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< BackNext >PreviewMain Matter in Motion Preview Section 1 Measuring MotionMeasuring Motion Section 2 What Is a Force?What Is a Force? Section 3 Friction:

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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Matter in Motion Preview Section 1 Measuring MotionMeasuring Motion Section 2 What Is a Force?What Is a Force? Section 3 Friction: A Force That Opposes MotionFriction: A Force That Opposes Motion Section 4 Gravity: A Force of AttractionGravity: A Force of Attraction Chapter 5 Concept Mapping
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Bellringer Describe your position in the classroom using a reference point and a set of reference directions. Record your response in your science journal. Chapter 5 Section 1 Measuring Motion
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Objectives Describe the motion of an object by the position of the object in relation to a reference point. Identify the two factors that determine speed. Explain the difference between speed and velocity. Chapter 5 Section 1 Measuring Motion
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Objectives, continued Analyze the relationship between velocity and acceleration. Demonstrate that changes in motion can be measured and represented on a graph. Chapter 5 Section 1 Measuring Motion
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Observing Motion by Using a Reference Point Motion is an objects change in position relative to another object, or reference point. The object that appears to stay in place is called a reference point. The direction of an objects motion can be described with a reference direction, such as north, south, east, west, up, or down. Common Reference Points The Earths surface is a common reference point for determining motion. Chapter 5 Section 1 Measuring Motion
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Motion Chapter 5 Section 1 Measuring Motion Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Speed Depends on Distance and Time Speed is the distance traveled by an object divided by the time taken to travel that distance. The SI unit for speed is meters per second (m/s). Kilometers per hour (km/h), feet per second (ft/s), and miles per hour (mi/h) are other units commonly used to express speed. Chapter 5 Section 1 Measuring Motion
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Speed Depends on Distance and Time, continued Determining Average Speed Average speed equals the total distance divided by the total time. Chapter 5 Section 1 Measuring Motion Recognizing Speed on a Graph Speed can be shown on a graph of distance versus time, as shown on the next slide. average speed total distance total time
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Chapter 5 Section 1 Measuring Motion
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Chapter 5 Section 1 Measuring Motion
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Velocity: Direction Matters The speed of an object in a particular direction is called velocity. Speed and velocity are two different terms with two different meanings. Velocity must include a reference direction. Chapter 5 Section 1 Measuring Motion
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Velocity: Direction Matters, continued Changing Velocity You can think of velocity as the rate of change of an objects position. An objects velocity is constant only if its speed and direction dont change. Combining Velocities You can combine different velocities to find the resultant velocity. The next slide shows how you can combine velocities to find the resultant velocity. Chapter 5 Section 1 Measuring Motion
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Chapter 5 Section 1 Measuring Motion
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Acceleration The rate at which velocity changes over time is called acceleration. An object accelerates if its speed, or direction, or both change. An increase in velocity is commonly called positive acceleration. A decrease in velocity is commonly called negative acceleration, or deceleration. Chapter 5 Section 1 Measuring Motion
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Acceleration, continued Calculating Average Acceleration You can find average acceleration by using the equation: Chapter 5 Section 1 Measuring Motion average acceleration final velocity starting velocity time it takes to change velocity Velocity is expressed in meters per second (m/s), and time is expressed in seconds (s). So acceleration is expressed in meters per second per second, or (m/s)/s, which equals m/s 2.
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Chapter 5 Section 1 Measuring Motion
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Acceleration, continued Recognizing Acceleration on a Graph Acceleration can be shown on a graph of velocity versus time. Chapter 5 Section 1 Measuring Motion
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Acceleration, continued Circular Motion: Continuous Acceleration An object traveling in a circular motion is always changing its direction. Therefore, its velocity is always changing, so it is accelerating. The acceleration that occurs in circular motion is known as centripetal acceleration. Chapter 5 Section 1 Measuring Motion
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Bellringer Look around the room and think about the objects you see in terms of force. A force is always exerted by one object on another object. Then, answer the following questions in your science journal: Where do you see a force happening in the room right now? Which object is exerting the force, and which is receiving it? Chapter 5 Section 2 What Is a Force?
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Objectives Describe forces, and explain how forces act on objects. Determine the net force when more than one force is acting on an object. Compare balanced and unbalanced forces. Describe ways that unbalanced forces cause changes in motion. Chapter 5 Section 2 What Is a Force?
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Forces Acting on Objects In science, a force is simply a push or a pull exerted on an object in order to change the motion of the object. All forces have both size and direction. A force can change the acceleration of an object. This acceleration can be a change in the speed or direction of the object. Scientists express force using a unit called the newton (N). Chapter 5 Section 2 What Is a Force?
