79
Dr. Eng. Walid Abdelghaffar

1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Embed Size (px)

Citation preview

Page 1: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Eng. Walid Abdelghaffar

Page 2: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Gas Turbine HistoryGas Turbine History

Page 3: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Gas Turbine HistoryGas Turbine History

HERO’S AEOLIPILE

Hero’s Aeolipile

(Ancient Egyptian Scientist)

300AD – 250BC

Page 4: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Gas Turbine HistoryGas Turbine History

Chimney Jack designed by Leonardo da Vinci (1500AD)

Page 5: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Gas Turbine HistoryGas Turbine History

Branca’s Jet Turbine (1500AD)

Page 6: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Gas Turbine HistoryGas Turbine History

Newton’s Steam Wagon

Page 7: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Gas Turbine HistoryGas Turbine History

1791 - John Barber- First Patent using Thermodynamic Cycle of GTE.

1930 - Sir Frank Whittle First Patent of a Jet Aircraft Engine.

1937 - First used GTE used to power a ship.

1941 - GE Contracted for an American version of Brit- DesignedWhittle engine.

1941 - Westinghouse builds first American GTE.

1967 - US Navy - Asheville class patrol gunboats

Page 8: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

IntroductionGas turbines are designed for many different purposes. In the petroleum industry they are commonly used to drive:

· compressors for transporting gas through pipelines

· generators that produce electrical power

Gas Turbine Engine Design

Page 9: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Engine Design : SectionsThe purpose of a gas turbine engine is to create energy to turn a shaft that drives other rotating equipment such as compressors and generators.

The figure shows a two-shaft turbine engine.

A gas turbine engine is divided into five sections:· air inlet section· compressor section · combustion section· turbine section· exhaust section

Page 10: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

The sections of a gas turbine are contained in the engine case. The engine case is a horizontal tube-like container that is open at both ends.

Each section of the gas turbine has a specific function. Engine Design: Air Inlet & CompressorsHuge quantities of air enter the case through an opening at the front end called the engine air inlet.

After passing through the engine air inlet, the air flows to the compressor section. The compressor section contains the first moving part, the compressor.

Compressor wheels increase the pressure of the incoming air.

Page 11: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Engine Design: CombustionThe compressed air flows to the combustion section of the gas turbine engine.

As the compressed air enters the combustion chambers, fuel is added through nozzles. The result is a mixture of fuel and air.

The fuel and air mixture is ignited and burns, creating hot gases. The hot, expanding gases flow into the turbine section of the engine.

Page 12: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Engine Design: Turbine & Exhaust

The turbine rotors get power from the flow of gases. This flow of gases into the turbine section causes the turbine rotors to turn. A single shaft gas turbine has only one major moving part - the rotor shaft.

The turbine rotors and the compressor are mounted on opposite ends of the same rotor shaft. This allows the turbine rotors and compressor to work as a unit.

When the gases leave the turbine section, they return to the atmosphere through the exhaust section.

Page 13: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Air Entry and Compression :

The engine case of the gas turbine is a tube-like container that is open at both ends and narrow in the center.

The front end of the case contains the compressor. The compressor draws air into the case and increases the air pressure by compressing (or reducing) its volume.

In the figure, the electric fan acts as a compressor.

Page 14: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Combustion

In the narrow section of the case, the air is compressed.

Fuel gas is injected into the compressed air through fuel nozzles. The fuel and air are mixed together and ignited.

Burning the fuel and air mixture creates hot combustion gases. The heat increases the temperature and available energy of the gases.

A turbine captures this energy and changes it into mechanical energy.

Page 15: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Turbine Rotation

The turbine in the rear of the engine case extracts mechanical energy from the flow of the gases acting on the blades.

The turbine rotates because of the pressure and velocity of the hot expanding gases acting on the blades of the turbine.

As the hot gases pass through the turbine, the energy in the gas is reduced.

The gases exit the rear of the case and into the atmosphere.

Page 16: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Turbine Rotation

The turbine in the rear of the engine case extracts mechanical energy from the flow of the gases acting on the blades.

The turbine rotates because of the pressure and velocity of the hot expanding gases acting on the blades of the turbine.

