*Solid and Hazardous Waste
*Wasting Resources United States 4.6% of the world's population33% of the world's solid waste 75% of its hazardous waste
Waste OverviewSolid Wasteany unwanted material that is solidThe U.S. produces 11,000,000,000 tons (22,000,000,000,000 lbs) per yearSome of this solid waste can be recycled (agricultural waste), but much has to dealt withWaste Stream: the steady flow of wastes that humans produce from all sources
*Solid WasteSource ReductionReuseRecyclingCompostingIncinerationLandfillsHazardous WasteSuperfund Sites
Where does U.S. waste come from?
Sources of U.S. wasteMining waste makes up 75% of all waste, but much of that is used soil or spoilIndustrial solid waste: scrap metal, plastics, paper, fly ash (power plants) and sludgemost is burned or buried on-siteMunicipal solid waste (MSW)from homes and businesses700kg per person per year60% dumped, 24% recycled, 16% burned
*Solid Waste Problems Disease (Rodent and pest reduction)Fire potentialDecrease in the aesthetic quality of the environmentwww2.tltc.ttu.edu/jackson/solid%20waste.ppt
*Municipal Solid Waste MSWmore commonly known as trash or garbageconsists of everyday itemsProduct packagingGrass clippingsFurnitureClothingBottlesFood scrapsNewspapersAppliancesPaintBatterieshttp://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/facts.htm
*Includes rubber and textilesSource: EPA Office of Solid Waste, Municipal Solid Waste Fact Sheet www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/facts.htm
*MSWIn 1999, U.S. residents, businesses, and institutions produced more than 230 million tons of MSWApproximately 4.6 pounds of waste per person per day (1680 pounds/year)Up from 2.7 pounds per person per day in 1960http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/facts.htm
*MSWSeveral MSW management practices prevent or divert materials from the wastestreamSource reductionReuseRecyclingCompostinghttp://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/facts.htm
*Agriculture WasteLivestock produce sewage200,000 hens, 1200 head of cattle in a feedlot, & 10,500 hogs may produce as much waste as 20,000 peopleIn the U.S., there are 337 million hen, 96.1 million head of cattle & 58.7 million hogs which produce twice as much sewage as all the humans in the U.S.
*1. Source ReductionSource reduction (waste prevention) means consuming and throwing away lessPurchasing durable, long-lasting goodsSeeking products and packaging that are as free of toxins as possiblehttp://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/facts.htm
*Source ReductionMay be as complex as redesigning a product use less raw material in productionhave a longer life be used again after its original use is completedSource reduction actually prevents the generation of waste in the first place, it is the most preferable method of waste management and goes a long way toward protecting the environmenthttp://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/facts.htm
*Source ReductionSince 1977, the weight of 2-liter plastic soft drink bottles has been reduced from 68 grams each to 51 gramsThat means that 250 million pounds of plastic per year has been kept out of the waste stream
*2. ReuseReusing items by repairing them, donating them to charity and community groups, or selling themUse a product more than once, either for the same purpose or for a different purposeReusing, when possible, is preferable to recycling because the item does not need to be reprocessed before it can be used again
Other Options: Reduce WasteReduce consumptionreduce manufacturing to produce less wastereduce packaging (50% of domestic waste)trash taxes
also, modify wastephotodegradable and biodegradable plastics
Other options: reuse wasteGlass bottles for beveragecharge high prices and give return rebateuse fabric bags for groceriesreuse car parts, motor oil etc.
