1 Don Brutzman Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) Center for Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Research Modeling, Virtual Environments & Simulation (MOVES)

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  • Slide 1
  • 1 Don Brutzman Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) Center for Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Research Modeling, Virtual Environments & Simulation (MOVES) Institute 25 April 2007 NPS AUV Workbench: Rehearsal, Reality, Replay for Unmanned Vehicle Operations
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  • 2 Topics Why modeling & simulation? AUV Workbench Components Sonar Visualization Technologies: X3D, XML, XMSF Looking ahead Demonstrations
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  • theory = conceptual description of reality experiment = test theory in physical world Scientific method, 15 th -20 th centuries
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  • model = formal representation of reality simulation = behavior of model over time Scientific method, 1950-present
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  • model = formal representation of reality simulation = behavior of model over time running together Scientific method, 1950-present
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  • Virtual environments can connect all models and simulations together Scientific method, emerging 21 st century
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  • 7 AUV Workbench Project Description Open source, Java, XML, X3D graphics Mission planning Robot mission execution Hydrodynamics response Sonar modeling 3D visualization Compressed radio frequency (RF) and acoustic communications
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  • AUV Workbench poster, I/ITSEC 2003
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  • 9 Our 3 Rs: rehearsal, reality, replay Same needs and capabilities for each: mission, visualization, data support, etc. AUV workbench supports each ongoing work, starting to mainstream 12 years of effort is coming to fruition integrating great variety of successful work new work projects occurring regularly Collaboration is welcome
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  • 10 Rehearsal Mission planning and preparation
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  • 11 Visualization, mission planning mission commands robot execution 6DOF response hydrodynamics
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  • Multiple vehicles supported
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  • 13 Rehearsal Prepare missions, either manually or automatically via other software tools Test robot softwares ability to perform commands Test again with physics in the loop Hydrodynamics and control are critical, difficult Sonar, environmental modeling Repeat until robust, with cautious respect Simulation is doomed to success G. Bekey
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  • 14 Mission views: iconic, tree, XML, dialog box Each view is consistent with GIS, 2D, 3D views
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  • 15 Supporting views: mission metadata, state
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  • 16 2D planner: script missions
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  • 17 2D planner: script missions Can edit missions by adding or removing script commands
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  • 18 2D planner: agenda missions
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  • 19 OpenMap GIS display OpenMap http://www.openmap.org http://www.openmap.org Geographic Information System (GIS) Open source Java, bundled Building layers for areas of interest Geographic coordinates throughout Will synchronize with mission definitions, X3D
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  • 21 Secure sftp download of large GIS datasets
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  • 22 Reality: real-time mission support Monitor mission progress Task-level control using same mission vocabulary Visualize and supervise operations caveat, again: work in progress Integrate acoustic and RF communications Chat for distributed collaboration among participants, both human and robotic
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  • 23 Real-time mission data import/export Export Mission commands that are already rehearsed Convert to specific dialect particular to that robot Import Mission telemetry recording detailed track data Data products: imagery, video, mission log, etc.
