1 Don Brutzman Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) Center for Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Research Modeling, Virtual Environments & Simulation (MOVES)

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> 1 Don Brutzman Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) Center for Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Research Modeling, Virtual Environments &amp; Simulation (MOVES) Institute 25 April 2007 NPS AUV Workbench: Rehearsal, Reality, Replay for Unmanned Vehicle Operations </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> 2 Topics Why modeling &amp; simulation? AUV Workbench Components Sonar Visualization Technologies: X3D, XML, XMSF Looking ahead Demonstrations </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> theory = conceptual description of reality experiment = test theory in physical world Scientific method, 15 th -20 th centuries </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> model = formal representation of reality simulation = behavior of model over time Scientific method, 1950-present </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> model = formal representation of reality simulation = behavior of model over time running together Scientific method, 1950-present </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Virtual environments can connect all models and simulations together Scientific method, emerging 21 st century </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> 7 AUV Workbench Project Description Open source, Java, XML, X3D graphics Mission planning Robot mission execution Hydrodynamics response Sonar modeling 3D visualization Compressed radio frequency (RF) and acoustic communications </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> AUV Workbench poster, I/ITSEC 2003 </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> 9 Our 3 Rs: rehearsal, reality, replay Same needs and capabilities for each: mission, visualization, data support, etc. AUV workbench supports each ongoing work, starting to mainstream 12 years of effort is coming to fruition integrating great variety of successful work new work projects occurring regularly Collaboration is welcome </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> 10 Rehearsal Mission planning and preparation </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> 11 Visualization, mission planning mission commands robot execution 6DOF response hydrodynamics </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Multiple vehicles supported </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> 13 Rehearsal Prepare missions, either manually or automatically via other software tools Test robot softwares ability to perform commands Test again with physics in the loop Hydrodynamics and control are critical, difficult Sonar, environmental modeling Repeat until robust, with cautious respect Simulation is doomed to success G. Bekey </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> 14 Mission views: iconic, tree, XML, dialog box Each view is consistent with GIS, 2D, 3D views </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> 15 Supporting views: mission metadata, state </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> 16 2D planner: script missions </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> 17 2D planner: script missions Can edit missions by adding or removing script commands </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> 18 2D planner: agenda missions </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> 19 OpenMap GIS display OpenMap http://www.openmap.org http://www.openmap.org Geographic Information System (GIS) Open source Java, bundled Building layers for areas of interest Geographic coordinates throughout Will synchronize with mission definitions, X3D </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> 20 </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> 21 Secure sftp download of large GIS datasets </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> 22 Reality: real-time mission support Monitor mission progress Task-level control using same mission vocabulary Visualize and supervise operations caveat, again: work in progress Integrate acoustic and RF communications Chat for distributed collaboration among participants, both human and robotic </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> 23 Real-time mission data import/export Export Mission commands that are already rehearsed Convert to specific dialect particular to that robot Import Mission telemetry recording detailed track data Data products: imagery, video, mission log, etc. </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> 24 Record mission metadata for archives Support operator keeping detailed notes, kept in context when conducting mission Prompt for full details as appropriate Archive notes for later review and followup Future work Automatic tests to confirm configuration, control Automate pre-underway checklists </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> 25 Serial port communications Configurable to different devices, ports </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> 26 JavaHelp support </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> 27 Thesis list </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> 28 Snapshot support </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> 29 Sunspot Sun Programmable Object Technology (SPOT) devices are small wireless Java microcontrollers that include accelerometers, USB