*Ways to ReuseUsing durable coffee mugsUsing cloth napkins or towelsRefilling bottlesDonating old magazines or surplus equipmentReusing boxesTurning empty jars into containers for leftover foodPurchasing refillable pens and pencilsParticipating in a paint collection and reuse program
*3. RecyclingRecycling, including composting, diverted 64 million tons of material away from landfills and incinerators in 1999, up from 34 million tons in 1990Typical materials that are recycled include batteries, recycled at a rate of 96.9%, paper and paperboard at 41.9%, and yard trimmings at 45.3%These materials and others may be recycled through curbside programs, drop-off centers, buy-back programs, and deposit systemshttp://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/facts.htm
Other options: Recycle wasteRecycling is defined as the process of turning discarded materials into new materialsinto same product (aluminum cans)into a different product (fleeces)Successes:2/3 of all aluminum cans are recycled (2 months)paper recycling is taking off (40%)recycling Sunday papers would save 500,000 trees per weekIn Japan, 50% of all household waste is recycled (20% in U.S.)
*BenefitsRecycling Prevents the emission of many greenhouse gases and water pollutantsSaves energy, supplies valuable raw materials to industryCreates jobsStimulates the development of greener technologiesConserves resources for our childrens futureReduces the need for new landfills and combustorsReduce greenhouse gas emissions that affect global climateIn 1996, prevented the release of 33 million tons of carbon into the airroughly the amount emitted annually by 25 million cars.
Comparison of Countries Waste Treatment
*4. CompostingComposting is the controlled biological decomposition of organic matter, such as food and yard wastes, into humus, a soil-like material Composting is nature's way of recycling organic wastes into new soil used in vegetable and flower gardens, landscaping, and many other applicationshttp://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/facts.htm
CompostingHouse-by-house recycling of organic material under aerobic conditionsgreen waste and plant food waste are broken down by soil organisms and turned into humus
*BenefitsCompostingKeeps organic wastes out of landfillsProvides nutrients to the soilIncreases beneficial soil organisms (e.g., worms and centipedes)Suppresses certain plant diseasesReduces the need for fertilizers and pesticidesProtects soils from erosionAssists pollution remediationhttp://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/facts.htm
5. Incineration and Resource RecoveryAlso called energy recovery or waste-to-energytrash is burned, and the heat is used to generate electricity1000 plants word-wide (110 in U.S.)
IncineratorsTwo types:refuse-derived trash is sorted before burningless air pollutionhigher quality fuelmass burnall trash burnedmore air pollution10-20% of original mass is ash which must be disposed of as toxic wasterecycling is so effective in places that cities are having trouble with contractual agreements
*6. LandfillsUnder the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), landfills that accept MSW are primarily regulated by state, tribal, and local governments EPA, however, has established national standards these landfills must meet in order to stay openThe number of landfills in the United States is steadily decreasingfrom 8,000 in 1988 to 2,300 in 1999The capacity, however, has remained relatively constantNew landfills are much larger than in the past
LandfillsBuilt to decrease problems with insect and rodent populationslitter is compacted and covered every daynewer ones have lining (only 15%)up to 50% of all cities have used up landfill spaceLandfills in Ohiocities export trash (New Jersey)
*Resource Conservation and Recovery Act The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) was enacted by Congress in 1976 and amended in 1984. The act's primary goal is to protect human health and the environment from the potential hazards of waste disposal. In addition, RCRA calls for conservation of energy and natural resources, reduction in waste generated, and environmentally sound waste management practices.
Landfill DesignThe bottom liner may be layers of clay or other synthetic material (clay, plastic, or composite), which is placed on compacted soil.The bottom of the landfill is sloped and pipes along the bottom collect leachate. This leachate collections system must be very carefully planned and built by engineers. It is usually a system of pipes. (These pipes are among a gravel and sand layer.) The leachate is then pumped away and treated at a plant. Trash is dumped onto the landfill and consistently layered with soil to promote safer and better decomposition.A cover is placed over the landfill to keep water out (to prevent eventual leachate formation). Landfills also must have a system to dispose of methane gas. The structure of this system must be carefully engineered.
*Federal Landfill Standards Location restrictions ensure that landfills are built in suitable geological areas away from faults, wetlands, flood plains, or other restricted areasLiners are geomembrane or plastic sheets reinforced with two feet of clay on the bottom and sides of landfillsBioreactors start at 1:33