As the hot gases pass through the turbine, the energy in the gas is reduced.

The gases exit the rear of the case and into the atmosphere.

Page 17: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Turbine Rotor

The turbine uses energy from the thrust force created by the expanding gases. This energy is changed into shaft horsepower to drive the turbine compressor, the engine accessories, and the load. Most of this energy is expended to drive the turbine compressor.

(Contd.)

Page 18: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

The main parts of a turbine are :

· rotor shaft · rotor disc · rotor blades

The rotor blades (sometimes called buckets) are attached to the rotor disc. The rotor disc is mounted on the rotor shaft. The entire assembly of blades and disc is often called a rotor.

Page 19: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Basic OperationThe figure shows how all the components of the gas turbine engine work together. The fan has been replaced by a single set of compressor blades.

The compressor creates the compressed air that is needed for combustion.

Fuel gas is mixed with the compressed air and is ignited. The burning mixture creates a force in the rear of the engine case. The force is changed into rotating mechanical energy that turns the turbine.

(Contd. )

Page 20: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

The turbine turns the rotor shaft that is shared by the compressor and the turbine. The compressor and turbine are connected to the same rotor shaft. The rotating force of the turbine is used to drive the compressor.

Page 21: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Front and Rear Drive Gas TurbinesSome of the rotating energy created by the gas turbine can be used to drive a gear box or generator connected to either end of the rotor shaft.

Depending upon where the load is connected to the rotor shaft, the gas turbine is referred to as a

· front end drive · rear end drive

(Contd.)

Page 22: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

If the shaft is lengthened on the compressor end of the engine, it is a front end drive or a cold end drive.

If the shaft is lengthened on the turbine end of the engine, it is a rear end drive or a hot end drive.

Page 23: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Multiple Stage Compressors

Gas turbine manufacturers may place more than one set of compressor and turbine stages in an engine as shown in the figure.

The additional stages in the compressor section provide more compression of the air before combustion.

More than one stage is used in the turbine section to extract as much power as possible from the hot, expanding gases.

The gas turbine in the figure is a two-stage turbine driving a three-stage compressor.

Page 24: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Laws and PrinciplesLaws and Principles

Page 25: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Laws and PrinciplesLaws and Principles

Bernoulli’s Principle:

If an incompressible fluid flowing through a tube reaches a constriction, or narrowing of the tube, the

velocity of fluid flowing through the constriction increases and the pressure decreases.

Page 26: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Laws and PrinciplesLaws and Principles

Bernoulli’s Principle:

Page 27: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Laws and PrinciplesLaws and Principles

Boyle’s Law:

The volume of an enclosed gas varies inversely with the applied pressure, provided the temperature

remains constant.

Page 28: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Laws and PrinciplesLaws and Principles

Charles’ Law:

If the pressure is constant, the volume of an enclosed dry gas varies directly with the absolute temperature.

Page 29: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Laws and PrinciplesLaws and Principles

Pascal’s Law:

Pressure exerted at any point upon an enclosed liquid is transmitted undiminished in all directions.

Page 30: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Laws and PrinciplesLaws and Principles

Newton’s Laws of Motion:

First Law - A body at rest tends to Stay at rest. A body in motion tends to remain in motion.

Second Law - Imbalance of force on a body tends to produce an acceleration in the direction of the force. The acceleration, if any, is directly proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass of the body.

Third Law - For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

Page 31: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Laws and PrinciplesLaws and Principles

Brayton CycleBrayton Cycle

Page 32: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Laws and PrinciplesLaws and Principles

AA

BB CC

DD

Brayton Brayton CycleCycle

Page 33: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Laws and PrinciplesLaws and Principles

AA

BB CC

DD

Brayton CycleBrayton Cycle

COMPRESSOR

Page 34: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Laws and PrinciplesLaws and Principles

AA

BB CC

DD

Brayton CycleBrayton Cycle

Page 35: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Laws and PrinciplesLaws and Principles

AA

BB CC

DD

Brayton CycleBrayton Cycle

( COMBUSTOR )

Page 36: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Laws and PrinciplesLaws and Principles

