1. What is Biotechnology? Definitions of Biotechnology Timeline of Biotechnology Techniques used in Biotechnology Who's Who in Biotechnology 2. How is

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  • 1. What is Biotechnology? Definitions of Biotechnology Timeline of Biotechnology Techniques used in Biotechnology Who's Who in Biotechnology 2. How is Biotechnology being used? Applications of Biotechnology Medicines on the market today Agriculture - GM Foods and Animals DNA fingerprinting and forensic science Gene Therapy and Transgenic Animals Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Cloning 3. What are some of the societal issues Biotechnology raises? Bioethics / "Genethics" Public attitudes to biotechnology - safety, awareness Therapeutic uses of human genes and tissues Overview
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  • What is biotechnology? Biotechnology = bios (life) + logos (study of or essence) Literally the study of tools from living things CLASSIC: The word "biotechnology" was first used in 1917 to describe processes using living organisms to make a product or run a process, such as industrial fermentations. (Robert Bud, The Uses of Life: A History of Biotechnology)Robert Bud, The Uses of Life: A History of Biotechnology LAYMAN: Biotechnology began when humans began to plant their own crops, domesticate animals, ferment juice into wine, make cheese, and leaven bread (AccesExcellence)AccesExcellence)
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  • What is biotechnology? GENENTECH: Biotechnology is the process of harnessing 'nature's own' biochemical tools to make possible new products and processes and provide solutions to society's ills (G. Kirk Raab, Former President and CEO of Genentech) WEBSTERS: The aspect of technology concerned with the application of living organisms to meet the needs and ends of man. WALL STREET: Biotechnology is the application of genetic engineering and DNA technology to produce therapeutic and medical diagnostic products and processes. Biotech companies have one thing in common - the use of genetic engineering and manipulation of organisms at a molecular level.
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  • What is biotechnology? Using scientific methods with organisms to produce new products or new forms of organisms Any technique that uses living organisms or substances from those organisms or substances from those organisms to make or modify a product, to improve plants or animals, or to develop microorganisms for specific uses
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  • What is biotechnology? Biotechnology is a multidisciplinarian in nature, involving input from Engineering Computer Science Cell and Molecular Biology Microbiology Genetics Physiology Biochemistry Immunology Virology Recombinant DNA Technology Genetic manipulation of bacteria, viruses, fungi, plants and animals, often for the development of specific products
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  • What are the stages of biotechnology? Ancient Biotechnology early history as related to food and shelter, including domestication Classical Biotechnology built on ancient biotechnology fermentation promoted food production medicine Modern Biotechnology manipulates genetic information in organism genetic engineering
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  • Ancient biotechnology Paleolithic society Hunter-gatherers Nomadic lifestyle due to migratory animals and edible plant distribution (wild wheat and barley) (~2 x 10 6 yrs.) Followed by domestication of plants and animals (artificial selection) People settled, sedentary lifestyles evolved (~10,000 yrs. ago) Cultivation of wheat, barley and rye (seed collections) Sheep and goats milk, cheese, button and meat Grinding stones for food preparation New technology Origins of Biotechnology Agrarian Societies History of domestication and agriculture History of domestication and agriculture History of domestication and agriculture History of domestication and agriculture
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  • Long history of fermented foods since people began to settle (9000 BC) (fervere to boil) Often discovered by accident! Improved flavor and texture Deliberate contamination with bacteria or fungi (molds) Examples: Bread Yogurt Sour cream Cheese Wine Beer Sauerkraut Ancient biotechnology Fermented foods and beverages
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  • Dough not baked immediately would undergo spontaneous fermentation would rise Eureka!! Uncooked fermented dough could be used to ferment a new batch no longer reliant on chance fermentation 1866 Louis Pasteur published his findings on the direct link between yeast and sugars CO 2 + ethanol (anaerobic process) 1915 Production of bakers yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ancient biotechnology Fermented foods and beverages
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  • Different types of beer Vinegar Glycerol Acetone Butanol Lactic acid Citric acid Antibiotics WWII (Bioreactor developed for large scale production, e.g. penicilin made by fermentation of penicillium) Today many different antibiotics are produced by microorganisms Cephalosporins, bacitracin, neomycin, tetracycline..) Classical biotechnology Industry today exploits early discoveries of the fermentation process for production of huge numbers of products
