cluster approach and other sector coordination mechanisms).

The Cluster Approach is used in:All major new emergencies: In the event of a sudden major new emergency requiring a multi-sectoral response with the participation of a wide range of international humanitarian actors, the cluster approach should be used from the start in planning and organizing the international response. (Guidance note)On-going emergencies, when:A Humanitarian Coordinator has been appointedThe operation goes beyond the current scopeMulti-sector response is neededA wide range of actors is involvedContingency planning: contingency planning for disaster prone countries or for potential major new emergencies which involve multi-sectoral responses with the participation of a wide range of international humanitarian actors.

Standard operating procedures (operational guidance) for introducing the cluster approach in new and on-going emergencies and for designating cluster/sector leads are available.

10Humanitarian PrinciplesInternational humanitarian and human right law & humanitarian principlesHumanityImpartialityNeutralityIndependence

Principles of PartnershipEqualityTransparencyResult-oriented approachResponsibilityComplementarity

In all activities Clusters should be guided by international humanitarian and human rights law as well as by the humanitarian principles. Compliance with the International Humanitarian principles is important to establish the strictly humanitarian character of relief activities, therefore, obtain acceptance of and consent for them.

These Guiding Principles are:

Humanity: Human suffering must be addressed wherever it is found. The purpose of humanitarian action is to protect life and health, and to ensure respect for the human being.Impartiality: Humanitarian action must be carried out on the basis of humanitarian need alone, giving priority to the most urgent cases of distress and making no distinctions on the basis of nationality, race, religious beliefs, class or political opinions.Neutrality: Humanitarian actors must not take sides in hostilities or engage in controversies of a political, racial, religious or ideological nature. Independence: Humanitarian actors must be autonomous from political, economic, military or other objectives that any actor may hold regarding areas where humanitarian action is being implemented.

Relations among organizations involved in humanitarian action are governed by the Principles of Partnerships (PoP):

Equality: Equality required mutual respect among members of the partnership irrespective of size and power.Transparency: Transparency is achieve through dialogue (on equal footing), with an emphasis on early consultations and early sharing of information.Result-oriented approach: Effective humanitarian action must be reality based on action oriented.Responsibility: Humanitarian organizations have an ethical obligation to each other to accomplish their tasks responsibly, with integrity and in a relevant and appropriate way.Complementarity: The Humanitarian communitys diversity is an asset if we build on our advantages and complement each others contributions.

Question: Can anybody give an example of how these guiding principles are applied in operations?

1112Global cluster lead agencies (CLAs) are designated by the IASC and work with partners to strengthen field response and provide predictable leadershipGeneral Humanitarian KnowledgeThe Cluster ApproachGlobal ClustersNormative: Standard setting, tools, and best practicesCapacity/Preparedness: training, surge support, stockpilesOperational Support: advocacy and resource mobilization

Emergency Relief Coordinator (OCHA)Partners, others?What are global clusters?What do global clusters do?To whom are global clusters accountable?Global cluster Lead Agencies fulfil 4 main responsibilities:Normative standard setting and consolidation of best practiceBuild response capacity i) learning and system development at local, regional and international levels, ii) Surge capacity and standby rosters, iii) Material stockpiles.Operational support i) emergency preparedness, ii) Advocacy and resource mobilizationProvider of Last Resort

12Global Cluster Lead AgenciesSector or area of activityGlobal cluster lead agencyFood Security FAO/WFPCamp Coordination/Management: Conflict related displacementDisaster related displacementUNHCR IOMEarly RecoveryUNDPEducationUNICEF/Save the Children AllianceEmergency Shelter: Conflict relatedDisaster relatedUNHCRIFRCEmergency TelecommunicationsWFPHealthWHOLogisticsWFPNutritionUNICEFProtectionUNHCRWater, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH)UNICEFCurrently, eleven clusters are in place with each one or more designated Global Cluster Lead Agencies.

This overview show the sector or area of activity and the related Global Cluster Lead Agency(ies).

The phase 2 IASC Cluster Approach Evaluation in 2010 recommend the creation of a co-led global Food Security Cluster (FSC), integrating food aid, agricultural issues and other livelihood interventions and addressing related institutional and policy issues at the political level. And on the 15th of December 2010, following extensive consultation between FAO/WFP, NGOs, the Red Cross/Red Crescent Movement, and other humanitarian Clusters and Members, the IASC Principals unanimously endorsed a joint FAO/WFP proposal to establish a new global Food Security Cluster.

At that time, over 40 Clusters or coordination bodies dealing either broadly or specifically with food security and other related issues were already in existence, forming a body of experience that can be built upon by the new global entity.

1314General Humanitarian KnowledgeGeneral Humanitarian KnowledgeThe Cluster ApproachCountry-Level ClustersWhen are country level clusters activated?New emergencies requiring multi-sectoral...


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