1 Burns Pakistan ICITAP. Learning Objectives Understand different types of burns Learn to identify degrees of burns Know First Aid treatment for burns

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1 Burns Pakistan ICITAP Slide 2 Learning Objectives Understand different types of burns Learn to identify degrees of burns Know First Aid treatment for burns Slide 3 Introduction As Police Officers, you will be exposed to burn injuries resulting from accidents, combat and blast injuries The burn victim must be treated at a medical facility as soon as possible A knowledge of first aid can often mean the difference between life and death Slide 4 Slide 5 Burn Care The 4 Goals of Burn Care are: Avoid infection Reduce pain Promote effective wound healing Minimize scarring and psychological trauma Slide 6 Safety First If a victim is being burned, you must first eliminate the source of the burn in order to protect both the victim and yourself Once the immediate danger has been removed or controlled: check the victim for breathing control any major bleeding take measures to control or prevent shock Slide 7 Types of Burns There are three classifications of burns: First degree burns Second degree burns Third degree burns Knowing these classifications of burns will help you determine the proper emergency care Slide 8 Degree burns First Degree Burn: the skin is red and painful like a sunburn, but blisters are not present Second Degree Burn: the skin is red and painful, blisters are present Slide 9 Degree burns First degreeSecond degree Slide 10 Degree burns Third Degree Burns: the skin layers are destroyed and underlying fat, muscles, and/or bone may also be damaged. The burn area may not be painful because the nerves have been destroyed, but the surrounding second and first degree burn areas may be painful. Slide 11 Degree burns Third degree Slide 12 Types of Burns Burns can be classified by their severity (degree of burn) or by their cause, such as: Thermal Electrical Chemical Radiant sources Slide 13 Causes of Burns Thermal burns are caused by heat. They can be caused by a flame, a hot object or steam. Electrical burns are caused by an electrical current passing through the body. This can be caused by coming into contact with a "live" electrical wire. Slide 14 Causes of Burns Chemical burns are caused by liquid or dry chemicals. For example, ammonia or white phosphorus. Radiant energy burns can be caused by lasers, ultraviolet light, and microwaves. The primary danger is to the eyes. Slide 15 Putting out flames If the victims clothing is on fire, cover him with a large piece of non-synthetic material (such as a wool or cotton blanket). DO NOT use synthetic materials such as nylon and rayon because they may melt and cause additional injury. Roll him on the ground until the flames are smothered Slide 16 CoverRoll Putting out flames Slide 17 If non-synthetic material cannot be obtained quickly, get the casualty to the ground and have him roll on the flame until it goes out Slide 18 Electrical Burns If the victim is lying on an electrical wire, always assume the electrical wire is carrying an electrical current This can be a danger to yourself, as well as to the victim Do not touch the electrical wire with your hands Do not touch the victim because the current can pass from the wire, to the victim, to YOU! Slide 19 Stop the Current If the electrical current can be turned off quickly, such as flipping a switch, turn it off before removing the victim from the wire Be certain that both you and the victim are away from the electrical source before beginning first aid Slide 20 Check For Breathing Lay victim down, protecting burned area from contact with the ground Check the victims respiration after you have separated him from the current. Administer mouth-to-mouth breathing as needed. Slide 21 First Aid for Skin Burns Gently pour large amounts of cold water or other liquid on the burn site. Thorough cooling can take up to 10 minutes. While cooling the burn, check airway, breathing and pulse Expose burn by gently cutting or lifting away any clothing covering the affected area Carefully remove burned clothing unless it is sticking to the burn Slide 22 First Aid for Skin Burns Gently remove any ring, watches, belts, shoes or smoldering clothing from the injured area before it begins to swell The jewelry which is not removed may have to be cut off later if the limb swells Cover the injury with a sterile field dressing or other non-fluffy material to protect from infection Slide 23 First Aid for Skin Burns If necessary, a clean plastic bag or kitchen food wrap may be used. Burns to the face should be cooled with water but NOT covered. Ensure medical help is on the way Slide 24 First Aid for Skin Burns Treat the victim for shock and continue to monitor airway, breathing and pulse, and ventilate if necessary If the burn is an electrical burn, find and dress both the entry and the exit burn wound. The sole of the foot is a common location for the exit burn. Slide 25 First Aid for Skin Burns If the burned area is large, use the cleanest material available to cover the burned area Do not try to clean the burned area before applying the dressing Do not apply any grease, ointments, or medications to the burned area Do not break any blisters that have formed Check for Shock Fluid lost through burns is a cause of shock Slide 26 Dress the Burn Slide 27 Warnings! DO NOT Break blisters Apply grease or ointments Place dressing over the face Slide 28 Questions? Slide 29 Class Practical Exercise Practice some of the skills shared in this presentation 75