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Иако законска регулатива текст во кој има корисни информации за Охридското езеро и неговиот растителен и животински свет.

Text of ОХРИДСКО ЕЗЕРО (OHRID LAKE)

16 3 ( 07/08, 67/10, 47/11 53/11), 2011 - 2016 1.1. - . . : , , , , , , , , , , , , a, . 1.2.

1.

2. 2.1. , 40 (23 17 ), . 1.042,25 2, / 2,91. (1962 .) 398,36 2 ( 1998). , 34,37% , 24,10%. ( , 2.519,1 2)1, 3.959,71 2 ( 7.36%). , , , ( ) ( ) . , , , 1961 . , . . , , , . . , (), , , . , . ( ), . ( 193,3 2, 29 , 73 ). , , , ( ) 1.840 . . , , . ( ), . ( 300 ) , ( ), , ( 1

(HOLLIS i STEVENSON 1997)

2

) . , . , ( 33,8 2, 8,5 20 ) , . , . , , . , , , () ( ) , ( ) . (68,6 2) . ( ) . - , ( ) , , . ( 1961 ) . (.. 920 ) (1.640 .. , 1.700 .. , 2.055 ., ). (411,47 2, . 389,36 2), 117 , 26 ( ) . . (6,9 ) ( 112,907 3 -1) . ( . ) 130 3 -1. : , , , , , : , , . , ( ) , 2.2. - . (4105, N, 2045, ), . , , , , , .

3

. , , ( ). , . , STEINDACHNER (1892) STURANY (1894) . BRUSINA (1896), , . ( 1911), ( 1924), (STANKOVIC 1944, STANKOVIC & HADZISCE 1953, STANKOVIC 1960, HADZISCE 1966, 1985) , , (- 1985, HADZISCE 1992, 1994). (ALLEN OCEVSKI 1977, OCEVSKI ALLEN 1978., FRALEIGH ET AL. 1981, 1987; 1990., NAUMOSKI 1990; 1994; 1999). ( ) . , . , , , , ( 1993). . , . . (1960), , , . , ( ) - - ( ) . . (1911) , , . ( 1974), , , 5,5 , 5 , 2,5 - 2,8 (. 1).

4

. 1.

693,17 , , 358,18 2 2/3 (238,79 2) , 1/3 ( 119,39 2) . 288,7 . , ( 10%) . 1,5-2 , 10 . , , . ( ), ( ), 200 300 . 163,1 . 87,531 ( 1,305) 56,025 31,506 . 30,372, 14,8 , 11,79 . 58,638 3 83,61 ( 1985). ( 35 693,17 ) ( ), ( ) 22,24 3 .-1 ( 1974), (. 2).

5

. 2.

-, , (STANKOVIC 1960; PETROVIC 1975; ALLEN OCEVSKI 1977), (HADZISCE 1966), (JONES & BOWSER 1978), (NAUMOSKI 1990). 2.3. : - () - - ............................. 110 - ...................11C - ...................2.7 C - ..................19.6 C - . ....................35.5 C - ( ) .......................................2257

6

3.

3.1 , , , , , , , , , , , , . (.3.) , , . . 4 , . , , , , . .5 . , , . , (.7) (. 8) . 40.11

10

9

Temperatura (oC)

8

7

6

51 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 `0 5`0 7`0 8`0 8`0 4`0 `0 7`0 8`0 0`0 1`0 1`0 3`0 6`0 8`0 9`0 1`0 `0 6`0 7`0 8`0 1`0 6`0 8`0 0`0 6`0 4`0 5`0 8`0 `0 3`0 4`0 5`0 6`0 7`0 03 0 0 0 0 0 06 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 03 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 02 0 0 0 0 0

Period (mesec/godina)

. 3.