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  • 24 Record mission metadata for archives Support operator keeping detailed notes, kept in context when conducting mission Prompt for full details as appropriate Archive notes for later review and followup Future work Automatic tests to confirm configuration, control Automate pre-underway checklists
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  • 25 Serial port communications Configurable to different devices, ports
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  • 26 JavaHelp support
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  • 27 Thesis list
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  • 28 Snapshot support
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  • 29 Sunspot Sun Programmable Object Technology (SPOT) devices are small wireless Java microcontrollers that include accelerometers, USB port, LEDs and other connections We are looking ahead towards using SunSpot devices as UUV, USV and UAV mobile robot controllers http://www.sunspotworld.com https://robotics.dev.java.net
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  • 30 Replay: post-mission support Automatic archiving of mission to server Being built into workbench simplify user tasks Integration and compression of all relevant data into single compressed XML file Metadata for mission Many pieces: ordered mission, commands, telemetry, coefficients, contacts, etc. etc. Autonomous Vehicle Control Language (AVCL) is Ph.D. work by CDR Duane Davis
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  • Telemetry data replay
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  • 32 Geographic track plot
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  • 33 x y z versus t plot
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  • 34 phi theta psi versus t plot
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  • 35 Mission plots using gnuplot
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  • 36 XSBC compression of mission data Compression of mission commands, telemetry XML Schema-based Binary Compression (XSBC) Take advantage of XML self-validation capability Building composable sequence of filters for integrated data support
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  • 37 Automating server-side support Work is in progress
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  • 38 ELumens dome display support www.elumens.com
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  • 39 Physical modeling Control algorithms and 6 degree-of-freedom (6DOF) hydrodynamics response Sonar propagation, attenuation Collision detection Direct vehicle contact and sensor contact Separate use of same X3D graphics models Visualization greatly aids understanding provides good forcing function for integration
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  • 40 Control algorithm coefficients
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  • 41 6DOF dynamics coefficients
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  • 42 Wave modeling Triple sinusoid Pierson Moskowitz equations provide good emulation of variable sea state Well understood example model Many other variations exist, could substitute Real-time modeling of underwater vehicle response when broached Split hull into sections Compute each one as linear approximation Buoyancy components add to overall response
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  • 43 REMUS mission search, from above
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  • 44 REMUS mission search, from behind
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  • 45 Group development support Open standards throughout Open source Java for software All data structured as XML XMSF Bugtracker Email list with hypermail archive Online autoinstallers
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  • 46 XMSF Bugtracker
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  • 47 Mailing list support
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  • 48 Autoinstall support also linux and other unix
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  • 49 Environmental data inputs Constant vectors for ocean current, wind NetCDF environmental data developed by NAVO/NRL Stennis supercomputer models FNMOC web-services query to live/projected meteorological Planned: add NITES/TED Services support
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  • 50 sonar-vis Project Description Visualize multipath 3D sonar propagation Situational awareness, sensitivity analysis Multiple models: path, transmission loss, P D... Operator familiarization, training, experience Enhance TDAs for at-sea operators Reachback using Web services messaging, accessing both computational and data assets Open source open standards: Java, X3D, XML
  • Slide 51
  • Sonar Visualization poster, I/ITSEC 2003
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  • 52 Goal Outcomes: sonar-vis project Sonar and battlespace visualization Link aircraft, ship and HPCC computing FNMOC, possibly Maui HPCC Similar interfaces, with/without connectivity Tactical Supercomputing refrigerator box Support Common Undersea Picture (CUP) Candidate technologies for spiral development Have started usw-xml working group for USN
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  • Sonobuoy field visualization
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  • 54 Integrating 2D/3D interfaces with Web Services Participating in naval exercises
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  • 55 XML web services for METOC data 1 Query panel and plotted response
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  • 56 XML web services for METOC data 2 Monitoring initial query/response sequence
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  • 57 XML web services for METOC data 3 Server-side supercomputer response
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  • 58 XML web services for METOC data 4
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  • 59 Collision detection architecture Principle: single X3D scene database for 3D rendering and collision detection Basic functionality implemented in Xj3D for U.S. Army Deformable Surfaces project Potential extension to X3D Specification Open-source implementation & evaluation Large-scene physics feasible in real time
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  • 60 Collision detection architecture Under development
