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No Slide TitleChapter 1
Concept Map
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Suppose that you are cooking a bag of popcorn in the microwave. After a couple of minutes of cooking, however, the popcorn still hasn’t popped. Why did this happen? What steps could you take to help locate the problem?
Write your answers in your Science Journal.
Section 1 Science and Scientists
Chapter 1
Methods of scientific investigation include research, observation, and experimentation.
The work of scientists benefits society in a number of ways.
Scientists work in all kinds of jobs.
Section 1 Science and Scientists
Chapter 1
Starting with a Question
Science is the knowledge obtained by observing natural events and conditions in order to discover facts and formulate laws or principles that can be verified or tested.
Asking a question is often the first step in the process of gathering knowledge.
Section 1 Science and Scientists
Chapter 1
Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations.
Three methods of investigation are research, observation, and experimentation.
Section 1 Science and Scientists
Chapter 1
Applying the Answers
The answers gained from scientific investigations can be applied in many areas of our lives.
Science helps save lives by making automobiles safer.
Section 1 Science and Scientists
Chapter 1
Applying the Answers, continued
Science helps save resources by inventing ways to recycle more materials.
Science helps protect the environment by finding ways to reduce the use of harmful chemicals.
Section 1 Science and Scientists
Chapter 1
Scientists Everywhere
Any person who asks questions and investigates how things work could be called a scientist. Scientists work in many different places.
Some examples of jobs that use science are a meteorologist, a geochemist, an ecologist, a volcanologist, and a science illustrator.
Section 1 Science and Scientists
Chapter 1
Chapter 1
1063.unknown
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List several possible ways that a boat can be propelled forward. Then, describe a way to test which of these methods of propulsion is the most efficient.
Write your answers in your Science Journal.
Section 2 Scientific Methods
What You Will Learn
Scientific methods are based on six steps, which may be followed in different ways based on the kind of question being asked.
Scientific investigations begin with a question and proceed by forming a hypothesis and then testing it.
Scientists use a variety of methods to analyze and report their data.
Section 2 Scientific Methods
What Are Scientific Methods?
Scientific methods are a series of steps followed to solve problems.
The six steps used in scientific methods are asking a question, forming a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, analyzing the results, drawing conclusions, and communicating results.
Section 2 Scientific Methods
What Are Scientific Methods?, continued
Scientists may use all of the steps or some of the steps during an investigation. They may even repeat some of the steps or do the steps in a different order.
How scientists choose to use the steps depends on what works best to answer their question.
Section 2 Scientific Methods
Chapter 1
Chapter 1
Asking a Question
Asking a question is often the first step in using scientific methods.
Asking a question usually results from making many observations.
Section 2 Scientific Methods
Asking a Question, continued
Observation is the process of obtaining information by using the senses.
Asking a question helps scientists focus the purpose of an investigation.
Section 2 Scientific Methods
Forming a Hypothesis
After scientists ask a question, their next step is usually to form a hypothesis.
A hypothesis is a possible explanation or answer to a question.
A good hypothesis is a testable idea that leads to scientific investigation.
Section 2 Scientific Methods
Chapter 1
Testing the Hypothesis
After scientists form a hypothesis, they usually test the hypothesis to find out if it is a reasonable answer to their question.
A controlled experiment compares the results from a control group with the results from experimental groups. A controlled experiment is a good way to test a hypothesis.
Section 2 Scientific Methods
Testing the Hypothesis, continued
The factors that are kept the same between the groups are called controlled parameters.
The one factor that changes between the groups is called a variable parameter.
Data are any pieces of information acquired through observation or experimentation.
Section 2 Scientific Methods
Analyzing the Results
After scientists test a hypothesis by performing an experiment, they usually analyze their results.
Analyzing results by using tables and graphs helps scientists understand relationships between the data.
Section 2 Scientific Methods
Analyzing the Results, continued
Analyzing data from repeated tests can help scientists determine if their data are accurate and reproducible.
Data are reproducible when you get similar data from many tests.
Section 2 Scientific Methods
Chapter 1
After scientists analyze their results, they usually draw conclusions about whether their hypothesis was supported.
Valid conclusions can only be obtained with reproducible data.
Section 2 Scientific Methods
Drawing Conclusions, continued
Data are considered reproducible when scientists get similar data from many repeated tests.
Reproducible data helps scientists make sure that the results of their experiment were not an accident.
Section 2 Scientific Methods
After drawing conclusions, scientists often communicate their results.
When scientists communicate their results, it allows others to continue the investigation.
Results can be communicated through scientific papers, presentations, and the Internet.
Section 2 Scientific Methods
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Read the Safety First! section on pages [xxvi-xxix]. Then, make a two-column table. In the first column, list the types of clothing that you should always wear in the lab. In the second column, list the types of clothing that you should never wear in the lab. Create this table in your Science Journal. Refer to this table when planning what to wear to school on days that you might be working in the lab.
Section 3 Safety in Science
Chapter 1
What You Will Learn
You can take responsibility for your own safety in the laboratory.
Following directions, taking safety precautions, and following proper cleanup procedures help keep you safe.
If an accident happens in the laboratory, first make sure that you are safe and then tell your teacher about the accident.
Section 3 Safety in Science
Chapter 1
Keeping Yourself Safe
Take responsibility for your own safety when working in a science lab.
Avoid accidents by being aware of what is going on around you.
Report all accidents, no matter how minor they may seem, to the teacher.
Section 3 Safety in Science
Chapter 1
Elements of Safety
Recognize and understand the safety symbols that scientists use for particular dangers involved in performing an experiment.
Always read directions before beginning a lab activity and then follow the directions exactly.
Section 3 Safety in Science
Chapter 1
Neatness is important when conducting scientific investigations.
Clear the work area of unnecessary objects and clean up any spills as soon as they happen.
Use all of the safety equipment needed to perform an experiment.
Section 3 Safety in Science
Chapter 1
Goggles, gloves, and aprons are examples of protective safety equipment.
Clean the work area after finishing an experiment and wash your hands thoroughly.
Section 3 Safety in Science
Chapter 1
Chapter 1
Responding to Accidents
Learning to cope with accidents is one way to take responsibility for your safety.
Make sure that you can locate and use the first-aid supplies and special safety equipment in your science lab.
Section 3 Safety in Science
Chapter 1
Responding to Accidents, continued
If an accident occurs, first make sure that you are safe. Then, tell your teacher about the accident.
If an injury requires immediate attention, the teacher may perform first aid.
Section 3 Safety in Science
Chapter 1
Responding to Accidents, continued
First aid is emergency medical care for someone who has been hurt or who is sick.
Do not perform first aid unless you know the proper first-aid procedures that must be followed for the type of accidental injury that has occurred.
Section 3 Safety in Science
Chapter 1
The Nature of Physical Science
Use the terms below to complete the concept map on the next slide.
hypotheses conclusions observations scientists
results scientific methods experiments
Chapter 1
Concept Map
Chapter 1
Concept Map