7

Proyirnost (m)

8,5

10 ,51 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 `0 5`0 7`0 8`0 1`0 4`0 6`0 7`0 8`0 0`0 1`0 1`0 3`0 6`0 8`0 9`0 1`0 3`0 6`0 7`0 8`0 1`0 6`0 8`0 0`0 6`0 4`0 5`0 8`0 2`0 3`0 4`0 5`0 6`0 7`0 03 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

12 ,5

14 ,5

16 ,5

18 ,5

20 ,5

Period (mesec/godina)

. 4. 11,5

11

Rastvoren kislorod (mg/l)

10,5

10

9,5

9

8,5

81 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 `0 5`0 `0 8`0 `0 4`0 `0 7`0 `0 0`0 `0 1`0 `0 6`0 `0 9`0 `0 `0 6`0 `0 8`0 `0 6`0 `0 0`0 `0 4`0 `0 8`0 `0 3`0 `0 5`0 `0 7`0 03 0 07 0 08 0 06 0 08 1 11 0 03 0 08 0 11 03 0 07 0 11 0 08 1 06 0 05 0 02 0 04 0 06 0

Period (mesec/godina)

. 5. 20

18

16

14

Vkupen fosfor (Mg/l)

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

03 `0 1 05 `0 1 07 `0 1 08 `0 1 08 `0 1 04 `0 2 06 `0 2 07 `0 2 08 `0 2 10 `0 2 11 `0 2 01 `0 3 03 `0 3 06 `0 3 08 `0 3 09 `0 3 11 `0 3 03 `0 4 06 `0 4 07 `0 4 08 `0 4 11 `0 4 06 `0 5 08 `0 5 10 `0 5 06 `0 6 04 `0 7 05 `0 7 08 `0 7 02 `0 8 03 `0 8 04 `0 8 05 `0 8 06 `0 8 07 `0 8Period (mesec/godina)

.6.

8

29 28 27 26 25 24TSI (SD)

23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15` 03 01 ` 05 01 ` 07 01 ` 08 01 ` 11 01 ` 04 02 ` 06 02 ` 07 02 ` 08 02 ` 10 02 ` 11 02 ` 01 03 ` 03 03 ` 06 03 ` 08 03 3 3 04 04 04 04 04 05 95 05 06 07 -7 7 8 08 08 08 08 08 `0 `0 ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` `0 `0 ` ` ` ` ` 09 11 03 06 07 08 11 06 08 19 06 04 05 08 02 03 04 05 06 07 Period (mesec/godina)

. 7. 50 45 40 35 30

TSI (TP)

25 20 15 10 5 0

` 03

01

` 05

01

` 07

01

` 08

01

` 11

01

` 04

02

` 06

02

` 07

02

` 08

02

` 10

02

` 11

02

` 01

03

` 03

03

` 06

03

` 08

03

` 09

03

` 11

03

` 03

04

` 06

04

` 07

04

` 08

04

` 11

04

` 06

05

` 08

95

` 19

05

` 06

06

` 04

07

` 05

-7

` 08

07

` 02

08

` 03

08

` 04

08

` 05

08

` 06

08

` 07

08

Period (mesec/godina)

. 8.

4.

4.1. , , : , () () . () ( 75%), ( 16%) 9 %. , Phragmites australis 74 (0,31% ), , Poteamogeton perfoliatus (1021,13 - 4,28%) Chara tomentosa (1049,16 - 4,39 %) 2070,16 8,67 % . ( Hofrat Ottendofer,

9

1983), . , . , (Nuphar lutea (L.) Smith, Polygonum amphibium L., Potamogeton perfoliatius L., Myriophyllum spicatium L., Myriophyllum vertricillatium L., Ceratophyllum demersum L., Elodea canadensis Rich.&Michx., Najas major All. Lemna trisulca L.). , (, , ) .. 1

. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin ex Steud. Typha latifolia L. Typha angustifolia L. Schoenoplectus lacustris (L.) Palla (Scirpus lacustris L.) Nuphar lutea (L.) Smith. Polygonum amphibium L. Potamogeton perfoliatus L. Potamogeton lucens L. Potamogeton pectinatus L. Potamogeton crispus L. Potamogeton acutifolius Link. Myriophyllum spicatum L. Myriophyllum verticillatum L. Ceratophylllum demersum L. Ceratophylllum submersum L. Zannichellia palustris L. Vallisneria spiralis L. Elodea canadensis Rich.&Michx. Najas major All. Najas minor All. Ranunculus circinatus Sibth. Lemna trisulca L. Chara tomentosa L. (Chara ceratophylla Wallr.) Chara sp. Nitella sp.

