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  • i

    c The Iconography of

    the Archangel Michael on

    Byzantine Icons

    By , \.: Glenn Alan Peers

    "

    A thesis submitted to 1 the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research . . ' 1n partial fulfillment of the requ1rements

    for the degree of Master of Arts.

    ,.

    Department of Art His,tory

    McGill University

    q September 1986

    Montreal, Quebec, Canada

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    perm?-r.ion ha. been granted to the National Library of anada to microfilm this thesis and to lend o~ sell

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    4 The Iconography of

    the Archangel Michael on

    Byzantine Icons

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    ABSTRIACT - '

    Certairi~character1stics of the Archangel Michael that are found on "9

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    B'yznt1.ne and post-Byzantine icons contribute 'ta our understanding10f l '

    the importance of Michael's cult. These icons describ,to a large

    e'xtent tne role of, the Archangel in or'thodox belief. H i8 1dentlfied

    as a member' of tt celest"ial court, and a1so as the leader of the '"

    heavenly host:' hus, he ..1. th,' 'protector of the f1thful 'and' the . . \

    performer of miracles on ,their behalf. oOn yet another g~f icons

    he 1s the angel psychopomp, or the bearer of the soul 'sfter death

    These icons indicate' ~he s1gnificance of the cult of Michael anq help . .. --- d

    ,U8 understa~d better'his place 1~ doctr~ne~ liturgy and ppula;.be11ef.

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    ABREGE " " .

    .. . ' . Certaines c"ara,cteris,tiques de l'Archange Mihel, qui sont

    . . d~crites sur les i'c8,nes .... de l' ~poque B~antine et post-Byzantin',

    contr!butent notre connaissance du cul te de st. -Michel. !>

    ces ic8nes l , \

    d8crivent dans une .large m~sure le r6le de l'Archange dans la croyance . orl:[email protected]'

    . ~ Il est represent~ comme un membre de la cour cleste et

    comme.' ~hef de 1" h8te c61este. . Aussi 1 il est le protecteur', des

    G:royants et i~ accomp;li t des 41\irale.s pour eux. En outre f dans une ,

    groupe d' ic$nes ~ 'il est i ' ange Psychopomp on le porteur de 1 me , . (lpr, la mort.

    . , Ces ic6nes indiquent la portEe du culte de St. Michel

    et nous aident ,cl mieux comprendre sa'p~ace dans la dq,ctrine, la

    11. ~urlgi.e et la \Croyance pop~laire. 0

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    .. Ackn~wlejlg~ments.

    . '1 wish to thank Professor' G. Galavaris without whose adv!ce and -guidance this tnesis would not have been possible. 1 would a180 Itke

    1 ~ to thank- Profellsor R. Bertos for his encouragement. 0

    ...L. The assistance of the Department of ArtoHistory Slide'

    Lil:\ratian, Carol Jackman, was invaluable and 1 should llke to thank.

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    /' > LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

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    . 1. London" British Museum, Leaf of an ivory diptych with an " , , -arch~ngel. First half of the sixth century. 42.8 x 14 .3em.,

    (Source: Weitzmann, The Age of Spirituality.] ,

    2. Veniee, Pala d'Oro~ Detail: the Archngel Michael on cloisonn~

    enamel ~th precios stones. Tw~lfth eentury. Cen'..ral plaque of the upper reg~""eri~he 'high d tar of San Marco. 34 .6"'x 34. 6cm [Source: M. Muraro, and A. Grabar. Treasures of Venice. Geneva,

    19631

    3. Ven1ee, Treasury of San Marco. Full 1ength Arehanse~ Mic,haft.

    ~,Rpouss reU.ef in gold, with en8{Dels. Tenth or eleventh eentury. "

    ,.40'.'18 x 'JO.9cm. [Source: M. Muraro, and A. Grabar. Treasures of

    Veniee. Geneva, 1963.]

    4. Berne, Private collection. Full length ~rehangel Michael . 1749.

    83.5 x 3i.Sem. [Source: M. Chatzidakis. Les 1c8nes dans les <

    collections suisses. Bern. 1~68.)

    5. Veniee, Hellen1e Institute. Full ~ength Arehangel Michael. End

    of the s1xteenth century. 62.S x 47;Scm. [Source:

    M. C~atzidakis. IcOnes de St-George-des-Grecs et la collection de , l'institut. Veniee, n.d.] , .

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    6. Sinal, Monastery of St.-Catherine's.Miracle of Michael at ChoQe.

    , " , Firat half of twelfth century. 37.5 x 30.7em. [Source:

    . We1tzmann, The,Icon.] -l '

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    7. Venice, Hellenic Institute. Full len'gth Archangel 1>lichael.

    Etghteenth centu:~ 32.5 x 2~Gm [SQtfrce: M. Chatzidakis.

