1 Apollonian and Dionysian Tendencies in the Arts

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1 Apollonian and Dionysian Tendencies in the Arts Slide 2 2. Young Bacchus (Dionysus) by.Caravaggio. 1585. Apollo. Temple of Zeus at Olympia, 468-460 BCE. Apollonian Reason, Dionysian Intuition. Meanad Slide 3 3 Portrait of Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) by Edward Munch. Friedrich Nietzsche: Birth of Tragedy from the Spirit of Music (1872) Theory: Tragedy is rooted in strong emotions that arise from the struggle between two creative tendencies: emotion and reason. Slide 4 4 Oedipus Rex by Sophocles Oedipus supported by his daughters, Antigone and Ismene. Performance, the Coliseum, Rome Slide 5 5 Slide 6 6 Old Gods Live -- help us gain insight... Roommates Children A walk in the woods Weekends Food Sex and Love Institutions Religion Education How can the distinction be used to explain these? 1. Ways to appreciate drama 2. tendencies in human personality 3. way people behave 4. how social institutions operate 5. guide to how we judge and interact with others. Romeo and Juliet Slide 7 7 ROMEO [To JULIET] If I profane with my unworthiest hand This holy shrine, the gentle fine is this: My lips, two blushing pilgrims, ready stand to smooth that rough touch with a tender kiss. JULIET Good pilgrim, you do wrong your hand too much, Which mannerly devotion shows in this; For saints have hands that pilgrims' hands do touch, And palm to palm is holy palmers' kiss. ROMEO Have not saints lips, and holy palmers too? JULIET Ay, pilgrim, lips that they must use in prayer. ROMEO O, then, dear saint, let lips do what hands do; They pray, grant thou, lest faith turn to despair. JULIET Saints do not move, though grant for prayers' sake. ROMEO Then move not, while my prayer's effect I take. Thus from my lips, by yours, my sin is purged. JULIET Then have my lips the sin that they have took. ROMEO Sin from thy lips? O trespass sweetly urged! Give me my sin again. JULIET You kiss by the book. ROMEO and JULIET. William Shakespeare. 1596. Act 1. Scene V. A hall in Capulet's house. Slide 8 8 Institutions Religion: Mythology Old Testament Catholicism Altruism - Heresy - European Reformation Protestantism Puritanism Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Scarlet Letter (1850). Apollonian and Dionysian elements Slide 9 9 Marriage Ceremony Shakespeares time A Catholic ceremony today. Slide 10 10 Gianlorenzo Bernini, Ecstasy of St. Teresa, Cornaro Chapel, 1647-52. Slide 11 11 Hester Prynne portrayed 1850s 2002. The Scarlet Letter Nathaniel Hawthorne Slide 12 12 School Slide 13 13 Jokes, Dreams and Slips Slide 14 14 Jokes: Dionysian release Jokes and their Relation to the Unconscious. Sigmund Freud: A Freudian slip is when you say one thing but you mean your mother. Slide 15 15 Salvador Dali. Metamorphosis of Narcissus. 1937. Freud commented: Ive never seen such a perfect example of Spanish man before, what a fanatic! Dal said that this work was all about the death and petrifaction of Narcissus. Slide 16 16 Henri Matisse Title: The Piano Lesson 1916 Apollonian/ Dionysian? Slide 17 17 Johann Sebastian Bach Ludwig von Beethoven Rock concert Music-most Dionysian art? Apollonian/Dionysian response? I hated it because I didnt know what it meant. Role of critical analysis... What would be a Dionysian expectation for music? Slide 18 18 What is the sound-scape of your life? Music was meant to stir the emotions, not thought processes. Do you agree? Slide 19 19 William Wordsworth "Poetry is the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings; it takes its origin from emotion recollected in tranquility.". --Distanced emotion aesthetic distance Drama, literature, poetry--most Apollonian? --Apollonian elements in drama, literature, poetry: emphasis on morality intentional communication of ideas goal of improving society orderly structures distanced emotions (aesthetic distance) --Dionysian elements? Slide 20 20 Slide 21 21 Slide 22 22 Maurice Ravel (1875-1937), Bolero, 1928. A Paradox... Form: Elements composed of basic elements : tone, scale, rhythm, melody... Principles (music has them too): coherence and unity through repetition, organization. - Impulse/idea, content --> strict Form --> Dionysian effect. Embedding.. Slide 23 23 Stages of Creativity 1.2.3. First InsightSaturationIncubation *4.5. IlluminationVerification. (The Ah-Ha!) See Betty Edwards, Drawing on the Artist Within, 1986. Slide 24 24 Visual Arts Basic Elements of Visual Art: Line, shape, form, color, texture, space Composition Unity and variety Likeness, alteration Slide 25 25 Slide 26 26 W. Kandinsky. Composition VII. 1913. Slide 27 27 Persian Miniature 1525-35. Slide 28 28 F. Goya. Shootings of the 3rd of May, 1808. 1814. Slide 29 29 Donatello Title: David bronze. ca. 1428-32. Slide 30 30 Michelangelo David. marble 1504. Slide 31 31 Drama To provide catharsis or provoke? To entertain? Slide 32 32 Plan of Versailles Versailles Palace and Gardens. 