port, LEDs and other connections We are looking ahead towards using SunSpot devices as UUV, USV and UAV mobile robot controllers http://www.sunspotworld.com https://robotics.dev.java.net </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> 30 Replay: post-mission support Automatic archiving of mission to server Being built into workbench simplify user tasks Integration and compression of all relevant data into single compressed XML file Metadata for mission Many pieces: ordered mission, commands, telemetry, coefficients, contacts, etc. etc. Autonomous Vehicle Control Language (AVCL) is Ph.D. work by CDR Duane Davis </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Telemetry data replay </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> 32 Geographic track plot </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> 33 x y z versus t plot </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> 34 phi theta psi versus t plot </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> 35 Mission plots using gnuplot </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> 36 XSBC compression of mission data Compression of mission commands, telemetry XML Schema-based Binary Compression (XSBC) Take advantage of XML self-validation capability Building composable sequence of filters for integrated data support </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> 37 Automating server-side support Work is in progress </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> 38 ELumens dome display support www.elumens.com </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> 39 Physical modeling Control algorithms and 6 degree-of-freedom (6DOF) hydrodynamics response Sonar propagation, attenuation Collision detection Direct vehicle contact and sensor contact Separate use of same X3D graphics models Visualization greatly aids understanding provides good forcing function for integration </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> 40 Control algorithm coefficients </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> 41 6DOF dynamics coefficients </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> 42 Wave modeling Triple sinusoid Pierson Moskowitz equations provide good emulation of variable sea state Well understood example model Many other variations exist, could substitute Real-time modeling of underwater vehicle response when broached Split hull into sections Compute each one as linear approximation Buoyancy components add to overall response </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> 43 REMUS mission search, from above </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> 44 REMUS mission search, from behind </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> 45 Group development support Open standards throughout Open source Java for software All data structured as XML XMSF Bugtracker Email list with hypermail archive Online autoinstallers </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> 46 XMSF Bugtracker </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> 47 Mailing list support </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> 48 Autoinstall support also linux and other unix </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> 49 Environmental data inputs Constant vectors for ocean current, wind NetCDF environmental data developed by NAVO/NRL Stennis supercomputer models FNMOC web-services query to live/projected meteorological Planned: add NITES/TED Services support </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> 50 sonar-vis Project Description Visualize multipath 3D sonar propagation Situational awareness, sensitivity analysis Multiple models: path, transmission loss, P D... Operator familiarization, training, experience Enhance TDAs for at-sea operators Reachback using Web services messaging, accessing both computational and data assets Open source open standards: Java, X3D, XML </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> Sonar Visualization poster, I/ITSEC 2003 </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> 52 Goal Outcomes: sonar-vis project Sonar and battlespace visualization Link aircraft, ship and HPCC computing FNMOC, possibly Maui HPCC Similar interfaces, with/without connectivity Tactical Supercomputing refrigerator box Support Common Undersea Picture (CUP) Candidate technologies for spiral development Have started usw-xml working group for USN </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> <li> Sonobuoy field visualization </li> <li> Slide 54 </li> <li> 54 Integrating 2D/3D interfaces with Web Services Participating in naval exercises </li> <li> Slide 55 </li> <li> 55 XML web services for METOC data 1 Query panel and plotted response </li> <li> Slide 56 </li> <li> 56 XML web services for METOC data 2 Monitoring initial query/response sequence </li> <li> Slide 57 </li> <li> 57 XML web services for METOC data 3 Server-side supercomputer response </li> <li> Slide 58 </li> <li> 58 XML web services for METOC data 4 </li> <li> Slide 59 </li> <li> 59 Collision detection architecture Principle: single X3D scene database for 3D rendering and collision detection Basic functionality implemented in Xj3D for U.S. Army Deformable Surfaces project Potential extension to X3D Specification Open-source implementation &amp; evaluation Large-scene physics feasible in real time </li> <li> Slide 60 </li> <li> 60 Collision detection architecture Under development </li> <li> Slide 61 </li> <li> 61 Technologies Extensible Markup Language (XML) Validatable