1 What is Ecology? copyright cmassengale. 2 Organisms and Their Environment copyright cmassengale

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3 What is Ecology?? The study of interactions that take place between organisms and their environment.The study of interactions that take place between organisms and their environment. It explains how living organisms affect each other and the world they live in.It explains how living organisms affect each other and the world they live in. The study of interactions that take place between organisms and their environment.The study of interactions that take place between organisms and their environment. It explains how living organisms affect each other and the world they live in.It explains how living organisms affect each other and the world they live in. copyright cmassengale

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What is Ecology?

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Organisms and Their Environment

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What is Ecology??

The study of interactions that take place between organisms and their environment.It explains how living organisms affect each other and the world they live in.

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Habitat & Niche

Habitat is the place a plant or animal lives Niche is an organisms total way of life

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The Nonliving Environment

Abiotic factors- the nonliving parts of an organisms environment.Examples include air currents, temperature, moisture, light, and soil.Abiotic factors affect an organisms life.

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The Living Environment

Biotic factors- all the living organisms that inhabit an environment.All organisms depend on others directly or indirectly for food, shelter, reproduction, or protection.

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Abiotic or Biotic?

Biotic

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Abiotic or Biotic?

Abiotic

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Abiotic or Biotic?

Abiotic

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Abiotic or Biotic?

Biotic

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Levels of Organization

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What are the Simplest Levels?

AtomMoleculeOrganelleCellTissueOrganSystem

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Levels of Organization

Ecologists have organized the interactions an organism takes part in into different levels according to complexity.

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1st Level of Organization

Organism:An individual living thing that is made of cells, uses energy, reproduces, responds, grows, and develops

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2nd Level of Organization

Population:A group of organisms, all of the same species, which interbreed and live in the same place at the same time.

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3rd Level of Organization

Community:All the populations of different species that live in the same place at the same time.

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4th Level of Organization

Ecosystem: Populations of plants and animals that interact with each other in a given area with the abiotic components of that area. (terrestrial or aquatic)

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5th Level of Organization

Biome:

A group of

ecosystems that

share similar

climates and

typical organisms

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6th Level of Organization

Biosphere:The portion of Earth that supports life.

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The Biosphere

Life is found in air, on land, and in fresh and salt water.The BIOSPHERE is the portion of Earth that supports living things.

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What level of organization?

Organism

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What level of Organization?

Community

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What level of Organization?

Population

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Producers & Consumers

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Energy

Organisms need energy to surviveNo organism can create their own energyOnly use energy from other sourcesWhere does the energy come from?

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The sun is the ultimate source of energy

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Autotrophs

Algae, some bacteria, and plants can harness energy from the sun or chemicals and convert it into chemical energyThey are autotrophsself feeding

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Producers

Autotrophs store energy in forms that make it available to other organismsThey are known as primary producersFirst producersEssential to flow of energy

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Energy from Sun

Primary producers use solar energy through the process of photosynthesisPlantsAlgaeCyanobacteria

PhotosynthesisCaptures light energy

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Life Without Light

Chemosynthesis:Chemical energy is used to produce sugars

Chemosynthetic organisms are found in the deepest, darkest oceans, hot springs, and tidal marshes.

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Photosynthesis & Chemosynthesis

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Heterotrophs

Many organisms cannot directly use energy from the environment.They must acquire energy from other organisms They are known as heterotrophs

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Consumers

Organisms that rely on other organisms for energy and nutrients are called consumersThere are different classes of consumers

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Consumers

Decomposers:feed by chemically breaking down organic matterEx: fungi, bacteriaDetritivores:Feed on detritus particles (waste, trash)Ex: earthworms, beetles

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Consumers

Omnivores:Diet naturally includes a variety of different foods.Both plants and animalsEx: humans, bears, pigs

Scavengers:Consume the carcasses of other animalsEx: vultures,

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Consumers

HerbivoresEat plants, roots, seeds, or fruitsEx: cows, caterpillars, and deer

CarnivoresKill and eat other organismsEx: snakes, cats, dogs, etc

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