Ottendorfer I, II I, II II II II I, II II, III II, III II II II II, III II II I, II II I I, II I, II

4.2. 4.2.1. , , . (Reynolds, 1984). < 1 > 500 . , . . ,

10

, , . , , , , . 10 , , 54,44% 76,74%. , . 2001 2003 (58,7 - 35,3%) , Cosmarium phaseolus . 2002 Cianophyta 57,45% 70,71% 10 . , Cosmarium phaseolus, : Oocystis rhomboides, Ankistrodesmus lacustris, Staurastrum paradoxum, Ankistrodesmus falcatus Oocystis lacustris. Chrysophyta Pyrrophyta ( 85%). Chrysophyta Dinobryon divergens Dinobryon bavaricym. Chrysophyta, Cyanophyta Bacillaraophyta, . Pyrrophyta 80%, (. 61%) 10 , 20 , 1% . Pyrrophyta Ceratiym hirundinella, Peridiniym cunnigtonii. , 272.000 ind l-1 2002 . 20 . 100.000 ind l-1, 10.000 ind l-1. , . 20 , 30, 40 10 . 50 , , 150 , 1794 ind l-1. , . , 1.5% . , , (Nrnberg& Shaw, 1999; Raschke, 1993; Marshall Peters, 1989).

11

, , , . . . , Marshall Peters (1989). , , 20 40 , . , 150 . Cyclotella fottii , . 200 250 . 150 , . . , 2001-2008 0,82 l-1, 54,94 -1, 50,15 C -2 . OECD , , , . Nrnberg (1996), , .. 2. 2001-2008 , 1982 Chl. - ( l-1) Chl. - max. ( l-1) ( l-1) G C-2 0,82 4,18 54,94 50,15 . 3. 2008 ( 1996) Chl. ( l-1) ( l-1) G C-2 0,29 19,43 26,60

4.2.2. . , , . , , . , , , , , , . 2001-2008 : 75-966 bacml-1 ; 51-1324 bacml-1

12

; 661-2549 ; 45-327 bacml-1 ; 112-1270 bacml-1 . . , , , 7003951 bacml-1 . . . , , Tumpling (1969) Sladacek (1973), I . , Escerichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, . , (FO/, Petrovic, 1998) . , . 1050-81138 bacml-1. . , , Escerichia coli, Clostridium perfringens. 90-1698 bacml-1 . ., , III IV . Escerichia coli Clostridium perfringens . , Escerichia coli, , Kavka (1994). , : , , , , . , , .

13

5000broj na bak/ml voda

4000 3000 2000 1000 0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Period na istrazuvawe Proteoliti~ki Heterotrofi MPA-100% Lipoliti~ki Amiloliti~ki Fosfomineralizatori MPA-10%

. 9. 2002-2008 .

4.2.3 . (Williamson, 1991). , , , - - . . . . , . . Cladocera: Diaphanosoma birgei lacustris (Korinek) Leptodora kandtii (Focke), . , , Copepoda. . , , , , , (, 1935; -, 1957). . . , . , . , , , . , .

14

Cladocera , , , , . , , . . I, I-II II . 1,5, .. 3 , ( 2001-2007)

Rotifera Asplanchna priodonta Gosse, 1850 Kellicottia longispina (Kellicott, 1879) Polyarthra vulgaris Carlin, 1943 Trichocerca capucina (Wierzejski et Zacharias 1893) Kerattella quadrata (Mller, 1786) Gastropus stylifer Imhof, 1891 Kerattella cochlearis (Gosse, 1851) Ploeosoma truncatum (Levander, 1894) Synchaeta stylata Wierzejski, 1893 Filinia terminalis (Plate, 1886) Cladocera Daphnia pulicaria Forbes Bosmina longirostris O.F. Mller Diaphanosoma birgei lacustris (Korinek) Leptodora kindtii (Focke) Copepoda Mesocyclops leuckarti Eudiaptomus gracillis Arctodiaptomus steindachneri (Richard, 1897) Cyclops ochridanus

ind/m

3

s h 1 5 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 3 1,6 1,4 2,1 1,5 1,7 1,2 1,9 1,5 1,2 1,4 1,4

24 1115 25 52 29 890 62 58 18 227

520 850 125 42

2,2 1,6 1,6 1,7 1,7

1 1 1 1

87 365 5201 1072

1,7 2,1 1,5 1,8 1,6 1,5 (I)

