1 South Asia. 2 MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES OF SOUTH ASIA WELL DEFINED PHYSIOGRAPHICALLY THE WORLD’S SECOND LARGEST POPULATION CLUSTER SIGNIFICANT DEMOGRAPHIC.

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> 1 South Asia </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> 2 MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES OF SOUTH ASIA WELL DEFINED PHYSIOGRAPHICALLY THE WORLDS SECOND LARGEST POPULATION CLUSTER SIGNIFICANT DEMOGRAPHIC PROBLEMS LOW INCOME ECONOMIES POPULATION CONCENTRATED IN VILLAGES - SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE STRONG CULTURAL REGIONALISM </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> 3 THE REALM Five Regions India Pakistan Bangladesh Mountainous North Southern Islands </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> 4 POPULATION GEOGRAPHY THE SPATIAL VIEW OF DEMOGRAPHY STUDY OF POPULATION DISTRIBUTION, COMPOSITION, RATES OF GROWTH, AND PATTERNS OF FLOW POPULATION DENSITY (INDIA) ARITHMETIC- 904/sq mi PHYSIOLOGIC- 1,615/sq mi (US=415/sq mi) KEY MEASURES RATE OF NATURAL INCREASE DOUBLING TIME </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> 5 INDIA JAPAN 70 + 60- 69 50-59 40- 49 30- 39 10-19 0-9 AGE MALEFEMALE MALEFEMALE 20100 20 301503015 Percent of Population POPULATION PROFILES 20-29 </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> 6 265 22 42 874 7.6 176 53 52 82 865 341 315 36 0 200 4006008001000 People per square mile Europe Russia North America Japan Middle America South America N. Africa/S.W. Asia Subsaharan Africa South Asia Southeast Asia Europe Russia North America Japan Austral Middle America South America N. Africa/S.W. Asia Subsaharan Africa South Asia East Asia Southeast Asia Pacific POPULATION DENSITY World Average = 117/mi 2 Realm </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> 7 POPULATION DENSITY </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> 8 POPULATION GROWTH </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> 9 </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> 10 DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION MODEL </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> 11 133,000,000 50,300 2,644 people/ sq mile UNITED STATES 77 people/ sq mile POPULATION DENSITY COMPARISON United States - Bangladesh BANGLADESH </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> 12 </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> 13 MONSOONS To the people of India the monsoons are a source of life. Seasonal reversal of winds General onshore movement in summer General offshore flow in winter Very distinctive seasonal precipitation regime </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> 14 Monsoons </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> 15 MONSOON RAINS ESSENTIAL FOR RICE PRODUCTION. HOWEVER </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> 16 POTENTIALLY NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF MONSOONS Widespread flooding Property damage Destruction to agricultural lands Damage to transportation infrastructure Homelessness Disease Malnutrition Serious injury Death </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> 17 India - Historical Ancient India (2700 BC-1000 AD) Medieval India (1000-1756) Freedom struggle (1757-1947) Modern India (1947-Present day) </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> 18 Harappa/Mohenjodaro </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> 19 India - Historical Harappa was an Indus Valley urban center. There are also the well-known accounts in the Rig Veda of northern or Aryan people driving an indigenous Dravidian people into south India. It is unclear whether the ancient Harappans would have been Aryans or Dravidians. All these sites flourished between 3000 and 2000 B.C., if not earlier. </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> 20 CULTURE A culturally fragmented realm Religious and linguistic diversity Religious Patterns Islam is predominant in Pakistan and Bangladesh. Hinduism is predominant in India. Sikhism thrives in northern India. Buddhism is predominant in Sri Lanka. </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> 21 CULTURE HEARTH: The Indus River Where an early culture emerged and developed Arts and trade routes emerged from isolated tribes and villages to towns and beyond. Hinduism emerged from the beliefs and practices brought to India by the Indo- Europeans (Aryans). (6th century BC) Buddhism born of discontent; made the state religion of India in 3rd century BC Islam sweeps through central India from the 8th -10th centuries AD </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> 22 LANGUAGES Hindi320 m Bihari70 m Marathi 67 m Rajasthani 44 m Gujarati 39 m Oriya 31 m Assamese 23 m Sindhi 17 m Sinhalese 13 m Telugu 71m Tamil 67m Kannada 43m Malayalam 35m </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> 23 RELIGION </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> 24 HINDUISM The worlds oldest religion Culture hearth of the Indus River Diffused south and east down the