data, binary compression Web Services for message exchange Enhance current sonar-model engines Recursive Ray Acoustics (RRA) sonar computation PC-IMAT/STAPLE/STDA(ASPECT) primary targets Environmental data from FNMOC via Web services Extensible 3D (X3D) Graphics Open-standard open-source interactive visualization </li> <li> Slide 62 </li> <li> 62 XML in 10 Points http://www.w3.org/XML/1999/XML-in-10-points XML is for structuring data XML looks a bit like HTML XML is text, but isn't meant to be read XML is verbose by design XML is a family of technologies XML is new, but not that new XML leads HTML to XHTML XML is modular XML is basis for RDF and the Semantic Web XML is license-free, platform-independent and well-supported 400+ member companies &amp; institutions in World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) already understand the business case </li> <li> Slide 63 </li> <li> 63 Extensible Modeling &amp; Simulation Framework (XMSF) Web services for all manner of M&amp;S A composable set of standards, profiles, and recommended practices for web-based M&amp;S Foundational precepts: Internet network technologies, Extensible Markup Language (XML)-based languages, and service-oriented architectures for simple messaging Enable a new generation of distributed M&amp;S applications to emerge, develop, interoperate with tactical systems Many easily repeatable exemplars using Web Services http://www.MovesInstitute.org/xmsf </li> <li> Slide 64 </li> <li> 64 What is 3D? 2D works for chart-oriented displays 3D gives fly-thru freedom of viewpoint View physically based propagation paths View depth separation View bottom, surface interactions View multiple overlapping sensors Augment (not replace) existing displays </li> <li> Slide 65 </li> <li> 65 What is X3D? Extensible 3D (X3D) Graphics Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) updated Third-generation ISO specification Compatible XML.x3d and Classic VRML.wrl encodings Deliverables Specification updates, with compatible XML tagset Multiple implementations, including open-source Scene Access Interface (SAI) strongly typed API Conformance suite and examples Authoring capability: X3D-Edit, using XML for XML </li> <li> Slide 66 </li> <li> 66 Further X3D motivations Authoring is hard, Content is King X3D is not competing with specialty formats, instead provide common interoperability/interchange Strong validation checks eliminate most authoring errors before content escapes Plays well with next-generation Web languages 3D hardware problem is already solved </li> <li> Slide 67 </li> <li> X3D Specifications honeycomb diagram X3D Specification itself is componentized and extensible </li> <li> Slide 68 </li> <li> X3D-Edit complete interface Context-sensitive, self-validating, multi-lingual editing tools </li> <li> Slide 69 </li> <li> SAVAGE 3D Model Archive Lots of models! </li> <li> Slide 70 </li> <li> 70 Numerous underwater vehicle models </li> <li> Slide 71 </li> <li> 71 Looking ahead: more technologies XML Schema-based Binary Compression (XSBC) better than zip, adds validation Adding Forward Error Correction (FEC) Current work Tactical supercomputing XML Tactical Chat (XTC) </li> <li> Slide 72 </li> <li> 72 XML encoding for validation benefits XML schema contains adequate information to autogenerate comprehensive encodings Tokenization of elements, attributes Strong data typing of value payloads Lossless More efficient than compressed numeric text XML Schema-based Binary Compression (XSBC) </li> <li> Slide 73 </li> <li> 73 XML Schema-based Binary Compression (XSBC) Conclusion: XSBC performance already better than zip! 3.3 MB16.6 MB38.4 MB11.6 MB2.7 MB originals </li> <li> Slide 74 </li> <li> XSBC comparison tool </li> <li> Slide 75 </li> <li> 75 Forward error correction (FEC) Added redundancy allows receiver-side detection &amp; correction of message errors Many military channels are noisy RF links Avoids retry until you die on acoustic links Big help on long-latency, low-bandwidth links! Hamming FEC is one technique of several Re-exploring Stephen Reimers 1995 thesis Towards Internet Protocol (IP) over Seawater </li> <li> Slide 76 </li> <li> 76 Tactical supercomputing Linux clusters can create new resources 5 off-the-shelf new PC boxes + disk storage $10K = 10 processors = 10 Gigaflop Refrigerator-rack footprint easily fits shipboard Industry can provide even higher capabilities Exploring intermediate-level resources for previously supercomputer-level problems Consistent access via grid/web services </li> <li> Slide 77 </li> <li> XML Tactical Chat (XTC), I/ITSEC 2003 poster </li> <li> Slide 78 </li> <li> Chat log window </li> <li> Slide 79 </li> <li> Chat log debug mode shows underlying XML </li> <li> Slide 80 </li> <li> 80 Event monitoring via instant messaging chatbot listens and reacts to free-form messages of interest by plotting mine onto chartlet </li> <li> Slide 81 </li> <li> 81 Java 1.4.2 regular expression parser on chat: Any characters or words before "MINE" Case- insensitive word MINE s or "S" occurs once or none at all Any character Comma followed by 0 to 2 character "space" Group 1 (digit) One or no character "space", fullstop or ")" 1 to 2 characters "space" or "(" Comma followed by 0 to 2 character "space" Group 2 digit) Group 3 digit) Breakdown of regular expression pattern: Regular Expressio n ^. * (?i)MIN E [s|S] ?.* [ (]{1,2} (\d* ),[ ]{0,2} (\d*),[ ]{0,2} (\d*) [ ).]?+ Meaningful messages can be extracted from chat text, thus enabling automatic structure for user support </li> <li> S...</li></ul>