# 十七章 数量性状遗传

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• 1. .2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

• 1.(quantitative traits)(threshold traits). 2. eg. 3(++/+-/--)35= 24311: (+++++/+++++,+++++/++++-, ,-----/-----)

• 1. 3F2 A B C F2 A1/41/4(1/4 ) B1/164/166/164/16(1/16 ) C1/646/6415/6420/6415/646/641/64

• () A(1/2R+1/2r)2, B(1/2R+1/2r)4, C(1/2R+1/2r)6, 2. Nilsson-Ehle1909 (1)(, polygene) (2) (3) (4) (5)

• (6) (7)3. 4.

• 1. X, 2. P.517

• . 1. : S2 : 2

2. s P.517

• (1): rxyxy. (2): covxyxy. (3) byx:xy; bxy:yx; P.517rxy covxybxy.

• 1. : P=G +E (P; G; E) :P= G +E (E=0) N, P()=G() : eg. 6000Kg,8000Kg,30%,70%, : G: 6000+(8000-6000) 30% =6600Kg E: (8000-6000) 70% =1400Kg E:(6600+6000)/2 =6300Kg

• G: G=A+D+I (A; D; I) (A) : (D): , D=0 (I) : ,. (R): R=E+D+I, P=A+R2. VP=VG+VE GEVP=VG+VE+2covGE GEVP=VG+VE=VA+VD+VI+VE VA VDVI

• 1. A1A2pq P2(A1A1)+2pq(A1A2)+q2(A2A2)=1 () (A1A1) a (A1A2 ) d (A2A2) -a d=0 d= +aA1A2A1A1 d=-a A1A2A2A2 0 d a A1A2A1A1 -a d 0 A1A2A2A2 d+ad -aA1A2

• A1=5; A2=3A1A1=10 A2A2=6 d 0 A1A2=5+3=8 a=10-8=2; -a=6-8=-22. =P2a+2pqd+q2(-a) =a(p-q)+2pqd, () a(p-q) () 2pqdd=0. ()p=q=1/2,d=0, =0 ()n =a(p-q)+2 pqd pq

• 1.heritability (1) H2=(VG/VP)100% H2 =20%H2 =70% (2) h2=(VA/VP)100% 2. (1)F1 (2) (3) (4)

• 1. AAaaAa AA+Aa+aa (F2)

• F2 =fx/ f=a/4+2d/4+(-a/4)=d/2 = fi(xi-x)2/ fi= fx2- (fx)2 =[a2/4+2d2/4+(-a)2/4]-(d/2)2 = a2/2+ d2/4 () VG(F2)=n(a2/2+ d2/4)=(1/2)a2+(1/4)d2 =(1/2)A+(1/4)D VP(F2)= VG + VE = (1/2)A+(1/4)D + VE2. 12 VE=(1/3)(VP1+Vp2+VF1)=2.18 H2=VG/VF2= (VF2 VE)/ VF2 =57%

• 3. (1).01(2).(3). (4). (5).

• (crossbreeding):(nonassortative mating) (assortative mating) (inbreeding) (selfing or self fertilization)

• 1. 2. AAaaAaAA+Aa+aa AA: Hn=Hn-1+(1/2)n+1, H=(2n-1)/2n+1 1/2 Aa: Hn=(1/2)Hn-1, H0=1Hn=(1/2)n aa: Hn=Hn-1+(1/2)n+1, H=(2n-1)/2n+1 1/23. 4.

• 2. (1)(coefficient of breeding)F (2)(coefficient of relationship): Rxy (3) Rxy=(1/2)L, L F=R1/2= 1/2 (1/2)L= (1/2)L+1

• 1.:

• 2.: a1 b1 c1 d1 e1 a2 b2 c2 d2 e2P a1 b1 c1 d1 e1 a2 b2 c2 d2 e2 (1+1+1+1+1=5) (1+1+1+1+1=5) a1 b1 c1 d1 e1F1 a2 b2 c2 d2 e2 (2+2+2+2+2=10)

• BF2

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