 Chemical reactions and chemical equations  Writing & balancing chemical equations

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  • Slide 1
  • Slide 2
  • Chemical reactions and chemical equations Writing & balancing chemical equations
  • Slide 3
  • Subscript: number that appears partially below the line and to the right of a symbol in a chemical formula. C 6 H 12 O 6 = 6 carbon, 12 hydrogen, 6 oxygen Ca(NO 3 ) 2 = 1 calcium, 1 X 2 = 2 nitrogen, 3 X 2 = 6 oxygen Chemical reaction: a chemical change; atoms, molecules, or ions rearrange to form new substances. Substances entering the reaction are called reactants. Substances formed in the reaction are called products. Chemical formula: shorthand method for showing the composition of a compound using element symbols and subscripts. H 2 O, CaCl 2, C 6 H 12 O 6
  • Slide 4
  • Law of Conservation of Matter: atoms (matter) cannot be created or destroyed. Therefore, all atoms present in the reactants must also be present in the products, although they may rearrange. During a reaction: 1. Chemical bonds that hold atoms together in the reactants are broken. 2. Some (or all) of the atoms rearrange. 3. New bonds are formed as atoms come together to form products. Reaction of hydrogen (H 2 ) and oxygen (O 2 ) to form water (H 2 O)
  • Slide 5
  • Chemical equation: shorthand expression showing the reactants and products of a chemical change. H 2 + O 2 H 2 O Coefficient: number that appears before a chemical formula Shows how many molecules are present Used to balance equations When none is shown, is understood to be one. 2 H 2 O = 2 water molecules 2 X 2 = 4 H2 X 1 =2 O
  • Slide 6
  • Includes: 1. A summary of the reaction. 2. Formulas and numbers of reactants and products present. 3. States of reactants and products: solids (s) liquids ( l ) gases (g) aqueous solution (aq): dissolved in water 2 H 2 (g) + 1 O 2 (g) 2 H 2 O (g) 2 X 2 = 4 H 1 X 2 = 2 O2 X 1 = 2 O Balanced chemical equation: contains same number of each kind of atom on each side of the equation.
  • Slide 7
  • How to balance chemical equations: 1. Write the unbalanced equation. 2. Inventory the atoms in the reactants and products. 3. Balance the equation. Hint: balance elements left-to-right on the Periodic Table (metals first, then nonmetals) Leave H and O until last
  • Slide 8
  • 1. Write the unbalanced equation. __Zn (s) + __HCl (aq) __ZnCl 2 (aq) + __ H 2 (g)
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  • 2. Inventory reactants and products. __Zn (s) + __HCl (aq) __ZnCl 2 (aq) + __ H 2 (g) Zn Cl H Zn Cl H 1 1 1 1 2 2
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  • 2 BALANCED ! 3. Balance the equation (by changing coefficients.) __Zn (s) + __HCl (aq) __ZnCl 2 (aq) + __ H 2 (g) Zn Cl H Zn Cl H 111111 122122 2 2 2 __Zn (s) + __HCl (aq) __ZnCl 2 (aq) + __ H 2 (g)11 1
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  • Try to balance this reaction: __CH 4 (g) + __O 2 (g) __CO 2 (g) + __H 2 O (l) C H O C H O 1 4 2 1 2 3 4 4 4 1122
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  • Try to balance this reaction: __KClO 3 (s) __KCl (s) + __O 2 (g) K Cl O K Cl O 1 1 3 1 1 2 6 2 6 223 2 2 2
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  • Try to balance this reaction: __Al(OH) 3 (s) + __H 2 SO 4 (aq) __ Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 (aq) + __H 2 O (l) Al S H O Al S H O 1 1 5 7 2 3 2 13 12 18 8 1 23 6 2 10 3 12 18
  • Slide 14
  • 1 H 2 O means: 1 molecule of water = 2 H atoms and 1 O atom 1 mole of water = 6.02 X 10 23 molecules = 18g H 2 O A balanced reaction means: 2 H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2 H 2 O (g) 2 molecules H 2 1 molecule O 2 2 molecules H 2 O 2 moles H 2 1 mole O 2 2 moles H 2 O