Ganges Absorbed and eventually supplanted earlier native religions and customs </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> 25 HINDUISM Not just a religion An intricate web of religious, philosophical, social, economic, and artistic elements No common creed No single doctrine No direct divine revelation No rigid narrow moral code </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> 26 REINCARNATION Every living thing has a soul. When a living thing dies, its soul moves into another living creature. Souls are reborn in a newly created life. </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> 27 RELIGIOUS CONTRASTS ISLAM Monotheistic No idols One sacred book Uniform dogma - 5 pillars Intolerant (of other religions) Eat beef/Sacrifice cows Bury Dead Social Equality (in theory) Theocratic society HINDUISM Polytheistic Many idols Various sacred writings Varying beliefs Absorbed other religions Venerate cows Burn dead (&amp; alive) Caste separation State of secondary importance </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> 28 ORIGINS AND SPREAD OF BUDDHISM Siddhartha Gautama (563 - 483 B.C.) Emperor Asoka (3rd Century B.C.) </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> 29 BUDDHISM Adherents objected to harsher features of Hinduism Focuses on knowledge, especially self-knowledge Elimination of worldly desires, determination not to hurt or kill people or animals </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> 30 EIGHTFOLD PATH TO THE MIDDLE WAY Right understanding Right purpose Right speech Right conduct Right means of earning a living Right effort Right awareness Right meditation </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> 31 FALL OF BUDDHISM ON THE SUBCONTINENT Hinduism - broad and tolerant, accepting many of the teachings of Buddha Buddhists in India - willing to compromise with the beliefs and customs of Hinduism Final blow - 8th century - arrival of Islam -- Destroyed the great Buddhist monasteries -- Burned libraries -- Killed monks Today - only 1 million Buddhists in India </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> 32 WHERE ARE THE MUSLIMS ? Millions # of Muslims 168.3 128.8 125 104 62 61.7 57.1 18.2 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 # of Muslims Indonesia India Pakistan Bangladesh Turkey Iran Egypt Saudi Arabia </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> 33 West Pakistan East Pakistan India PAKISTAN (AT PARTITION) </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> 34 PARTITION CHALLENGES: STABILITY REFUGEES </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> 35 MUSLIMS IN INDIA 1931 1951 1991 </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> 36 KASHMIR INDEPENDENCE &amp; PARTITION JAMMU &amp; KASHMIR FACED WITH THE CHOICE OF JOINING EITHER HINDU INDIA OR MUSLIM PAKISTAN KASHMIR HINDU MAHARAJA BUT MUSLIM POPULATION 1947 PAKISTANI TRIBESMEN INVADE MAHARAJA FLEES TO DELHI AND ACCEDES TO INDIA INDIAN and PAKISTANI TROOPS MOVE IN JANUARY 1949 U.N. CEASE FIRE </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> 37 Kashmir and Violence 1998 - Both India and Pakistan test nuclear weapons. These tests prompt international condemnation and consequently the U.S. imposed sanctions on both countries. May 1999 - For the first time in thirty years India launched air strikes against Pakistani- backed militants who had infiltrated into the mountains of India-controlled Kashmir. India claimed these militants were engaging in terrorist operations in India-controlled Kashmir with the aid and support of the Pakistani government. Pakistan claimed, and still claims until this day that these militants are merely freedom fighters for the liberation of Indian-controlled Jammu and Kashmir. October 1999 - General Pervez Musharraf led a military coup in Pakistan, forcing out the elected Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif. Musharraf suspended the constitution and dismissed the Parliament, ending the hopes of a return to civilian rule for the worlds newest nuclear power. The coup was condemned by all the western powers and by the international community, which called for democratically administered elections. The coup led to further sanctions against Pakistan by the U.S. May 2000 - General Musharraf agreed to honor a Pakistani Supreme Court ruling that would return Pakistan to democratic rule within three years. </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> 38 Recent Developments September 2001 - Just eleven days after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center towers, President George W. Bush ended all sanctions against Pakistan and India. President Bush said the sanctions were not in US interests. Pakistan agreed to cooperate with the U.S. and root out terrorist cells throughout the region October 2001 - Thirty-eight people were killed in an attack by Pakistani terrorists on the state assembly building in Srinagar, the capital of Indian- administered Kashmir. The Jaish-e Mohammad (Army of Mohammad) militant group carried out the attack, in which a Pakistani national