UOBLIENI ELEMENTI KRVI
Eritrociti Leukociti TrombocitiWho would have thought the old man to have had so much blood in him? Macbeth, V, I, 42, by William Shakespeare
!!! DRAGI STUDENTI, RADOVI KOJI SU DATI KAO PDF FILES 02a., 02b. i 02c. NISU OBAVEZNA LITERATURA , NEGO INTERESANTNI RADOVI I VIE SU INFORMATIVNOG KARAKTERA tj ZA ONE KOJI ELE DA ZNAJU VIE
SLAJDOVI OD PROLE GODINE SU UBAENI U PREZENTACIJU KAO PODSEDANJE DA TO TREBA DA SE ZNA KAO GRADIVO KURSA
OSNOVE FIZIOLOGIJE IVOTINJAOD PROLE GODINEWho would have thought the old man to have had so much blood in him? Macbeth, V, I, 42, by William Shakespeare
UOBLIENI ELEMENTI KRVI
ERITROCITIVANO!!!!GRADIVNO IZ KURSA OSNOVE FIZIOLOGIJE IVOTINJA TREBA DA SE ZNA Who would have thought the old man to have had so much blood in him? Macbeth, V, I, 42, by William Shakespeare
Uloga citokina u hematopoezi.Razliiti citokini stimuliu rast i sazrevanje razliitih loza krvnih elija. CFU-jedinica formiranja kolonija, CSFfaktor stimulacije kolonija.
STIM CELIJAIL-1 IL-6 IL-3 Proeritroblast Mijeloblast Limfoblast
Megakarioblast Rani eritroblast (normoblast) Neutrofilni Bazofilni Eozinofilni mijelocit Promonocit mijelocit mijelocit Intermedijalni Megakariocit Prolimfocit eritroblast Kasni eritroblast Izbacivanje nukleusa Retikulocit Neutrofilni Leu Bazofilni Monocit Leu Eozinofilni Leu Neutrofilni metamijelocit Bazofilni metamijelocit Pucanje megakariocita
Stem celije imaju potencijal da se razviju urazliite tipove delija.Klase stem delija (u koliko razliitih tipova delija mogu da se diferencijraju): Totipotentne delije (oplodjena jajna delija) Pluripotentne Multipotentne (HSCs)
ERITROPOEZAu najranijim stadijumima - umanana kesa, jetra, kotana sr po rodjenju i u toku puberteta - kotana sr adult (zamena crvene pulpe, utom)- grudna kost, rebra,
kim. prljenovikod obilnih krvavljenja - jetra, slezina Ribe - bubreg, slezina nemaju kotanu sr (razvija se tek kod Amfiba)
Cold exposure down-regulates zebrafish hematopoiesis
Effects of exposure to low temperature on zebrafish.(A) Gross appearance of zebrafish. Normal and cold zebrafish were kept in water at 26.5 or 17 C, respectively, for 1 week. (B) Histology of the KM of zebrafish stained with Toluidine Blue O. In 25.6 C water, normal renal tubules (RT) surrounded by hematopoietic cells (HC) were observed (left). Cold zebrafish kept in 17 C water for 7 months exhibit abnormal RTs (right). Clusters of erythrocytes (arrow) were observed only in cold zebrafish. (C) Ultrastructure of erythrocyte clusters. A transmission electron micrograph shows erythrocytes (E). Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2010)
We compared the hematological responses of wild and captive populations of two closely related sharks to a standardized anoxic challenge and during a 12 hr recovery period in normoxia: the epaulette shark (Hemiscyllium ocellatum, Bonnaterre, 1788) and the grey carpet shark (Chiloscyllium punctatum, Muller and Henle, 1838). Compared to normoxic controls, a significant increase in hematocrit (captive 22.3%; wild 35.9%) coupled with a decline in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration occurred in epaulette sharks indicating erythrocyte swelling in response to anoxia. However, the grey carpet shark had a significantly increased hematocrit (captive 27.2%; wild 29.3%), erythrocyte count (captive 37.6%; wild 46.3%) and hemoglobin concentration (captive 31.9%; wild 31.5%), suggesting a release of erythrocytes into the circulation and/or hemoconcentration in response to anoxia. Plasma glucose concentrations were maintained in both wild and captive epaulette sharks and in wild grey carpet sharks during anoxia but increased significantly after 2 hr of reoxygenation (epaulette: captive 55.8%; wild 50.1%; grey carpet shark: wild 70.3%) and remained elevated for 12 hr. Captive grey carpet sharks had an immediate increase in plasma glucose concentrations after anoxia (96.4%), which was sustained for 12hr of reoxygenation. Lactate concentrations significantly increased in captive and wild animals of both species after anoxia, reaching a peak at 2 hr of re-oxygenation. Both species showed significant, yet divergent, hematological changes in response to anoxia and reoxygenation, which may not only prolong their survival and assist in recovery but also reflect their respective ecophysiological adaptations to the extreme environments that they inhabit. J. Exp. Zool. 311A:422438, 2009. r 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
ERITROCITI (ERY) Najveci deo mase uoblicenih elemenata krvi.
