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    METHODS OF SPOKENMETHODS OF SPOKEN

    LANGUAGE TEACHINGLANGUAGE TEACHING

    Elsa Martnez Olmedo

    UNIPRE

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    Objetivo

    Al finalizar el curso, el alumno sercapaz de manejar la metodologa para

    la enseanza de la comunicacin oral

    del idioma ingls, por medio deldesarrollo de sus habilidades de

    pronunciacin y expresin oral,

    aplicando las distintas tcnicas y

    estrategias didcticas, a fin de ensear

    las herramientas adecuadas para la

    correcta expresin oral.

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    Temas

    1. Elementos de la comunicacin oral

    (Elements of speaking)

    2. Enseanza de habilidades productivas

    (Teaching productive skills)

    3. Actividades de comunicacin en el

    aula (Classroom communicationactivities)

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    Temas y subtemas

    1. Elementos de la comunicacin oral

    1.1Caractersticas del idioma (Language

    features)

    1.2Proceso mental/ social (Mental/social

    processing)

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    Temas y subtemas

    2. Enseanza de habilidades

    productivas

    2.1 Estructura del discurso

    2.2 Estilos y gneros diferentes

    2.3 Interaccin con audiencias

    2.4 Manejo de problemas

    2.5 Roles del profesor

    2.6 Habilidades productivas en el aula

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    Temas y subtemas

    3. Actividades de comunicacin dentro del aula

    3.1 Actuacin a partir de un escrito

    3.2 Juegos comunicativos

    3.3 Clases de conversacin

    3.4 Preparando dilogos

    3.5 Cuestionarios

    3.6 Juegos de roles, realia y simulaciones3.7 Fluidez, precisin y comunicacin

    3.8 Diferentes tipos de habla

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    Actividades de aprendizaje Exposiciones

    Resmenes

    Juego de roles y simulaciones

    Ejercicios de aplicacin

    Investigaciones y reportes Aplicacin de los mtodos aprendidos

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    Criterios de EvaluacinPresentacin oral de la planeacin de

    una clase30%

    Anlisis crtico de planeacin didctica

    para la enseanza oral de ingls30%

    Exposicin de tcnicas de enseanza 10%

    Exmenes 30%

    Total 100%

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    Gracias!Preguntas?

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    Qu actividades conocen para

    promover el uso de inglshablado?

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    Methods of language teaching include:

    1) Grammar-translation approach2) Direct approach

    3) Reading approach

    4) Audiolingual method

    5) Community language learning

    6) Suggestopedia

    7) The silent way

    8) Total physical response9) The natural way

    10) Communicative language teaching

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    Grammar-Translation Approach

    In this method, classes are taught in the students'

    mother tongue, with little active use of the targetlanguage.

    Vocabulary is taught in the form of isolated word lists.

    Elaborate explanations of grammar are always

    provided.Grammar instruction provides the rules for putting

    words together; instruction focuses on the form andinflection of words.

    Little attention is paid to the content of texts.Drills are exercises in translating disconnected

    sentences from the target language into the mothertongue, and vice versa.

    Little or no attention is given to pronunciation.

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    Direct Approach

    This approach was developed initially as a

    reaction to the grammar-translation approach in anattempt to integrate more use of the targetlanguage in instruction.

    Lessons begin with a dialogue using a modern

    conversational style in the target language.Material is first presented orally with actions or

    pictures.

    The mother tongue is NEVER used. There is no

    translation.The preferred type of exercise is a series of

    questions in the target language based on thedialogue or an anecdotal narrative.

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    Questions are answered in the target language.

    Grammar is taught inductively--rules are

    generalized from the practice and experience withthe target language.

    Verbs are used first and systematically conjugatedmuch later after some oral mastery of the target

    language.Advanced students read literature for

    comprehension and pleasure.

    Literary texts are not analyzed grammatically.

    The culture associated with the target language isalso taught inductively.

    Culture is considered an important aspect oflearning the language.

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    Reading Approach

    The approach is mostly for people who do not

    travel abroad for whom reading is the one usableskill in a foreign language.

    The priority in studying the target language isfirst, reading ability and second, current and/or

    historical knowledge of the country where thetarget language is spoken.

    Only the grammar necessary for readingcomprehension and fluency is taught.