1 1 5 3

15

Dreissena 7%

Rotifera 17%

Cladocera 14% Copepoda 62%

. 10. (2001-2007.) . 4 , ( 2001-2007)

Rotifera Asplanchna priodonta Gosse, 1850 Kellicottia longispina (Kellicott, 1879) Polyarthra vulgaris Carlin, 1943 Trichocerca capucina (Wierzejski et Zacharias 1893) Kerattella quadrata (Mller, 1786) Gastropus stylifer Imhof, 1891 Kerattella cochlearis (Gosse, 1851) Ploeosoma truncatum (Levander, 1894) Synchaeta stylata Wierzejski, 1893 Filinia terminalis (Plate, 1886) Cladocera Daphnia pulicaria Forbes Bosmina longirostris O.F. Mller Diaphanosoma birgei lacustris (Korinek) Leptodora kindtii (Focke) Copepoda Mesocyclops leuckarti Eudiaptomus gracillis Arctodiaptomus steindachneri (Richard, 1897) Cyclops ochridanus :

ind/m3 24 1115 25 52 29 890 62 58 18 227

(g/m3) 11 195 1,1 3,64 2,03 3,5 5,8 4,86 85,125 311,755

520 850 125 42

15080 661,3 1411 1680 18835

87 365 5201 1072

818 4197 36407 11792 53214 72366 (0.0723 g)

16

4.3. ,

PORIFERA Spongilla stankovici Spongilla fragilis Ochridospongia rotunda PLATHELMINTHES Turbellaria - Tricladida Phagocata ochridana Phagocata stankovici Phagocata undulata Phagocata maculata Dendrocoelum adenodactylosum Dendrocoelum maculatum Dendrocoelum sanctunaumi Dendrocoelum komareki Dendrocoelum decoratum Dendrocoelum lacustre Dendrocoelum dorsivittatum Dendrocoelum lychnidicum Dendrocoelum ochridense Dendrocoelum minimum Dendrocoelum albiidum Dendrocoelum sinisai Dendrocoelum translucidum Dendrocoelum cruciferum Dendrocoelum lacteum Dendrocoelum jablanicense Dendrocoelum tockoi Dendrocoelum sapkarevi Dendrocoelum porfirevi ANNELIDA 1. Oligochaeta Tubifex tubifex Criodrilus lacuum Limnodrilus hoffmaeisteri Rhynchelmis komareki f. typica Criodrilus lacuum Eiseniella tetraedra f. typica Limnodrilus udekamianus Psammoryctes ochridanus f. variabilis Tubifex ochridanus f. variabilis Pothamotrix hammoniensis Peloscolex tenuis Peloscolex stankovii f. litoralis Rhynchelmis komareki f. typica Eiseniella ochridana Pothamotrix ochridense Stylaria lacustris Criodrilus ochridense

17

Nais variabilis Tubifex sp. Limnodrilus udekamianus Rhynchelmis komareki Rhynchelmis komareki brevirostra Eiseniella tetraedra Allolobophora lacustris 2. Hirudinea Glossiphonia pulchella Glossiphonia maculosa Glossiphonia complanata complanata Cystobranchus pawlowskii Dina lepinja Dina krilata Dina sp. Erpobdella octoculata Haemopsis sanguisuga Haementeria costata Glossiphonia complanata MOLLUSCA 1. Gastropoda Carinogyraulus lychnidicus Chilopyrgula sturanyi Radix relicta Valvata stenotrema Theod. fluviatilis dalmaticus Ginaia munda munda Pyrgohydrobia grochmalickii Viviparus vivparus Valvata rhabdota Polinskiola sturanyi Pyrgula dybowskii Coretus corneus Ohridopyrgula macedonica Carinogyraulus trapezoides Macedopyrgula pavlovici Zaumia sanctizaumi Gocea ochridana Macedopyrgula wagneri Trachyochridia filocincta Neofossarulus stankovici Gyraulus macedonicus 2. Bivalvia Dreissena polymorpha Sphaerium corneum Unio sp. ARTHROPODA 1. Crustacea A. Ostracoda