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  • 61 Technologies Extensible Markup Language (XML) Validatable data, binary compression Web Services for message exchange Enhance current sonar-model engines Recursive Ray Acoustics (RRA) sonar computation PC-IMAT/STAPLE/STDA(ASPECT) primary targets Environmental data from FNMOC via Web services Extensible 3D (X3D) Graphics Open-standard open-source interactive visualization
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  • 62 XML in 10 Points http://www.w3.org/XML/1999/XML-in-10-points XML is for structuring data XML looks a bit like HTML XML is text, but isn't meant to be read XML is verbose by design XML is a family of technologies XML is new, but not that new XML leads HTML to XHTML XML is modular XML is basis for RDF and the Semantic Web XML is license-free, platform-independent and well-supported 400+ member companies & institutions in World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) already understand the business case
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  • 63 Extensible Modeling & Simulation Framework (XMSF) Web services for all manner of M&S A composable set of standards, profiles, and recommended practices for web-based M&S Foundational precepts: Internet network technologies, Extensible Markup Language (XML)-based languages, and service-oriented architectures for simple messaging Enable a new generation of distributed M&S applications to emerge, develop, interoperate with tactical systems Many easily repeatable exemplars using Web Services http://www.MovesInstitute.org/xmsf
  • Slide 64
  • 64 What is 3D? 2D works for chart-oriented displays 3D gives fly-thru freedom of viewpoint View physically based propagation paths View depth separation View bottom, surface interactions View multiple overlapping sensors Augment (not replace) existing displays
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  • 65 What is X3D? Extensible 3D (X3D) Graphics Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) updated Third-generation ISO specification Compatible XML.x3d and Classic VRML.wrl encodings Deliverables Specification updates, with compatible XML tagset Multiple implementations, including open-source Scene Access Interface (SAI) strongly typed API Conformance suite and examples Authoring capability: X3D-Edit, using XML for XML
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  • 66 Further X3D motivations Authoring is hard, Content is King X3D is not competing with specialty formats, instead provide common interoperability/interchange Strong validation checks eliminate most authoring errors before content escapes Plays well with next-generation Web languages 3D hardware problem is already solved
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  • X3D Specifications honeycomb diagram X3D Specification itself is componentized and extensible
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  • X3D-Edit complete interface Context-sensitive, self-validating, multi-lingual editing tools
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  • SAVAGE 3D Model Archive Lots of models!
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  • 70 Numerous underwater vehicle models
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  • 71 Looking ahead: more technologies XML Schema-based Binary Compression (XSBC) better than zip, adds validation Adding Forward Error Correction (FEC) Current work Tactical supercomputing XML Tactical Chat (XTC)
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  • 72 XML encoding for validation benefits XML schema contains adequate information to autogenerate comprehensive encodings Tokenization of elements, attributes Strong data typing of value payloads Lossless More efficient than compressed numeric text XML Schema-based Binary Compression (XSBC)
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  • 73 XML Schema-based Binary Compression (XSBC) Conclusion: XSBC performance already better than zip! 3.3 MB16.6 MB38.4 MB11.6 MB2.7 MB originals
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  • XSBC comparison tool
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  • 75 Forward error correction (FEC) Added redundancy allows receiver-side detection & correction of message errors Many military channels are noisy RF links Avoids retry until you die on acoustic links Big help on long-latency, low-bandwidth links! Hamming FEC is one technique of several Re-exploring Stephen Reimers 1995 thesis Towards Internet Protocol (IP) over Seawater
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  • 76 Tactical supercomputing Linux clusters can create new resources 5 off-the-shelf new PC boxes + disk storage $10K = 10 processors = 10 Gigaflop Refrigerator-rack footprint easily fits shipboard Industry can provide even higher capabilities Exploring intermediate-level resources for previously supercomputer-level problems Consistent access via grid/web services
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  • XML Tactical Chat (XTC), I/ITSEC 2003 poster
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  • Chat log window
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  • Chat log debug mode shows underlying XML
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  • 80 Event monitoring via instant messaging chatbot listens and reacts to free-form messages of interest by plotting mine onto chartlet
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  • 81 Java 1.4.2 regular expression parser on chat: Any characters or words before "MINE" Case- insensitive word MINE s or "S" occurs once or none at all Any character Comma followed by 0 to 2 character "space" Group 1 (digit) One or no character "space", fullstop or ")" 1 to 2 characters "space" or "(" Comma followed by 0 to 2 character "space" Group 2 digit) Group 3 digit) Breakdown of regular expression pattern: Regular Expressio n ^. * (?i)MIN E [s|S] ?.* [ (]{1,2} (\d* ),[ ]{0,2} (\d*),[ ]{0,2} (\d*) [ ).]?+ Meaningful messages can be extracted from chat text, thus enabling automatic structure for user support
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  • 82 Related work: usw-xml The usw-xml working group is improving Undersea Warfare (USW) interoperability using Extensible Markup Language (XML) tagsets for system data interchange. Cooperative collaboration between many stakeholders is needed to achieve good interoperability.
