1 Chapter 7 Designing for the Human Experience in Smart Environments

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  • Chapter 7

    Designing for the Human Experience in Smart Environments

  • Quotes from Mark WeiserUbiquitous computing"Machines that fit the human environment instead of forcing humans & enter theirs will make using a computer as refreshing as a walk in the woods." 1991"We wanted to put computing back in its place, to reposition it into the environmental background, to concentrate on human-to-human interfaces and less on human-to-computer ones." 1999"It is invisible, everywhere computing that does not live on a personal device of any sort, but is in the woodwork everywhere." 1994

  • Ubiquitous GoalsEveryday practices of people need to be understood and supported.Augment world with heterogeneous devices offering different interactive experience.Network devices for holistic experience.

  • Chapter OverviewDefinition of interactionDiscovery of application featuresEvolution of theories & practiceDesign & evaluation of smart environmentsExamples

  • Define: Appropriate Physical Interaction ExperienceWhat is that?No traditional location - computer on deskWhere we are, normally!Changes our idea of "input- process-output"InputWas (is) an explicit communicationWill be (is) a recognition of what we do or say

  • Physical Interaction?OutputWas (is) display, paper, soundWill be (is) widely distributed, many forms and modalitiesWill have to coordinate all thisI/O RelationshipShould be seamless

  • Explicit to Implicit InputNatural interactions with environmente.g. walk into a room - what happens?Natural forms of communicationSpeech, writing, gesturesPen basedTouch surfacesSensorsRequires interpretationInvisibility of computing - determine identity, location, affect, or activity thru presence and natural interactions (context)

  • Multiscale & Distributed OutputUbicomp requires new technologies & techniquesMultiple displays, sizesAmbient formsOutput scales (Weiser)Inch (small) - handheldFoot (middle) - PCYard (large) - wall displays

  • Other Output FeaturesCoordination among displaysLess demanding of our attentionThere but can ignoreAmbient displays require minimal attention & effort; integrate easilye.g. Dangling String - monitored network traffice.g. "beep" as signal for arriving email

  • ApplicationsIs there one "killer application" for smart environments?Combination of many smaller applications providing a broad range of servicesEmergent FeaturesContext awarenessAutomated capture, store, access

  • Context Aware ComputingLocation aware appliancese.g. Active Badge, PARCTab could forward phone callsLocation identificationUsually peopleGPS basede.g. tours in museumContext not just location (where)Also who, when why, what

  • Context Aware ComputingChallengesTruly ubiquitousGPS is not ubiquitousNot indoorsProblems in some regionsDifferences - cost, range, granularity, etc.

  • Capture & AccessAccurate recording of eventsDo we remember?Task preserving a live experience that can be reviewed at some point in timeGood? AccurateBad? Privacy

  • Continuous Interaction"Constant presence"Change from tasks to activitiesMost interfaces are well-defined task orientede.g. Word Processing made up of tasks

  • Features of Daily ActivitiesSeldom has clear beginning & endInterruptions are expectedMultiple activities are concurrentTime is important in characterizing activityAssociative models of information are neededBecause information is reused & from different perspectives Activities are related to each other

  • Theories of Design & EvaluationGuidelines for HCI existDr. Stringfellow's 2005 summer courseTend to focus on desktop interfacesHCI in embedded environment - researchDevelopment of new models of interaction related to ubiquityNot mouse, keyboardEmergence of methods focus on gaining understandingDevelopment of assessment of the ability of ubicomp

  • New ModelsShift is similar to "AI project" of years pastNot highly successfulRelated to psychology, sociology, education, etc.How do people learn? Remember?Robot walking across a cluttered room

  • Georgia Tech - Living LabsLabs for research, not really "smart"Classroom - 1995-2000Capture classroom experience for reviewNote taking, modified behaviorOffice - 1999Flatland - use of whiteboardObserve, interview, questionnairesStored whiteboard content for later use

  • Georgia Tech - Home LabFocus on aging adultsCompensate for physical declineGestures as commands (lock doors, open blinds)Aiding recallKitchen: not "do this next"; but "here's what you've been doing"Awareness for family members - Digital family portrait Records person's daily activity for family review

  • **Conclusion**Many open questionsDesignEvaluateAdjust to ubiquity from desktop