18

Candona alta Candona media Candona trapzoformis Candona cristatella Candona depressa Candona marginata Candona vidua Limnocythere sp. Lepthocitere sp. B. Amphipoda Gammarus roeselii Gammarus ochridensis Gammarus ochridensis ochridensis Gammarus roeselii triacanthus Gammarus ochridensis abyssalis C. Isopoda Asellus djordjevici Asellus djordjevici litoralis Asellus djordjevici djordjevici Asellus remyi typicus Asellus remyi acutangulus Asellus remyi nudus Asellus a.arnautovici Asellus a. elongatu 2. Hydracarina 3. Araneina 4. Insecta . Ephemeroptera Cloeon dipterum Caenis macrura Cloeon simile Procloeon sp. B. Trichoptera Goera pilosa Ecnomus tenellus Polysentropus multiguttatus Odontocerum sp. C. Odonata Enallagma cyathigerum Gomphus vulgatissimus Aechna sp. Libellula depressa Diptera Chironomidae Cryptochironomus conjugens Polypedilum breviantennatum Polypedulum bicrenatum Polypedulum pedestre

19

Tanytarsus mancus Cricotopus algarum Procladius choreus Chironomus plumosus D. Neuroptera Sialis lutaria 4.4. , : Rana ridibunda Rana graeca, : Natrix teselata Natrix natrix, Emys orbicularis. Astacus astacus, Potamon fluviatilis. 5.

, , . , , , . , , . , . 5.1. - 6. . , Kottelat 2007 SALMONIDAE Salmo letnica Karaman, 1924 Salmo aphelios Kottelat 1997 (S.l.aestivalis) Salmo ohridana Steindachner 1892 CYPRINIDAE Alburnoides ohridanus, Karaman, 1928 Alburnus scoranza, Heckel et Kner, 1858 Barbus rebeli Kller, 1925 Cyprinis carpio Linnaeus, 1758 Chondrostoma ohridanus Karaman, 1924 Gobio ohridanus, Karaman, 1924 Pelasgus minutus (Karaman, 1924) Scardinius knezevici, Bianco & Kottelat, 2005 Rutilus ohridanus, Karaman, 1924 Pachychilon pictum, Heckel et Kner, 1858 Squalius squalus Bonaparte, 1837 , , , ,

20

Phoxinus lumaireul (Shinz 1860) COBITIDAE Cobitis ohridana Karaman, 1928 NEMACHEILIDAE Barbatula sturanyi, Steindachner, 1892 ANGUILLIDAE Anguilla anguilla, Linnaeus, 1758

7. , Kottelat 2007 SALMONIDAE Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792 CYPRINIDAE Carassius gibelio Bloch, 1782 Pseudorasbora parva Rhodeus amarus, Bloch, 1782 CENTRARHIDAE Lepomis gibbosus Linnaeus, 1758 () , , ,

Salmo letnica Karaman (Salmo letnica typicus) - ( ) , , . , , . () . , , S. letnica. , , , , , 70 , , . Salmo letnica Karaman 1924, . . , . . 4 5 , , , 35 - 40 400 500 .

21

, , . . . , . . . ( , ). , , . , . , . , . , , . . . . 1930 - 1950 ( . ) 55 - 145 90 . , , , . . Salmo aphelios, (Salmo letnica aestivalis) K , , . ()

22

, 70 , , 12 0. , . , . . . 1945 2003 , . 2003 . , . Salmo ohridana () , . 12 1 . . . , (Chara sp.) (Draisena sp.). 70 . , (-) (-). . , , . - Alburnoides ohridanus (, ) Cyprinidae. .

23

. -. . , - . , 6 - 8 . 12 . 30 . , . . , . . . , , , . . , , . . - - . - Alburnus scoranza () Cyprinidae. , . . , . . - - . , 7- 8 . , , . 3 000 10 500 . . 4 - 5 . 12 - 15 . 20 50 . , . , , . , .

