1 Cellular Respiration. 2 catabolic, exergonic, oxygen (O 2 ) energy macromolecules (glucose)energy (ATP)water (H 2 O). A catabolic, exergonic, oxygen

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Text of 1 Cellular Respiration. 2 catabolic, exergonic, oxygen (O 2 ) energy macromolecules (glucose)energy...

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  • 1 Cellular Respiration
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  • 2 catabolic, exergonic, oxygen (O 2 ) energy macromolecules (glucose)energy (ATP)water (H 2 O). A catabolic, exergonic, oxygen (O 2 ) requiring process that uses energy extracted from macromolecules (glucose) to produce energy (ATP) and water (H 2 O). C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO2 + 6H 2 O + energy glucoseATP
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  • 3 Question: In what kinds organisms does cellular respiration take place? In what kinds organisms does cellular respiration take place?
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  • 4 Plants and Animals Plants - Autotrophs Plants - Autotrophs: self-producers. Animals - Heterotrophs: consumers.
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  • 5 Mitochondria Organellecellular respiration Organelle where cellular respiration takes place. Inner membrane Outer membrane Inner membrane space Matrix Cristae
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  • 6 Redox Reaction Transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another. Two types: Two types: 1.Oxidation 2.Reduction
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  • 7 Oxidation Reaction loss The loss of electrons from a substance. gainoxygen Or the gain of oxygen. C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy glucoseATP Oxidation
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  • 8 Reduction Reaction gain The gain of electrons to a substance. lossoxygen Or the loss of oxygen. glucose ATP C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy Reduction
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  • 9 Breakdown of Cellular Respiration Four main parts (reactions). Four main parts (reactions). 1. Glycolysis (splitting of sugar) a. cytosol, just outside of mitochondria. 2. Grooming Phase a. migration from cytosol to matrix.
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  • 10 Breakdown of Cellular Respiration 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) a. mitochondrial matrix 4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and Oxidative Phosphorylation Oxidative Phosphorylation a. Also called Chemiosmosis b. inner mitochondrial membrane.
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  • 11 1. Glycolysis Occurs in the cytosol just outside of mitochondria. Two phases (10 steps): Two phases (10 steps): A. Energy investment phase a. Preparatory phase (first 5 steps). B. Energy yielding phase a. Energy payoff phase (second 5 steps).
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  • 12 1. Glycolysis A. Energy Investment Phase: Glucose (6C) Glyceraldehyde phosphate (2 - 3C) (G3P or GAP) 2 ATP - used 0 ATP - produced 0 NADH - produced 2ATP 2ADP +P C-C-C-C-C-C C-C-C
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  • 13 1. Glycolysis B. Energy Yielding Phase Glyceraldehyde phosphate (2 - 3C) (G3P or GAP) Pyruvate (2 - 3C) (PYR) 0 ATP - used 4 ATP - produced 2 NADH - produced 4ATP 4ADP +P C-C-C GAP (PYR)
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  • 14 1. Glycolysis Total Net Yield Total Net Yield 2 - 3C-Pyruvate (PYR) 2 - ATP (Substrate-level Phosphorylation) 2 - NADH
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  • 15 Substrate-Level Phosphorylation phosphate group ATP is formed when an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a substrate to ADP. Enzyme Substrate O - C=O C-O- CH 2 P PP Adenosine ADP (PEP) Example: PEP to PYR PPP ATP O - C=O CH 2 Product (Pyruvate) Adenosine
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  • 16 Fermentation NO Oxygen (called anaerobic). Occurs in cytosol when NO Oxygen is present (called anaerobic). glycolysis fermentation Remember: glycolysis is part of fermentation. Two Types: Two Types: 1.Alcohol Fermentation 2. Lactic Acid Fermentation
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  • 17 Alcohol Fermentation Plants and Fungi beer and wine Plants and Fungi beer and wine glucose Glycolysis CCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCC 2 Pyruvic acid 2ATP 2ADP + 2 2NADH P 2 NAD + CCCC 2 Ethanol 2CO 2 released 2NADH 2 NAD +
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  • 18 Alcohol Fermentation End Products: Alcohol fermentation End Products: Alcohol fermentation 2 - ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) 2 - CO 2 2 - Ethanols
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  • 19 Lactic Acid Fermentation Animals (pain in muscle after a workout). Animals (pain in muscle after a workout). 2 Lactic acid acid 2NADH 2 NAD + CCCCCC Glucose Glycolysis CCCCCC 2 Pyruvic acid 2ATP 2ADP + 2 2NADH P 2 NAD + CCCCCCCCCCCCC