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Forces Acting on Objects, continued Unseen Sources and Receivers of Forces It is not always easy to tell what is exerting a force or what is receiving a force. For example, you cannot see what exerts the force that pulls magnets to refrigerators. You cannot see that the air around you is held near Earths surface by a force called gravity. Chapter 5 Section 2 What Is a Force?
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Determining Net Force Usually, more than one force is acting on an object. The net force is the combination all of the forces acting on an object. Determining net force depends on the directions of the forces. Chapter 5 Section 2 What Is a Force?
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Determining Net Force, continued Forces in the Same Direction Two forces are added to determine the net force if the forces act in the same direction. The net force will be in the same direction as the individual forces. Forces in Different Directions If forces are acting in opposite directions, the net force can be found by subtracting the smaller force from the larger one. Chapter 5 Section 2 What Is a Force?
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Chapter 5 Section 2 What Is a Force?
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Balanced and Unbalanced Forces Balanced Forces When the forces on an object produce a net force of 0 N, the forces are balanced. Balanced forces will not cause a change in the motion of a moving object. Balanced forces do not cause a nonmoving object to start moving. Chapter 5 Section 2 What Is a Force?
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Balanced and Unbalanced Forces, continued Unbalanced Forces When the net force on an object is not 0 N, the forces on the object are unbalanced. Unbalanced forces produce a change in motion, such as a change in speed or a change in direction. Unbalanced forces are necessary to cause a non- moving object to start moving, or to change the motion of moving objects. Chapter 5 Section 2 What Is a Force?
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Bellringer Suppose you and a younger sister or brother are at a neighborhood pool. Your sister or brother asks why there are signs that say NO RUNNING. What would be your answer? Record your response in your science journal. Chapter 5 Section 3 Friction: A Force That Opposes Motion
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Objectives Explain why friction occurs. List the two types of friction,and give examples of each type. Explain how friction can be both harmful and helpful. Chapter 5 Section 3 Friction: A Force That Opposes Motion
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain The Source of Friction Friction is a force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are in contact. Friction occurs because the surface of any object is rough. Even surfaces that feel smooth are covered with microscopic hills and valleys. Chapter 5 Section 3 Friction: A Force That Opposes Motion
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain The Source of Friction, continued When two surfaces are in contact, the microscopic hills and valleys of one surface stick to the tiny hills and valleys of the other surface. This contact causes friction. Chapter 5 Section 3 Friction: A Force That Opposes Motion
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain The Source of Friction, continued The Effect of Force on Friction The amount of friction depends on the force pushing the surfaces together. If this force increases, the hills and valleys of the surfaces can come into closer contact. The close contact increases the friction between the surfaces. Objects that weigh less exert less downward force than objects that weigh more, as shown on the next slide. Chapter 5 Section 3 Friction: A Force That Opposes Motion
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Chapter 5 Section 3 Friction: A Force That Opposes Motion
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain The Source of Friction, continued The Effect of Rougher Surfaces on Friction Rough surfaces have more microscopic hills and valleys than smooth surfaces do. So, the rougher the surface is, the greater the friction is. Chapter 5 Section 3 Friction: A Force That Opposes Motion
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Types of Friction Kinetic Friction The word kinetic means moving. So, kinetic friction is friction between moving surfaces. The amount of kinetic friction between two surfaces depends in part on how the surfaces move. Surfaces can slide past each other, or a surface can roll over another surface. Chapter 5 Section 3 Friction: A Force That Opposes Motion
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Types of Friction, continued Usually, the force of sliding kinetic friction is greater than the force of rolling kinetic friction. It is usually easier to move objects on wheels than to slide the objects along the floor, as shown below. Chapter 5 Section 3 Friction: A Force That Opposes Motion
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Types of Friction, continued Static Friction When a force is applied to an object but does not cause the object to move, static friction occurs. The word static means not moving. The object does not move because the force of static friction balances the force applied. Static friction disappears as soon as an object starts moving, and then kinetic friction immediately occurs. Chapter 5 Section 3 Friction: A Force That Opposes Motion
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Chapter 5 Section 3 Friction: A Force That Opposes Motion
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Friction: Harmful and Helpful Without friction, a cars tires could not push against the ground to move the car forward, and the brakes could not stop the car. Without friction, a car is useless. However, friction can also cause problems in a car. Friction between moving engine parts increases their temperature and causes the parts to wear down. Friction can be both harmful and helpful, so it may be necessary to decrease or increase friction. Chapter 5 Section 3 Friction: A Force That Opposes Motion