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  • Substrate + Microbial Enzyme Product Examples: Cholesterol Steroids (cortisone, estrogen, progesterone) (hydroxylation reaction -OH group added to cholesterol ring) Classical biotechnology Chemical transformations to produce therapeutic products
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  • Amino acids to improve food taste, quality or preservation Enzymes (cellulase, collagenase, diastase, glucose isomerase, invertase, lipase, pectinase, protease) Vitamins Pigments Classical biotechnology Microbial synthesis of other commercially valuable products
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  • Cell biology Structure, organization and reproduction Biochemistry Synthesis of organic compounds Cell extracts for fermentation (enzymes versus whole cells) Genetics Resurrection of Gregor Mendels findings 1866 1900s Theory of Inheritance (ratios dependent on traits of parents) Theory of Transmission factors W.H. Sutton 1902 Chromosomes = inheritance factors T.H. Morgan Drosophila melanogaster Modern biotechnology
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  • Molecular Biology Beadle and Tatum (Neurospora crassa) One gene, one enzyme hypothesis Charles Yanofsky colinearity between mutations in genes and amino acid sequence (E. coli) Genes determine structure of proteins Hershey and Chase 1952 T2 bacteriophage 32 P DNA, not 35 S protein is the material that encodes genetic information Modern biotechnology
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  • Watson, Crick, Franklin and Wilkins (1953) X-ray crystallography 1962 Nobel Prize awarded to three men Chargaff DNA base ratios Structural model of DNA developed DNA Revolution Promise and Controversy!!! Scientific foundation of modern biotechnology based on knowledge of DNA, its replication, repair and use of enzymes to carry out in vitro splicing DNA fragments Modern biotechnology
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  • Breaking the Genetic Code Finding the Central Dogma An RNA Club organized by George Gamow (1954) assembled to determine the role of RNA in protein synthesis Vernon Ingrams research on sickle cell anemia (1956) tied together inheritable diseases with protein structure Link made between amino acids and DNA Radioactive tagging experiments demonstrate intermediate between DNA and protein = RNA RNA movement tracked from nucleus to cytoplasm site of protein synthesis Modern biotechnology
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  • DNA RNA Protein Transcription Translation Genetic code determined for all 20 amino acids by Marshal Nirenberg and Heinrich Matthaei and Gobind Khorana Nobel Prize 1968 3 base sequence = codon Modern biotechnology
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  • What are the areas of biotechnology? Organismic biotechnology uses intact organisms and does not alter genetic material Molecular Biotechnology alters genetic makeup to achieve specific goals Transgenic organism: an organism with artificially altered genetic material
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  • What are the benefits of biotechnology? Medicine human veterinary biopharming Environment Agriculture Food products Industry and manufacturing
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  • What are the applications of biotechnology? Production of new and improved crops/foods, industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals and livestock Diagnostics for detecting genetic diseases Gene therapy (e.g. ADA, CF) Vaccine development (recombinant vaccines) Environmental restoration Protection of endangered species Conservation biology Bioremediation Forensic applications Food processing (cheese, beer)
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  • Monoclonal Antibodies Molecular Biology Cell Culture Genetic Engineering Anti-cancer drugs Diagnostics Culture of plants from single cells Transfer of new genes into animal organisms Synthesis of specific DNA probes Localisation of genetic disorders Tracers Cloning Gene therapy Mass prodn. of human proteins Resource bank for rare human chemicals Synthesis of new proteins New antibiotics New types of plants and animals New types of food DNA technology Crime solving Banks of DNA, RNA and proteins Complete map of the human genome
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  • Biotechnology Timeline 1750 BCThe Sumerians brew beer. 500 BCChinese use moldy soybean curds as an antibiotic to treat boils 1590Janssen invents the microscope 1675Leeuwenhoek discovers cells (bacteria, red blood cells) 1830Proteins are discovered 1833The first enzymes are isolated 1855The Eschirium coli bacterium is discovered
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  • Biotechnology Timeline 1859Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species 1864Louis Pasteur shows all living things are produced by other living things 1865The age of genetics begins 1902Walter Sutton coins the term ge