drove up to the main entrance and detonated a bomb December 2001 - Fourteen people were murdered in an unprecedented suicide attack on the Indian parliament in Delhi when five armed intruders stormed the building. The attackers were assumed to be Pakistani-based separatists groups Lashkar-I- Talyibah and Jaish-I-Mohammed. After the attack, a huge build-up of troops occurred on both the Indian and Pakistani side of the border. On December 25, both the Indians and Pakistanis moved nuclear missiles closer to their borders </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> 39 Pakistan Officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan Originally West Pakistan + East Pakistan East Pakistan later broke away as Bangladesh Original capital was Karachi Later moved to Islamabad Another example of a forward capital </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> 40 Pakistan Ethnic Groups Notice the geography dominated by Pushtuns? Relevance to Afghanistan? Relevance to Taleban? </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> 41 ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (PAKISTAN) LEVELS OF DEVELOPMENT (TECHNOLOGY) A POOR COUNTRY THAT SUPPORTS A LARGE MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT ECONOMIC LIBERALIZATION BEGAN IN 1990 TO BOOST FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC PRIVATE INVESTMENT. </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> 42 ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (INDIA) LEVELS OF DEVELOPMENT (TECHNOLOGY) A MIXTURE OF TRADITIONAL VILLAGE FARMING AND MODERN AGRICULTURE HANDICRAFTS, OLD AND NEW BRANCHES OF INDUSTRY A MULTITUDE OF SUPPORT SERVICES AND NUCLEAR POWER </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> 43 GREEN REVOLUTION THE SUCCESSFUL DEVELOPMENT OF HIGHER YIELD, FAST-GROWING VARIETIES OF RICE AND OTHER CEREALS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH PROGRAM-1960s FOCUSED ON THE FOOD CRISES INCREASED PRODUCTION PER UNIT AREA VIA: MIRACLE CROPS NEW IRRIGATION SYSTEMS INTENSIVE USE OF FERTILIZERS </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> 44 TARGETED AREAS </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> 45 INDIAS GREAT CITIES MUMBAI (BOMBAY)- Home to the worlds largest slumDharavi KOLKATA (CALCUTTA)- 500,000 HOMELESS FORMER BRITISH COLONIAL CAPITAL- 1772 ADVERSELY AFFECTED BY PARTITION DELHI (NEW AND OLD) BRITISH AND INDIAN SEAT OF GOVERNMENT </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> 46 Bangladesh One of the poorest countries High population density Prone to natural hazards Cyclones Flooding </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> 47 BANGLADESH INDEPENDENT SINCE 1971 FORMERLY EAST PAKISTAN 85% MUSLIM, 12% HINDU 133 MILLION PEOPLE PHYSIOLOGIC DENSITY = 3,622/sq mi 1.9% ANNUAL GROWTH RATE PER CAPITA GNP = 350 US DOLLARS NATURAL HAZARDS - CYCLONES </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> 48 ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (BANGLADESH) LEVELS OF DEVELOPMENT (TECHNOLOGY) ONE OF THE WORLDS POOREST AND LEAST DEVELOPED STATES ECONOMY IS OVERWHELMINGLY AGRICULTURAL CULTIVATION OF RICE IS THE SINGLE MOST IMPORTANT ACTIVITY IN THE ECONOMY. </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> 49 SRI LANKA INDEPENDENT SINCE 1948 19.7 MILLION PEOPLE (70% BUDDHISTS) PLANTATION AGRICULTURE: TEA, RUBBER, COCONUTS SOUTH (MAJORITY OF POPULATION) ARYAN BUDDHISTS SPEAK SINHALA (INDO-EUROPEAN) NORTH (18% OF THE POPULATION) DRAVIDIAN HINDU TAMIL LANGUAGE </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> 50 Sinhalese vs Tamils Tamils - demanded equal rights in: -- education -- employment -- landownership -- linguistic &amp; political representation Insurgent State LTTE - Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam SRI LANKA </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> 51 Nepal Himalayan Region: Altitude ranges between 4877 meters and 8848 meters Includes 8 of the existing 14 summits in the world which exceed an altitude of 8000 meters. Mt. Everest (8848), (2) Kangchenjunga - 8586 m, (3) Lhotse - 8516m, Makalu - 8463m, (5) ChoOyo- 8201 m, (6) Dhaulagiri - 8167m, (7) Manaslu - 8163m, and Annapurna- 8091 m. Mountain Region: This region accounts for about 64 percent to total land area. Formed by the Mahabharat range that soars upto 4877 meters. Terai Region: The low-land Terai region which has a width of about 26 to 32 kilometers and a maximum altitude of 305 meters, which occupies about 17% of total land area of the country. Kechanakawal the lowest point of the country with an altitude of 70 meters lies in Jhapa District of the eastern Terai. </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> 52 Nepal A poor country Capital is Kathmandu Main language is Nepali Related to Hindi </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> <li> 53 And the rest Bhutan Shangri La because it is relatively untouched by modernity Monarchy The Maldives Archipalego in the Indian Ocean The realms highest per capita GNP Tourism </li> </ul>

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