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Friction: Harmful and Helpful, continued Some Ways to Reduce Friction One way to reduce friction is to use lubricants. Lubricants are substances that are applied to surfaces to reduce the friction between the surfaces. Some examples of common lubricants are motor oil, wax, and grease. Lubricants are usually liquids, but they can be solids or gases. Chapter 5 Section 3 Friction: A Force That Opposes Motion
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Friction: Harmful and Helpful, continued Friction can be reduced by switching from sliding kinetic friction to rolling kinetic friction. Ball bearings can be placed between wheels and axels to make it easier for wheels to turn by reducing friction. Another way to reduce friction is to make surfaces that rub against each other smoother. Chapter 5 Section 3 Friction: A Force That Opposes Motion
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Friction: Harmful and Helpful, continued Some Ways to Increase Friction Making surfaces rougher is one way to increase friction. For example, sand scattered on icy roads keeps cars from skidding. Another way to increase friction is to increase the force pushing the surfaces together. For example, if you are sanding a piece of wood, you can sand the wood faster by pressing harder on the sandpaper. Chapter 5 Section 3 Friction: A Force That Opposes Motion
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Bellringer Significantly decreased gravity gives astronauts the sensation of being weightless and forces astronauts to make many adjustments in their activities. Write a paragraph explaining what you would like and dislike about living with reduced gravity. Write your paragraph in your science journal. Chapter 5 Section 4 Gravity: A Force of Attraction
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Objectives Describe gravity and its effect on matter. Explain the law of universal gravitation. Describe the difference between mass and weight. Chapter 5 Section 4 Gravity: A Force of Attraction
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain The Effects of Gravity on Matter Gravity is a force of attraction between objects that is due to their masses. Gravity can change the motion of an object by changing its speed, direction, or both. All matter has mass, and gravity is a result of mass. Therefore, all matter is affected by gravity and all objects experience an attraction toward all other objects. The mass of most objects is too small to cause a force large enough to move objects toward each other. Chapter 5 Section 4 Gravity: A Force of Attraction
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain The Effects of Gravity on Matter, continued The Size of Earths Gravitational Force Compared with all objects around you, Earth has a huge mass. Therefore, Earths gravitational force is very large. You must apply forces to overcome the Earths gravitational force any time you lift objects or even parts of your body. Chapter 5 Section 4 Gravity: A Force of Attraction
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Newton and the Study of Gravity The Core of an Idea Why do objects fall toward the Earth? What keeps the planets moving in the sky? Chapter 5 Section 4 Gravity: A Force of Attraction In 1665, British scientist Sir Isaac Newton made the connection between these two questions when, as legend has it, he saw an apple falling from a tree.
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Newton and the Study of Gravity, continued Newton knew that unbalanced forces are needed to change the motion of objects. He concluded that an unbalanced force on the apple made the apple fall. He also reasoned that an unbalanced force on the moon kept the moon moving around the Earth. He proposed that these two forces are actually the same forcegravity. Chapter 5 Section 4 Gravity: A Force of Attraction
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Newton and the Study of Gravity, continued The Birth of a Law Newton summarized his ideas about gravity in a law known as the law of universal gravitation. This law describes the relationships between gravitational force, mass, and distance. The law is called universal because it applies to all objects in the universe. Chapter 5 Section 4 Gravity: A Force of Attraction
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain The Law of Universal Gravitation Part 1: Gravitational Force Increases as Mass Increases Gravitational force is small between objects that have small masses. Gravitational force is large when the mass of one or both objects is large. Part 2: Gravitational Force Decreases as Distance Increases Gravitational force is strong when distance between two objects is small. If the distance between two objects increases, the gravitational force pulling them together decreases rapidly. Chapter 5 Section 4 Gravity: A Force of Attraction
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Chapter 5 Section 4 Gravity: A Force of Attraction
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Weight as a Measure of Gravitational Force The Differences Between Weight and Mass Weight is related to mass, but they are not the same. Weight is a measure of the gravitational force on an object. Weight changes whenever gravitational force changes. Mass is the amount of matter in an object. An objects mass does not change if gravitational force changes. Chapter 5 Section 4 Gravity: A Force of Attraction
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Chapter 5 Section 4 Gravity: A Force of Attraction
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Weight as a Measure of Gravity, continued Units of Weight and Mass The SI unit of force is a newton (N). Gravity is a force, and weight is a measure of gravity. So, weight is also measured in newtons. The SI unit of mass is the kilogram (kg). Mass is often measured in grams (g) and milligrams (mg) as well. On Earth, a 100 g object weighs about 1 N. Chapter 5 Section 4 Gravity: A Force of Attraction
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Concept Mapping Chapter 5 Matter in Motion Use the terms below to complete the Concept Mapping on the next slide. speed time velocity motion acceleration
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Chapter 5 Matter in Motion
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  • < BackNext >PreviewMain Chapter 5 Matter in Motion