Boja krvi potice od Hb (kod coveka 29 pg Hb/ERY broj ERY je oko 4.5 x 1012/L krvi tj oko 717.75 g Hb cirkulise u krvi).
Najveci udeo u masi ERY zauzima Hb (32-36% od ukupnetezine ERY).
Broj i velicina ERY dnosubr. ERY (mm3) dijametar (mM) Proteus 36 000 63
54 000400 000 1x106-1.8x106
http://www.genomesize.com/cellsize/fish.htm Guster Ptice Covek 1x106-1.3x106 2.5x106-5x106 4x106-5.5x106 16 7.5 - 8.5 7.5
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=84HbKeCecOI Krvne delije riba
Krvne delije aba
Krvne delije ptica
Krvne delije sisara
Krvne delije ptica
Nezreli eritrociti pticaAll of the cells in this field are of the erythroid series. A more rounded shape and blue to polychromatophilic cytoplasm are characteristic of immature RBC's. This patient had regenerative anemia of undetermined cause. Legend: a - basophilic rubricytes; b -polychromatophilic rubricytes; c - polychromatophilic red cells (reticulocytes); d - mature red cells.
Uobiajeni paraziti u krvi ptica
Leukocztozoon sp. gametocytesThe nature of the host cell is obscured. Both elongated (sail-like) and compact spherical forms (inset) may be seen in the same smear.
Hemoproteus spp.The erythroid origin of the host cell remains apparent. The organisms have a textured appearance and contain scattered pigment granules; they may nearly encircle the RBC's http://diaglab.vet.cornell.edu/clinpath/modules/heme1/avi nucleus..
Gradja, oblik i velicina ERY membrana - tipicna mocna plazmalema, propustljiva za
H2O u oba pravca, elektrolite I org mat. (osim za krupnemakromolekule).
stroma - ulogu citoskeleta (posle hemolize ERY ostajebezbojna koloidna masa).
Hb spektrin CA
Gradja, oblik i velicina ERYERY sa jedrom - amfibe, reptili i pticeERY bez jedra - sisari ~~~~Sferne tvorevine, oblik-bikonkavnog diska sa suzenimcentralnim delom i zaobljenim ivicama.
Sastav ERYNEORGANSKE MATERIJE: H2O 60-65%, uglavnom slobodna i nesto malo vezana za globuline i globulinsku komponentu Hb. mineralne materije - elektroliti (0.6-0.7%): K+ (410 mg%), Na+ (4.6 mg%), Ca++ (2 mg%) Mg++ (3.6 mg% - vise nego u plazmi).
Cl- (190 mg%), HCO3- (40 mg%), PO43- (3.4 mg%),SO42- (u tragovima)
Fe2+ (u hemu; oko 2.6 mg u Hb coveka teskog 70 kg).
Sastav ERY ORGANSKE MATERIJE: 34-39% od ukupne mase ERY Hb + male kolicine globulina, glukoze, nukleoproteida, od lipida lecitin Spektrinska mrezica oblik spektrin-ankirin-membrana CA karbon anhidraza
Chaenocephalus aceratus !!! NEMA RBC, ni Hb ni Mb - nedostatak funkcionalnog gena za b globin - adaptacija =>veoma brz protok krvi !!!
Ice fish (suborder Notothenioidei) produce anti-freeze substances in their bodies that prevent the formation of ice. They also have enzyme systems that are highly efficient and allow them to remain active at low temperatures their activity in water at 32F (0C) is close to that of a temperate water fish at 68F (20 C). They also lack red blood cells (they are translucent, like ice!) for carrying oxygen around their bodies. The RBCs are not needed since oxygen is so highly soluble in cold seawater. This also means that their blood is much thinner, again allowing the fishs metabolism to be much lower great for conserving vital energy. Haemoprotein loss is correlated with dramatic increases in cellular mitochondrial density, heart size, blood volume and capillary bed volume. Evolution of these compensatory traits was probably facilitated by the homeostatic activity of nitric oxide, a key modulator of angiogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis. These natural knockouts of the red blood cell lineage are an excellent genomic resource for erythroid gene discovery by comparative genomics, as illustrated for the newly described gene, bloodthirsty. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemical strategies to adapt to the changing environmental gas availability. Structurally, most fish hemoglobins are tetrameric; however, those from some species such as lamprey and hagfish dissociate, being monomeric when oxygenated and oligomeric when deoxygenated. Fish blood frequently possesses several hemoglobins; the primary origin of this finding lies in the polymorphism that occurs in the globin loci, an aspect that may occasionally confer advantages to its carriers or even be a harmless evolutionary remnant. On the other hand, the functional properties exhibit different behaviors, ranging from a total absence of responses to allosteric regulation to drastic ones, such as the Root effect.
Chionodraco hamatus, one of the Antartic's ice fish, can withstand temperatures that freeze the blood of all other types of fish, Census of Marine Life scientists reported today. The ice fish is sometimes called a bloodless or white-blooded fish, because it lost its ability to make hemoglobin during its evolution.This makes the fish a medical curios