    Minimal attention is paid to pronunciation orgaining conversational skills in the targetlanguage.

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    From the beginning, a great amount of reading is

    done in L2.

    The vocabulary of the early reading passages and

    texts is strictly controlled for difficulty.

    Vocabulary is expanded as quickly as possible,

    since the acquisition of vocabulary is consideredmore important that grammatical skill.

    Translation reappears in this approach as a

    respectable classroom procedure related to

    comprehension of the written text.

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    Audiolingual Method

    This method is based on the principles ofbehavior psychology.

    It adapted many of the principles and

    procedures of the Direct Method, in part asa reaction to the lack of speaking skills of

    the Reading Approach.

    New material is presented in the form of a

    dialogue.

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    Based on the principle that language learning ishabit formation, the method fosters dependence onmimicry, memorization of set phrases and over-learning.

    Structures are sequenced and taught one at a time.Structural patterns are taught using repetitivedrills.

    Little or no grammatical explanations areprovided; grammar is taught inductively.

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    Skills are sequenced: Listening, speaking,reading and writing are developed in order.

    Vocabulary is strictly limited and learned incontext.

    Teaching points are determined bycontrastive analysis between L1 and L2.

    There is abundant use of languagelaboratories, tapes and visual aids.

    There is an extended pre-reading period at

    the beginning of the course.

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    Great importance is given to precise native-like

    pronunciation.Use of the mother tongue by the teacher is

    permitted, but discouraged among and by thestudents.

    Successful responses are reinforced; great care istaken to prevent learner errors.

    There is a tendency to focus on manipulation ofthe target language and to disregard content and

    meaning.

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    Hints for Using Audio-lingual Drills in L2 Teaching

    1. The teacher must be careful to insure that all of

    the utterances which students will make areactually within the practiced pattern.

    2. Drills should be conducted as rapidly as possibly

    so as to insure automaticity and to establish a

    system.

    3. Ignore all but gross errors of pronunciation when

    drilling for grammar practice.

    4. Use of shortcuts to keep the pace of drills at amaximum. Use hand motions, signal cards,

    notes, etc. to cue response.

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    5. Drill material should always be meaningful. If the

    content words are not known, teach theirmeanings.

    6. Intersperse short periods of drill (about 10minutes) with very brief alternative activities to

    avoid fatigue and boredom.7. Dont stand in one place; move about the room

    standing next to as many different students aspossible to check their production. Thus you will

    know who to give more practice to duringindividual drilling.

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    Community language learning (CLL)

    This approach is patterned upon counseling

    techniques and adapted to the peculiar anxiety and

    threat as well as the personal and language

    problems a person encounters in the learning of

    foreign languages.The learner is not thought of as a student but as a

    client.

    The instructors are not considered teachers but,

    rather are trained in counseling skills adapted totheir roles as language counselors.

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    The language-counseling relationship begins withthe client's linguistic confusion and conflict.

    The aim of the language counselor's skill is first tocommunicate an empathy for the client'sthreatened inadequate state and to aid him

    linguistically.

    Then slowly the teacher-counselor strives toenable him to arrive at his own increasinglyindependent language adequacy.

    This process is furthered by the languagecounselor's ability to establish a warm,understanding, and accepting relationship, thusbecoming an "other-language self" for the client.

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    The process involves five stages of adaptation:

    STAGE 1

    The client is completely dependent on thelanguage counselor.

    1. First, he expresses only to the counselor and in

    English what he wishes to say to the group. Eachgroup member overhears this English exchangebut no other members of the group are involved inthe interaction.

    2. The counselor then reflects these ideas back tothe client in the foreign language in a warm,accepting tone, in simple language in phrases offive or six words.

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    3. The client turns to the group and presents his

    ideas in the foreign language. He has thecounselor's aid if he mispronounces or hesitates ona word or phrase. This is the client's maximumsecurity stage.

    STAGE 21. Same as above.

    2. The client turns and begins to speak the foreignlanguage directly to the group.

    3. The counselor aids only as the client hesitates orturns for help. These small independent steps aresigns of positive confidence and hope.

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    STAGE 3

    1. The client speaks directly to the group in the

    foreign language. This presumes that the grouphas now acquired the ability to understand hissimple phrases.