24

- Barbus rebeli (, ,) Cyprinidae. . , . , ( ) . . , . - - . . , . . . 30-35 . 500 . . . . , , . , . , . , . . , Cyprinus carpio . . . , . . . , , . . , . . . . , , ,

25

. . . 180, . . 30.000 ( ) 1.000.000 ( ). , . . . , , . 25 . . 80 . 10 . . . . , , , , , , , . 12 , 5 . . 1 1 0

2-3 4-5 0,5 - 2,0 0,75 - 2,5 25 - 30 30 - 40 IV - VI 16 - 22 100 - 200 200 - 1500 1,0 - 1,5 2,0 - 2,5

C

700 - 1000 80 - 120 60 - 70 3-4 4,8 - 5,0

26

. . - Chondrostoma ohridanus (, ) Cyprinidae. , , , . (), , . , . , , , , . . , . - . , . . , . . . 10 15 . . 100 000 , 1,5 3 . . 50 3 kg., 25 40 . , , . , , , ( , ). - . . , . - Gobio ohridanus () Cyprinidae. , . , . ,

27

. , . . , . . - - . 6 8 . , , , . . 1000 3000 2 . . 15. 30 , . , , , . . . . Pelasgus minutus (Karaman, 1924) . , 5-6 . , 45 . . . , . . . . . - Scardinius knezevici Cyprinidae. . , . , , . , . .

28

. . , , . , 12 . , . 90000 230000 1 1,5 . . . . 25 . 300-400 . . , . . , , . , . , , . . . - Phoxinus lumaireul Cyprinidae. , , . . , , . , . . , . , . . . , . 1000 . , 1 - 1,25 . . , , , . , . . . 5 - 10 . . 10 12 . .

29

, . . - Rutilus ohridanus Cyprinidae. , , . , . , . . . , . . , . . . , , . . 1 . , . . 15 . 50 . . . , . . . , , , , , , , . . , .

30

- Pachychilon pictum Cyprinidae. . , , . . , . . , . , , , . . . . 3/4 1/4 . , . . . 1 . 3.000 30.000 . . . 20 100 . 10 . , , . . . , . . . - Squalius squalus Cyprinidae. , . . , , .

31

. , . , . . ( ), ( ). . . 100 000 200 000 0.7 ( 1.5 ). . . . , , . 50-60 , 3 . . , , . ( , .) ( ): , , , , , , . . . . - Cobitis ohridana Cobitidae. , . . . , . , . . , . 10 20 , . , , . , . . , , 5 8 . , . , . 100.000 150.000 .

32

. 15 . 6 8 . 10 . , . . , , . , , . . . - Barbatula sturanyi Nemacheilidae. , , . , . , . , . . . , . . . , . . . . , , . , , . . 6.000 1 1,5 . . 10 12 . 8 . . , . , . . . .

33

- Anguilla anguilla ( ) Anguillidae. ( ) . . . , , . . . , , . . . . .. , . 5.000 7.000 . , , . , . , - , , 20 30 50 60 400 , 20 - 27 36 37%. , ( 1 - 1 ). . , . . 5 . , , . 65 . , . . , , . 16 18 . . 5-14 (), 7-18 ( ). 2 3 . 20 . : 200 ., 2 6 .

34

. , , . . ( .). , , . . . ,Oncorhynchus mykiss Taa e e . 45 . , , . : , (Tubifex) , . , 1974 . . , . , Carassius gibelio (Bloch.) , Cyprinidae Carassius. , . . , . , . , , . , . . . 1948 . , , . , 1973 . . .

35

. . , . . , . 12 . 150.000, 400.000 . 45 . 1 . . . . , , . - Pseudoraspora parva () Cyprinidae. . , , . , - , . . , , . . , . , . . . , . 1975 . , . 2000 . . 16 . 3 000 , , . , . . .

36

, . 10 . . , . . . . - Rhodeus amarus () Cyprinidae. , . . , . . , . . , . . . . . . . . . 40 100 . 3 . 5 . Unio sp. . . , . . . 1. . . 10 ., 5 - 6 . . . .

37

. . Lepomis gibbosus - . 1,75 2 . . . . . . , , , . . . . ( ). . , . , . , , , . . . , ( , , , .) . . , , , . . (2-8), . 30 . 10 15 . . , . . , . , . . , , ( - , .) .

38

, , , : , ; . . , , , . , , , . . , - , . 1929 . , . , , . . , . : - , (.. ) . ; - . - . , . 1930/50 , 211.000 ., 9 /. , , 38.85% 42.85% 46 %. 3.35%, 5.31%, 27.21%, 9.04%, 7.05%, 3.27%, 1.82% 0.3%.