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  • 20 Lactic Acid Fermentation End Products: Lactic acid fermentation End Products: Lactic acid fermentation 2 - ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) 2 - Lactic Acids
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  • 21 2. Grooming Phase Oxygen is present (aerobic). Occurs when Oxygen is present (aerobic). 2 Pyruvate (3C) molecules are transported through the mitochondria membrane to the matrix and is converted to 2 Acetyl CoA (2C) molecules. Cytosol CCCCCC 2 Pyruvate 2 CO 2 2 Acetyl CoA C-C 2NADH 2 NAD + Matrix
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  • 22 2. Grooming Phase End Products: grooming phase End Products: grooming phase 2 - NADH 2 - CO 2 2- Acetyl CoA (2C)
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  • 23 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) Location: Location: mitochondrial matrix. Acetyl CoA (2C) bonds to Oxalacetic acid (4C - OAA) to make Citrate (6C). It takes 2 turns of the krebs cycle to oxidize 1 glucose molecule. Mitochondrial Matrix
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  • 24 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) Krebs Cycle 1 Acetyl CoA (2C) 3 NAD + 3 NADH FAD FADH 2 ATP ADP +P (one turn) OAA (4C) Citrate (6C) 2 CO 2
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  • 25 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) Krebs Cycle 2 Acetyl CoA (2C) 6 NAD + 6 NADH 2 FAD 2 FADH 2 2 ATP 2 ADP +P (two turns) OAA (4C) Citrate (6C) 4 CO 2
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  • 26 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) 2 turns Total net yield (2 turns of krebs cycle) 1. 2 - ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) 2.6 - NADH 3.2 - FADH 2 4.4 - CO 2
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  • 27 4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and Oxidative Phosphorylation ( Chemiosmosis ) Location: Location: inner mitochondrial membrane. ETC (cytochrome proteins) Uses ETC (cytochrome proteins) and ATP Synthase (enzyme) to make ATP. ETC pumps H + (protons) across innermembrane (lowers pH in innermembrane space). Inner Mitochondrial Membrane
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  • 28 4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and Oxidative Phosphorylation ( Chemiosmosis ) diffusion The H+ then move via diffusion (Proton Motive Force) through ATP Synthase to make ATP. cellular respiration All NADH and FADH 2 converted to ATP during this stage of cellular respiration. Each NADH converts to 3 ATP. Each FADH 2 converts to 2 ATP (enters the ETC at a lower level than NADH).
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  • 29 4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and Oxidative Phosphorylation ( Chemiosmosis ) Inner membrane Outer membrane Inner membrane space Matrix Cristae
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  • 30 4. ETC and Oxidative Phosphorylation ( Chemiosmosis for NADH )
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  • 31 4. ETC and Oxidative Phosphorylation (Chemiosmosis for 4. ETC and Oxidative Phosphorylation (Chemiosmosis for FADH 2 )
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  • 32 TOTAL ATP YIELD 1. 04 ATP - substrate-level phosphorylation 2. 34 ATP - ETC & oxidative phosphorylation 38 ATP - TOTAL YIELD ATP
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  • 33 Eukaryotes (Have Membranes) Total ATP Yield 02 ATP - glycolysis (substrate-level phosphorylation) 04 ATP - converted from 2 NADH - glycolysis 06 ATP - converted from 2 NADH - grooming phase 02 ATP - Krebs cycle (substrate-level phosphorylation) 18 ATP - converted from 6 NADH - Krebs cycle 04 ATP - converted from 2 FADH 2 - Krebs cycle 36 ATP - TOTAL
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  • 34 Maximum ATP Yield for Cellular Respiration (Eukaryotes) 36 ATP (maximum per glucose) Glucose Glycolysis 2ATP 4ATP 6ATP 18ATP 4ATP 2ATP 2 ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) 2NADH 6NADH Krebs Cycle 2FADH 2 2 ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) 2 Pyruvate 2 Acetyl CoA ETC and Oxidative Phosphorylation Cytosol Mitochondria
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  • 35 Prokaryotes (Lack Membranes) Total ATP Yield 02 ATP - glycolysis (substrate-level phosphorylation) 06 ATP - converted from 2 NADH - glycolysis 06 ATP - converted from 2 NADH - grooming phase 02 ATP - Krebs cycle (substrate-level phosphorylation) 18 ATP - converted from 6 NADH - Krebs cycle 04 ATP - converted from 2 FADH 2 - Krebs cycle 38 ATP - TOTAL
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  • 36 Question: In addition to glucose, what other various food molecules are use in Cellular Respiration? In addition to glucose, what other various food molecules are use in Cellular Respiration?
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  • 37 Catabolism of Various Food Molecules Other organic molecules used for fuel. 1. Carbohydrates: polysaccharides 2. Fats: glycerols and fatty acids 3. Proteins: amino acids
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