    2. Same as 3 above. This presumes the client's

    greater confidence, independence, andproportionate insight into the relationship ofphrases, grammar, and ideas. Translation is givenonly when a group member desires it.

    STAGE 41. The client is now speaking freely and

    complexly in the foreign language. Presumesgroup's understanding.

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    2. The counselor directly intervenes ingrammatical error, mispronunciation, or where aidin complex expression is needed. The client issufficiently secure to take correction.

    STAGE 5

    1. Same as stage 4.

    2. The counselor intervenes not only to offer

    correction but to add idioms and more elegantconstructions.

    3. At this stage the client can become counselor tothe group in stages 1, 2, and 3.

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    Suggestopedia

    -This method developed out of believe that

    human brain could process great quantities ofmaterial given the right conditions of learninglike relaxation.

    - music was central to this method.

    - Soft music led to increase in alpha brainwave and a decrease in blood pressure andpulse rate resulting in high intake of largequantities of materials.

    - Learners were encouraged to be as childlikeas possible.

    - Apart from soft, comfortable seats in arelaxed setting, everything else remained the

    same.

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    The natural approach

    This method emphasized development of

    basic personal communication skills

    Delay production until speech emerge i.e

    learners dont say anything until they are

    ready to do soLearners should be as relaxed a possible

    Advocate use ofTPR at beginning level

    Comprehensible input is essential for

    acquisition to take place.

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    The Silent Way

    This method begins by using a set of colored

    wooden rods and verbal commands in order toachieve the following:

    1)To avoid the use of the vernacular.

    2)To create simple linguistic situations that remain

    under the complete control of the teacher .3)To pass on to the learners the responsibility for the

    utterances of the descriptions of the objects shownor the actions performed.

    4)To let the teacher concentrate on what the studentssay and how they are saying it, drawing theirattention to the differences in pronunciation andthe flow of words.

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    5) To generate a serious game-like situation in whichthe rules are implicitly agreed upon by giving

    meaning to the gestures of the teacher and hismime.

    6) To permit almost from the start a switch from thelone voice of the teacher using the foreign

    language to a number of voices using it.7) To provide the support of perception and action to

    the intellectual guess of what the noises mean,thus bring in the arsenal of the usual criteria ofexperience already developed and automatic inone's use of the mother tongue.

    8) To provide a duration of spontaneous speech uponwhich the teacher and the students can work toobtain a similarity of melody to the one heard.

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    Materials

    The materials utilized as the language learning

    progresses include:1) A set of colored wooden rods

    2) A set of wall charts containing words of a"functional" vocabulary and some additional

    ones3) A pointer for use with the charts in Visual

    Dictation

    4) A color coded phonic chart(s) Tapes or discs

    5) films, drawings and pictures, and6) A set of accompanying worksheets

    transparencies, texts, a Book of Stories.

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    Total PhysicalResponse (TPR)

    Total Physical Response (TPR) method as one that

    combines information and skills through the use of thekinesthetic sensory system.

    This combination of skills allows the student toassimilate information and skills at a rapid rate. Thebasic tenets are:

    1) Understanding the spoken language before developingthe skills of speaking.

    2) Imperatives are the main structures to transfer orcommunicate information.

    3) The student is not forced to speak, but is allowed anindividual readiness period and allowed tospontaneously begin to speak when the he/she feelscomfortable and confident in understanding andproducing the utterances.

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    Procedure:

    Step I The teacher says the commands as he himself

    performs the action.Step 2 The teacher says the command as both the

    teacher and the students then perform the action.

    Step 3 The teacher says the command but only

    students perform the action

    Step 4 The teacher tells one student at a time to do

    commands

    Step 5 The roles of teacher and student are reversed.Students give commands to teacher and to other

    students.

    Step 6 The teacher and student allow for command

    expansion or produces new sentences.

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    Communicative language Teaching

    The method stresses a means of organizing a

    language syllabus. The emphasis is on breakingdown the global concept of language into units ofanalysis in terms of communicative situations inwhich they are used.

    There is negotiation of meaning.A variety of language skills are involved

    Material is presented in context

    It pays attention to registers and styles in terms ofsituation and participants.

    Fluency and accuracy (different competencies)

    Form and functions

    development of autonomous learners