    IcOnes de St-George-des-GrecS .e.t. la collection de l r institut.

    'ienice, n. d.]

    8. Pisa, 'M'uSeo Civico. full length Archangel Michael. "'urteenth

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    centuty. 28.6 x 21.65cm. [Source: V. Lazare'ff. "Ducio and t

    Thirteenth. Cent ury Gree kr Icons. .. Bur fington Magazine 59 (1931)

    154-li9. J

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    MSS' -DACL -

    , Daremberg and (J Saglio

    Dionysius of Fourna.

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    G&lavaris, The Icon 'in theLife of the Church

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    ABBREVIATIONS~

    Acta Sanctorum. Ed. J. Bollandus et al. 64 vols. Paris, 1863 - 1910,

    Dictionnaire dt arcMo1ogie chrtlenne et de li turgie. Eds.- F. Cabrol and H. Leclerq. 15 vols. Paris, 1924-.

    .. Dictionnaire des antiquids Grecques et Romains Q, iprtis les texts et les monuments. Eds. c.v. Daremberg, E. 5aglio. 5 vols. Paris, 1877-1917 ..

    (.',,., -, Dionysius of Fourna EPlJTlVEI.-Cl Tf1!; Zwypaqll.xns Texvns. ed. A. Papadopoulos - Kerameus St. Pet'ersb~rg, 1909.

    Dictionnaire de tht!010gie catholique. Eds. A. Vacant .. E. ,Mangenot. Wi vols. Paris, 1899-1950

    G. Galavaris. The Icon in The LHe pf The Church. Doctrine, Liturgy,'llevotion. Leiden, 1981.

    Ginzberg, Legends L. Ginzberg. Legends of the Jews, 7 vols. Phll~del phia, 1913.

    Goodenough, Jewish Sols

    Grabar, L'Empereur

    , Kitzinger, Byzantine Art ~ ,

    P.w. -RAC -RBK -Sotiriru

    1:CODS

    E. R. Goodenough. Period,. 13 vols.

    Jewish Symbols in the Greco-Roman New York, 1956.

    A. Grabar. L'Empereur dans l'art byzantin,. Strasbourg, 1936. Reprinted in 1964.

    E. Kitzinger. Byzantine Art in the Makins,. Main l1nes of st listfc develo ment in Mediterranean

    t.3rd to 7th Ce~tury. Cambridge, Mass., 1977. o

    Paufyl s Real - encyclopadie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft': Eds. A. F. Paul)"') G. Wissowa. 24 Vols. Stuttgart, 1894-1963,.

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    Reallxikon f~r Antike und Christentum. Ed. T. Klauser. 12, VQls!,\.teipdg, 1941 .!.

    Reallexikon zur byzantlschen Kunst. to date 4 vols. Stuttgart, 1963 -.

    , , ., "" -G. & M./ Sotiriou. EI..XO'ES Tns MO\)Tl~ Iwa. 2 vol~~ Athens, 1956.

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    Wei tzmann, ~ of 'Spirituality ... ~

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    K. Weit.zmann ed. ASe of Spirituality. LatJ Antique and Earll Chris-tian Art, Third to Seventh Century. Catalogue of the Exhibition a1: The Metropol1tan M~seum of Art, November 19, 1977

    . Through February 12 t 1978. New York, 1979.

    Wei1:zmann et al., K. "Weitzmann et aL Icons from Southeastern IcoDs Europe and 5ina1. London, 1968.

    Wei tzmaun, "Classical"

    Weitzmann, (

    The Icon (1978)

    Weitzmann et al., The Icon (1982)

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    K. Wei tzmann. "The Classical in By-zantine Art "".. . as a Mode of Individual Expression. Byzantine,

    Art. An European Art. LectuFes. Athens, 1966. pp.~ 149-177.

    K. Wei tzmann ... ' "

    The Icon. London, 1978. ~ "

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    K. Weitzmann et. al. The Icon. ~w York, 1982.

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  • c PREFAM

    In this thesis l shall attempt. to describe the figure of t'he 1

    Archangel Michael by means of t'he lco~ography found on Byzantine and

    post-Byzantine icons. In order ta analyze the context of these icons '" , it i8 nec,ssary ~o sJpplement my discussion with examples from other

    media, 'and to see these .... representations in the light of the doctrine . '" ( and l1turg,y of, ~he Orthodox Church. The Judaic and Greco-Roman

    traditions .. to whi,ch the Chrisr-ian cult of Michael is related, will

    also b examined~

    x

    -T~e scope of this thesis will not allow a discussion of Russian-----

    " icons. The subject 18 vast and it offers added comp-Iexities to the

    toa!.c h~"::.-lll:'l~ of tht'! Inany' variations found in the R~ssian Church. j , However, l have added examples to the notes and at two occasions l have

    . found it useful to men

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