39

Comparation of the participation of the main fishing species in the statistic for two different time scale periods - 1930/57 and 1969/99

5043.09Salmonidi 45.62%

43.6

4035.26 Ciprinidi 53.68%

30

%

Salmonidi 42.06%

27

20

Ciprinidi 49.46%

13.92 8.04 4.92 4.26

10

8.54 6.8 2.53 2.04bleak (plasica) carp(krap)

0

oh.trout (pastrmka)

belvica

all other(ostanati)

eel (jagula)

1930/57

1969/99

11. 1930/57 1969/99

1969 - 2001 , , . , , 9 7,7 .The fluctuation of the total annual catchment from the commercial fishery at the Macedonian part of Lake Ohrid for the time period 1969 - 2001 year350000

AVG=185122 kg STD = 59756 kg max = 302496 kg 300000 min = 53123 kg250000

kg

200000

150000

100000

5000019691971197319751977197919811983198519871989199119931995199719992001

12. 1969 - 2001

40

Changes in the fish yield per lake surface for the Macedonian part of Lake Ohrid for the time period 1969-2001 year

14 12AVG = 7.76 Sdev = 2.50

yield (kg/ha)

10 8 6 4 219691971197319751977197919811983198519871989199119931995199719992001

years 13. (/) 1969/2001

The contribution of the particulate commercialy important fish species (expresed in %) in the total commercial fishery at the Macedonian side of Lake Ohrid for the time period 1969 - 1999 yeargoldfish (karas) (0.27%) gudgeon (mrenec) (0.96%) roach (grunec) (1.66%) undermouth (skobust) (0.06%) chub (klen) (4.51%) burbel (mrena) (0.51%) carp (krap) (2.04%)

oh.trout (pastrmka) (35.26%)

bleak (plasica) (43.68%)

belvica (6.80%) eel (jagula) (4.26%)

14. 1969/99

41

Relative values (%) versus the absolute values (kg) of the annual catch of Lake Ohrid trout (Salmo letnica) on the Macedonian part of the lake for the period 1969 -1999 year

80 70

300000

% from the annual catch

250000

60 50 40 30 20 1050000196919711973 197519771979 1981198319851987 1989199119931995 19971999

200000

150000

100000

years% kg

15. 1969/1999

The contribution of the particulate commercialy important fish species (expresed in %) in the total commercial fishery at the Macedonian part of Lake Ohrid for the time period 1999-2001 yeargoldfish (karas) (0.24%) gudgeon (mrenec) (1.73%) roach (grunec) (0.22%) undermouth (skobust) (0.03%) chub (klen) (3.06%) burbel (mrena) (0.20%) carp (krap) (2.58%)

oh.trout (pastrmka) (19.10%)

belvica (13.51%)

bleak (plasica) (54.98%)

eel (jagula) (4.34%)

16. 1999/01

total annual catch (kg)

42

8. 2002 2002 ( .) 2861 5682 402 67261 136 773 66 3 68 9744 8 353 14 18537 7161 187 3450 975 816 176 21398 12843 589 70711 1111 1589 242 3 76 10097 14

, , e . , . . 5.2. 9. 2003 2003 3495 3235 912 33542 35 1155 49 2 162 2

5521 3848 227 600 875 937 240 116 131 58

9016 7083 1139 34142 910 2092 289 2 278 133 58

, , . , 11,56 /, , :

43

10. / 0,85 0,47 0,06 9,39 0,07 0,09 0,01 0,00 0,01 0,19 0,42 11,56

(, ), , , , . , , . , . , , . , , ( ) , . . , . , , . , . 6. 6.1. " " "" 2 , . "". 25 2011-2013 , 2014-2016 35 . 10 .

44

: . (,). . , 4 () : . , , . , 2 () . . . 6.2 . , . , , . : . , . , , , . . , . 7.

7.1. . (, , ) , 2 . 7.2. ( ). 8.

8.1. ( ) . 12 .

45

, . : ; . . , 12 . 2 . , . . , , (, , .) ( ). 6 () () . , . , . (, , ). , : 1. ( ), 2. , 3. , 4. , 5. , 6. , 7. , 8. , .