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  • 83 Motivation Many XML technical capabilities enable significantly improved capabilities for USW system interoperability Connecting legacy systems, diverse partners USW Decision Support System, other projects We expect this work to broadly benefit the Navy, industry and scientific community.
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  • 84 HSI Stack Summary Coalition Joint Battlegroup Ship, aircraft, submarine Watch team Operator Offboard unmanned systems Usual focus of effort Need to go further, up + down the HSI stack
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  • Inputs/OutputsInteroperability Layers How to Accomplish Effective, Efficient, Gridded Coalition Systems Common Operational Picture, Situational Awareness (SA) Consistent Semantic Understanding ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Tactical Messaging C2IEDM/JC3IEDM providing common shared context, tactical data interoperability Shared coherent XML among participating platforms ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ HSI Level VIII VII VI ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Navy Battle Group Common CIC/CDC tactical picture for coordinated operations/shared data communications: NTDS, Link 11, Link 16, etc. No XML interoperability, legacy stovepipe protocols Groups of systems, HSI in the large External connections Networks [Macro HSI] Complex Constructs for both humans and systems _________________________________________________________________
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  • Internationalization (I18N) and Localization (L10N) for sensible coalition usage Inputs/Outputs How to AccomplishHSI Level Consistent XML targets, swappable terms, labels, annotations I _________________________________________________________________ Individual Systems, HSI in the small Internal connections GUI designs [Micro HSI] Discrete Human Factors/Ergonomics --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- IV III V II Multimodal consistency in menus, human re-orientation capability [keyboard/pointer/tactile/voice] Java Look & Feel Coherent usability Some help annotations desirable for functionality Application help pages & tool tips, both context-sensitive & embedded Java Help, HTML pages, XML content & catalog --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- XML datasets & GIG enterprise services, data updates via XSLT Within-platform softwareSoftware updates Synchronized corresponding views for text / 2D / 3D displays Based on GIG XML data-driven model Java, open source and public software libraries Interoperability Layers
  • Slide 87
  • Autonomous Vehicle Control Language (AVCL) Inputs/Outputs How to AccomplishHSI Level Consistent messaging for tasking & reporting by diverse robots Unmanned Systems, HSI when adding robots --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 0 Distinct, different, incompatible robot systems being directed by shipboard operators JAUS architecture only permits internal re-use of software components XSLT stylesheets, custom converters Interoperability Layers XSLT stylesheets, common converters _________________________________________________________________ Comments welcome.
  • Slide 88
  • 88 Summary Significant collected AUV capabilities Support rehearsal, reality, replay Integrated as tactical application Open standards: XMSF, X3D, chat, etc. Open source + commercial compatibility Improved messaging, net-centric exemplar We hope to add all possible vehicles! Collaboration and questions welcome
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  • 89 Acronyms1 3D: Three dimensional 6DOF: Six degrees of freedom (x y z, roll pitch yaw) AUV: Autonomous Underwater Vehicle AVCL: Autonomous Vehicle Control Language CD: Compact Disk CUP: Common Undersea Picture FEC: Forward Error Correction FNMOC: U.S. Navy Fleet Numerical Meteorological & Oceanographic Center HPCC: High-Performance Computing Center Java: programming language METOC: meteorological and oceanographic (data) NAVAIR: U.S. Naval Air Systems Command
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  • 90 Acronyms2 NPS: Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey California P D : Probability of detection RF: radio frequency RRA: Recursive Ray Acoustics Sonar Propagation SBIR: Small Business Innovative Research TDA: Tactical Decision Aid USW: Undersea Warfare X3D: Extensible 3D Graphics Specification XML: Extensible Markup Language XMSF: Extensible Modeling and Simulation Framework XSBC: XML Schema-based Binary Compression XTC: XML Tactical Chat
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  • 91 Contact Don Brutzman brutzman@nps.edu http://web.nps.navy.mil/~brutzman Code USW/Br, Naval Postgraduate School Monterey California 93943-5000 USA 1.831.656.2149 voice 1.831.656.7599 fax

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