1668. Slide 33 33 Dionysian/Apollonian? Theory, structure: Practice: The flow of life: Apollonian and Dionysian qualities have much to do with personal decisions and responses to events. -->Balance. Combine elements. Slide 34 34 Raphael. School of Athens, 1509-11. The Vatican. Slide 35 35 Question: Can a rebellious art form remain Dionysian in a museum setting? I.M. Pei, Museum of Rock and Roll, Cleveland, Ohio. Slide 36 36 Apollo and Daphne 1622. Marble. Gianlorenzo Bernini Slide 37 37 Henry Matisse. The Joy of Life. 1905-6. Slide 38 38 Henri Matisse. The Music Lesson. 1917. Slide 39 39 STUDY FOR APOLLONIAN and DIONYSIAN TENDENCIES. Be ready to identify characteristics of an Apollonian characteristics of a Dionysian event, person, thing, idea Remember the back and forth swing in people religion, education:realized person Mardi Grasinfinite person Ash Wednesdayluomo universale Versaillesliteralist (?) St. Petersbalance Slide 40 40 Form and content of plays and writing: Sophocles Oedipus Rex, Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet Nathaniel Hawthorne, Scarlet Letter poetry of Angelo J Lewis and A.E. Housman, Nietzsches Birth of Tragedy from the Spirit of Music Victor Hugos Les Miserables W. Wordsworths emotion recollected in tranquility aesthetic pleasure aesthetic distance catharsis Sigmund Freuds theory of jokes Slide 41 41 Embedding, comparisons, form and content in music and art Michelangelos and Donatellos David Bernini, St. Teresa Goya, 3 rd of May Raphael, School of Athens Matisse, Music Lesson Kandinsky, Composition VII Rock concerts, museums Ravels Bolero Victorian Age Slide 42 42 QUIZ. 4-C CRITICAL THINKING and APOLLONIAN and DIONYSIAN TENDENCIES Slide 43 43 MATCHING Choose the best term for these descriptions from the options below them. 1. ____said, the creative struggle between emotion and reason leads to powerful works of art. 2. The author of a poem about someone with fifty more years to live, during which he intends to live seizing every opportunity to experience beautiful things 3. ____ who said, jokes and slips of the tongue release Dionysian impulses. A) Beethoven B) Mozart C) Plato D) Freud E) Nietzsche AB) A.E. Housman. Slide 44 44 MATCHING 4. Persons with an objective approach to subjects. 5. Leonardo and Einstein are examples of this. 6. Persons whose knowledge of the past informs their present. 7.The Greek god of the sun (hence of light and truth) is named: A) Plato B) realized human beings C) Apollo D) literalists E) critical thinkers AB) uomo universale Slide 45 45 MATCHING. 8. A framework of circumstances and relationships around a subject. 9. A statement that is believed to contain a reasoned foundation for ethical behavior. 10. A process that describes, defines, and analyzes. 11.Plausible but self-serving reasons for actions. A) critical thinkingB) principle C) rationalization D) context E) buried assumptions Slide 46 46 MULTIPLE CHOICE. 12. Which of the following would NOT be considered one of the disciplines to study in the humanities? A) music B) biology C) television D) philosophy 13. Which of these items would NOT belong in the repertoire of a professional critic when assessing an artistic work? A) adding observations about the production, performers, or artist's technique. B) not trusting ones initial response. C) noticing details in the work and in the presentation of the work. D) using many adjectives that describe mostly one's personal feelings about the work. Slide 47 47 14. The Dionysian spirit is most applicable to which of the following artistic creations? A) the improvisations of a jazz musician B) the precise, fourteen-line structure of a sonnet C) the balanced composition of a landscape painting D) the structural design of St. Peter's cathedral in Rome 15. The rigidly Apollonian Protestant sect that dominated New England in the 17th century (providing the basis for Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter) is known as: A)Puritanism B) Roman Catholicism C) Protestantism D) Mysticism Slide 48 48 MATCHING 16. This artistic work shows the Dionysian side of religion. 17. This play depicts the Apollonian authority of the family squelching two Dionysian lovers. A. Michelangelo's David B). Bernini's The Ecstasy of St. Teresa C. Miss Saigon D. Romeo and Juliet E) Oedipus Rex TRUE (A) or FALSE (B) 18. Knowledge of historical context allows people to better understand the meaning of the artistic work, even though the style of the work may be out of date. 19.Clear by Angelo John Lewis gives a Dionysian appearance to poetry. 20. Dionysians trust in luck. Slide 49 49 21. Educational theory is Apollonian; educational practice is more Dionysian. 22. Sigmund Freud wrote a famous essay attacking the belief that Greek myths contained psychological realities. Would teach critical thinking (A) or Would NOT (B). Which questions would help teach critical thinking? (A) Which would not? (B) 23. At what temperature does water boil? 24.What is the relationship of 17 th century music and the gardens of Versailles? 25.Who sculpted the statue of David found in Florence? Slide 50 50