46

8.2. , , , . , . - : - . - . - - - - - . - - - . . 8.3. , 250 . , , .. . , . , , . 8.4. . 11. Salmo letnica 40 cm Salmo aphelios (S.l.aestivalis) 40 cm

47

Salmo ohridana Cyprinus carpio Alburnus scoranza Anguilla anguilla Squalus squalus Chondrostoma ohridanus Barbus rebelii Scardinius knezevici Pachyhilon pictum

30 cm 40 cm 12 cm 60 cm 25 cm 25 cm 20 cm 20 cm 10 cm

, . , . . 8.5. , , . 15 () , . - ( , ) 15 31 , - ( ), 01 31 , - 15 31 , - 01 30 , - 01 31 , - 01 31 , - 01 31 , - 01 30 , - 01 30 , - 01 30 .. . 1 . 12 Salmonidae () , Salmo typicus ( / - ) ( ) / Salmo balcanicus ( - ( ) ) Salmo lumi - ( ) / Salmo aphelios - ( ( ) ) Salmo (Salmothymus) ohridana - () -

2 3 4 5

48

/ Cyprinidae () Chondrostoma ohridanus - () Squalius squalus () Rutilus ohridanus () Phoxinus lumaireul () Alburnoides ohridanus () Barbus rebeli () Cyprinus carpio () Alburnus scoranza () Pachychilon pictum () Scardinius knezevici () Pelasgus minutus ( ) Gobio ohridanus (, , ) Cobitidae () 1 Cobitis ohridana () Nemachilidae () 1 Barbatula sturanyi () Anguillidae () Anguila anguila ( ) -

6 7 8 9 10 11

-

/ / ( ) Draissena () / / Chara () , Cladophora () Chara / Cladophora () / , Cladophora () / Cladophora () / / , Cladophora ()

12 13

14

15 16 17 . 18 . 19 . 20

8.6. : - ( ) ( ) - . , 2 . 8.7. .. , , . , ,

49

. . . , , , . . 8.8. (, ) 01 30 , , 1 , . 9.

9.1. 6 2011-2016 : - 6 2.500.000 . . . , 6 2.500.000 . 100 , . . , , , , , . - 1.500.000 510 - 18-20 100.000 . 9.2. : - , -

50

10.

13 14. 13. 2011-2016 Salmo letnica 2011 2.000 2012 - 4.000 2013 - 8.000 2014 12.000 2015 16.000 2016 20.000 Salmo ohridana 2011 500 2012 - 1.000 2013 - 2.000 2014 3.000 2015 4.000 2016 5.000 Cyprinus carpio 2011-2013 10.000 2014-2016 40.000 Alburnus scoranza 200.000 Anguilla anguilla 4.000 Squalus squalus 5.000 Barbus rebelii Scardinius knezevici 500 Rutilus ohridanus 5.000 Gobio ohridanus 8.000 14. 2011-2016 Salmo letnica 2011 1.200 2012 - 2.100 2013 - 3.000 2014 4.500 2015 6.000 2016 6.000 Salmo ohridana Cyprinus carpio 2011-2013 4.000 2014-2016 10.000 Alburnus scoranza 50.000 Squalus squalus 2.000 Chondrostoma ohridanus Barbus rebelii Scardinius knezevici 500 Pachyhilon pictum 1.000

, , . 11.

51

: 1 15 05-15 , ( ) 01-15 , 1 14 20 () , 1 30 1 30 1 30 1 30 01 30 01 30 1 31 . 12.

, .. 15 () 10 10 5 10 15 15 10

. 50 .

12.1. E : 25 (). (). 12.2. () . . 3 . : 2011 400 ,

52

2012 700 , 2013 1000 , 2014 1500 , 2015 2000 2016 2000 . , () . 8833 , 5 () . : 2011-2013 800 () 5 ; 2014-2016 2000 () 5 . 13. : - 2011 - 1.037.500,00 ; - 2012 - 1.175.000,00 ; - 2013 - 1.450,000,00 ; - 2014 - 2.625.000,00 ; - 2015 - 2.900.000,00 - 2016 - 3.175.000,00 ; 6 12.362.500,00 . - 100.000,00 600.000,00 6 . 4.000 . , 4000 , , 20% . . 10% . 14. . __________________ ___________________ , ,

53