AA

BB CC

DD

Brayton CycleBrayton Cycle

CONVERGENT-DIVERGENT PROCESS

Page 37: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Laws and PrinciplesLaws and Principles

AA

BB CC

DD

Brayton CycleBrayton CycleCONVERGENT-DIVERGENT PROCESS

Page 38: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Laws and PrinciplesLaws and Principles

C O N V E R G E N T -D IV E R G E N T P R O C E S S

AABB CC

DDBrayton CycleBrayton Cycle

( HP TURBINE)

Page 39: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Basic Engine TheoryBasic Engine Theory

Page 40: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Basic Engine TheoryBasic Engine Theory

There Are Two Factors Required For Proper Operation:

1. Newton’s Third Law.

2. Convergent-Divergent Process

A. Convergent Means Approaching Nearer Together.

B. Divergent Means Moving Away From Each Other.

C. Bernoulli’s Principle Used In This Process.

Page 41: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Basic Engine TheoryBasic Engine Theory

1. Air taken into inlet duct by compressor 1. Air taken into inlet duct by compressor -- Pressure Pressure raised and discharged into combustion chamber.raised and discharged into combustion chamber.

2. Fuel nozzles admit fuel 2. Fuel nozzles admit fuel -- FuelFuel--air mixture ignited by air mixture ignited by igniters and combustion occurs.igniters and combustion occurs.

3. Hot and expanding gases directed aft thru turbine 3. Hot and expanding gases directed aft thru turbine rotor assembly rotor assembly -- Thermal and kinetic energy converted Thermal and kinetic energy converted to mechanical energy.to mechanical energy.

4. Gases directed to exhaust duct.4. Gases directed to exhaust duct.

Page 42: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Basic Engine TheoryBasic Engine Theory

PR

ESSU

RE

PR

ESSU

RE

TEMPERATURETEMPERATUREAA

BB CC

DD

Brayton CycleBrayton Cycle

PR

ESSU

RE

PR

ESSU

RE

Page 43: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Basic Engine TheoryBasic Engine Theory

Page 44: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Basic Engine TheoryBasic Engine Theory

COMBUSTIONCOMBUSTION

Page 45: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Basic Engine TheoryBasic Engine Theory

EEXXPPAANNSSIIOONN

Page 46: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Basic Engine TheoryBasic Engine Theory

COMBUSTIONCOMBUSTION

EEXXPPAANNSSIIOONN

Page 47: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Conditions and Design Limits Conditions and Design Limits Affect PerformanceAffect Performance

Page 48: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

DIRTY COMPRESSOR

Conditions and Design Limits Conditions and Design Limits Affect PerformanceAffect Performance

Page 49: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Conditions and Design Limits Conditions and Design Limits Affect PerformanceAffect Performance

HIGH AMBIENT TEMPERATURE

Page 50: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Conditions and Design Limits Conditions and Design Limits Affect PerformanceAffect Performance

COMPONENT DESIGN LIMITS

Page 51: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Page 52: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Page 53: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Page 54: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Page 55: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Page 56: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Page 57: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Page 58: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Page 59: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Page 60: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Compressor

Combustion

Turbine

Exhaust

Page 61: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Page 62: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Page 63: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Page 64: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Page 65: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Page 66: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Page 67: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Page 68: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Page 69: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Page 70: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Page 71: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Page 72: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Page 73: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Page 74: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Page 75: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Page 76: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Page 77: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Gas Turbine AdvantagesGas Turbine Advantages

1. High Power-to-weight Ratio.

2. Operates on Cheaper and Safer Fuel.

3. Smoothness of Operation.

4. Economical In Terms of Horsepower-per-dollar.

5. Increasing Reliability = Cost-effective.

6. Fuel Economy.

Page 78: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Walid AbdelghaffarGas Turbine Components

Gas Turbine DisadvantagesGas Turbine Disadvantages

1. Parts are under high stress.

2. Produce high pitched noise.

3. Requires large intake and exhaust ducting.

4. Exhaust heat.

5. Requirement for depot maintenance and repair of major casualties.

Page 79: 1 Gas Turbine Introduction

Dr. Eng. Walid Abdelghaffar