“ Social Movements as Politics ”

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Social Movements as Politics . Charles Tilly. Introduction. By 21C SM recognized as Global phenomenon: Zimbabwe, EU, Jubilee 2000, Costa Rica to Canada This was not always so. Origins of Social Movements. Europe and North America in late 18C (1750+) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Social Movements as PoliticsCharles Tilly

  • IntroductionBy 21C SM recognized as Global phenomenon: Zimbabwe, EU, Jubilee 2000, Costa Rica to Canada

    This was not always so.

  • Origins of Social MovementsEurope and North America in late 18C (1750+)Popular uprisings have occurred for centuries, but SM, as a distinct form did not develop until the late 18C in Europe and N. America.

  • Tilly: Traces SM as distinctive form of contentious politics, looks at its HistorySM are contentious politics to the extent that:

    Contentious: they involve collective making of claimsthatconflict with someones else interests

    Politics: in the sense that governments of one sort or another figurein the claim makingas claimants, objects of claims, allies of the objects, or monitors of the contention.

    Origins of Social Movements

  • Need to study History to Understand SM as Distinct form of Cont. PolsNeed to identify the origins, and the evolving outline of SM, as well as the surrounding forces that made SM possible. Origins of Social Movements

  • Defining SM: Three (3) Elements:

    1) Campaigns:

    2) Repertoire:3) WUNC: (Worthiness, Unity, Numbers and Commitment)

    Defining Social Movements

  • Campaigns: sustained, organized public effort making collective claim on target authorities.

    Link Claimants, objects of claims, and the publicEach has to be present in SM. Authorities or objects do not always have to be the govt, they could also be property owners, religious leaders.

    Defining Social Movements

  • Campaigns: Link Claimants, objects of claims, and the public

    Defining Social MovementsClaimants (SM)Objects of Claimants (State, Corporation, religious leadership)PublicSustained Effort

  • Repertoire: development of special purpose associations which hold:

    - Public meetings- Processions- Vigils- Rallies- Demonstrations - Petition drives- Media Campaigns

    Have existed elsewhere, but must be integrated into sustained campaigns to be part of a SM.

    Defining Social Movements

  • Campaigns: Link Claimants, objects of claims, and the public

    Defining Social MovementsClaimants (SM)Objects of Claimants (State, Corporation, Religious leadership)PublicRepertoireMeetings, Processions, Vigils, Rallies, Demonstrations, Petitions, Media Campaigns

  • WUNC: Public representations of

    Worthiness: sober demeanor, neat clothing, presence of clergy, mothers

    Unity: matching in rank, head bands, banners, singing and chanting

    Numbers: headcounts, signatures on petitions, filling streets Commitment: braving bad weather, state repression,

    Defining Social Movements

  • Campaigns: Link Claimants, objects of claims, and the public

    Defining Social MovementsClaimants (SM)Objects of Claimants (State, Corporation, Religious leadership)PublicRepertoireWorthiness, Unity, Numbers, Commitment

  • Campaigns: Link Claimants, objects of claims, and the public

    Defining Social MovementsClaimants (SM)Objects of Claimants (State, Corporation, Religious leadership)PublicViolence ?Worthiness, Unity, Numbers, Commitment

  • Campaigns: Link Claimants, objects of claims, and the public

    Defining Social MovementsClaimants (SM)Objects of Claimants (State, Corporation, religious leadership)PublicViolence ?

  • Interpretations of Social Movements

    Lorenz Von Stein in his (1850) book, History of the French Social Movement from 1789 was first to use in SM in scholarly discussion.

    Early Definitions:Marx, Engels: Single, unitary (or entire) working class movement toward self-consciousness. (1840-1880s)

    SM in the Plural: others spoke of multiple SMs.

    Defining Social Movements

  • Historical Episodes that Appear to Match characteristics of SM: 3 MistakesToo broad an application of the term SM: any prior collective action

    Examples: Women Movement: reading any political act of women into a coherent movement spanning centuries.

    Environmental Movement: any act on behalf of environment is part of the Environmental Movement.

    Confuse SM collective action with existence of political organization.

    Defining Social Movements

  • Social Movement: Distinctive Form, with a Distinctive History

    Social Movement Combine: 1) Campaigns for collective claims to targeted authorities2) An array of claim-making performances3) Public representations of WUNC.Defining Social Movements

  • Contemporary Attempts to Define SM: Useful, but IncompleteMany of these accounts are informative and useful, but they do not provide a coherent history of SM as a political phenomenon

    Even those who have worked on a definition, have typically subordinated within a broader analysis of democracy or some other subject.

    No Laws of Social Movement:Defining Social Movements

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