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    , 2006

  • " P.O. Box 227 Rockdale N.S.W. 2216 - Australia

    . -

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    - . . , - . .

    , . ce .

    (Strattis) 5 . () "". "Frquently Askecl Questions on Macedonia" . , :

    5

  • " ce , , , ce , . 5 , "" "", . , . ce . ce ". ("Frequently Asked Questions on Macedonia", Compil! by Alexandros Gerbessiotis; Copyright 1993; http://www.macedonia.info/FAQ.htrn).

    co ce , a .

    - ce , a "", . , ce ce . (Elias Kapetanopoulos," , " 993, . 17).

    ce (Titus Livius), "' " ( 31, 29) , " " ( : "euside linguae hommes").

    6

  • ce , ce "" ce (, . . 15).

    , .

    , , "-", -, , :

    " . . ce , ce ce " (http://www.macedonia.info/FALLACIESANDFACTS.htm, 2000 Pan-Macedonian Association Inc, USA; Design By Eliasweb).

    , , , , . , .

    ce , ( ) , ce

    7

  • . , ce .

    ! ? , - . ce ce (Athenaeus of Naucrates).

    , " " " " " " ce ! , . ce , . " " "" "".

    , ! , ( "Deipnosophists" VII , Loeb Classical Library; ISBN 0-674-99380-2; . 508). :

    " '' :

    ', '? :'Bue, , . '

    (Charles Burton Gulick):

    8

  • "Accordingly Stratus in his 'Macedonians', when some Athenian asks the question as being ignorant of the name, and saying:

    "But, what is Sphuraena?"The other replies:"You, Athenians, do call it cestra. " (Athenaeus.

    "Deipnosophists" VII book, p. 508, Loeb Classical Library. , ).

    . ce , , a , .

    ! ce , .

    , . , , , ce . :

    " '', ce , ce -. " (, . , . 7)

    , ( ) ! . " : 4000 ", " "). ,

    9

  • , , " " (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, : "Ancient Macedoiiian language").

    , -, " ".

    , . , ce " , ", , , ce .

    .

    , ce "" . , ce ce .

    10

  • . . , , , " ". , , ( ce ). , ! , .

    . ce , 1881 . , . , " ". , . . , , () . 1880 , a 1881 .

    , . . " " ("British documents of foreign

    11

  • affairs", Part I, Sries F, Europe 1848 - 1914, Vol. 14 "Greece. 1847 - 1914", University publications of America). " " 24 1881 . :

    " ce , - . , , .

    , , , - ce ".

    - - . :

    ". '', , , , ' ' - ce , . , , , , (, ..) . 280 , ce , , 168 , 148 ".

    12

  • , , a (3 ). " ", a .

    - , , a . - :

    " .

    : , ce ... , ce , ce , , ] ... , ce . ce , ce . "

    .

    , ce . :

    " : ... . "

    , , . ce ( ), ce ( ).

    13

  • , ce . :

    ": ... , , ce ".

    , :

    "... , -, , ".

    "" ( ) , a "" (-). , , .

    - :

    ": '', , ce - . ce: , , , , , , , , , , , , -. , a ' ' ce , a , ".

    , "" " " ( ) ce , .

    :" :

    , ce '', .

    14

  • ce . ce , . ce :

    : , , , , , , , , , .

    : , , , , , , , , , , .

    : , , , , , , , , , ().

    ". -

    , a , , "" .

    , " -". ( ""), - 7 . - , " -" (1998 . Amphictyonic League), :

    " - , -. . . , . ce . "

    , (, a ).

    15

  • , ce , "-".

    , .

    , 4 .

    4 , .

    , , ( , ) 2 . , ce ( ) .

    :".

    - .

    Tue ce , : , , , ( ).

    . "

    , .. . , 5 . . , -. ce , , ce

    16

  • . , .

    ( ), a , , . , ce .

    , , ce " ". (1880 ) , . ce .

    , :

    ": . Tue ce:

    Ha (, ..) ce ., , , , , , .

    ce : , , , , , , - .

    : , , - , - . , ,

    17

  • . Tue o , , ... , ce ce . ( 420 ).

    , - (, ..) , : , -, , , -, ( ). Tue 429 ".

    (5 ) "" ( ) . . ce :

    " . 357 , 36 : ' , ce , 14 . '

    . 4 , "" (). .

    , :

    ": ' ' , . "

    . (

    18

  • , , 2 ), "" " ".

    , - , , " " ( ) .

    , , , " ". , ( 19 ) . " ". , , " ", 1851 , , :

    " ( , ) ce . - , , ce ce ". ("History of Greece" by George Gerote, Vol. II, third dition, London, John Murray, Albemarle Street, 1851, . 282).

    . , . , "" .

    19

  • (Titus Livius). " " ( 31, 29) , " ".

    59 14 . ( ) , (2 ), ce . ce .

    , ( . , ).

    , , . (31 , 44), , , ce , :

    " ... , , , . "

    , . () , .

    20

  • ce ce . , , a .

    .

    " ", , , .

    Ce . ( ) "" ( ).

    . , , , (Cornlius Nepos), . a . (G. Sotiroff: "The Language of Constantine the Greaf; Elementa nova pro historia Macedono-Bulgarica; Regina, Lynn Publishing Co., Saskatchewan, Canada, 1986 p. 20).

    ce ( ), .

    . . " " :

    21

  • ", ce , , ce . (Thucydides: "Peloponesian War" 3, 94).

    ( ) " ", , ce , , :

    " , ce , , , ( 10, 465)... ce , ( 322, 464). ." ("Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography", William Smith, LLD. London. Walton and Maberly, Upper Gower Street and Ivy Lane, Paternoster Row; John Murray, Albemarle Street, 1854. , , ce , ce . : http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgibin/ptext? doc=Perseus:text: 1999.04.0064).

    Bo ce ( ), a , .

    () , - " " .

    . " ", a "". ("Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography", William Smith, . ).

    22

  • - ce . "" " " ce - (, . . 15).

    , ( ce ), .

    ( ), "". , . . , . , "" ( ), .

    ce . "", - , , . , , a , :

    " , , ,

    23

  • , , , . , , , , ". ( : " ", 1931 ., . , 1988 . . 54).

    , -, , , () ().

    , - Apr . , ? .

    , Ap . ce ( 2 ) , Ap , ce Ap ( , ce . -). , , -. ce , , , - , .. .

    ( , a ) !

    24

  • , , " " (-, 1972, . 18) Apr -, Apr . :

    " : , ... a ( , ..) . ce ". ( , .., . , " " , 1995 . 12).

    , . , , a .

    , . ( , a - !) "", . ( : : " ", , ,1992).

    , . , , - , ( ), , , . ,

    25

  • , ce "" ( ), , . , ( , a ).

    , , .

    , , . ce .

    . ce , ce . He ( ) . ce ( ), . , ,

    26

  • , .

    ( ) . a . . () . , :

    " . ("Deipnosophists" III., Loeb Classical Library, William Henemann, London p. 201).

    ( , a 2 3 ) , ( ce ). .

    , a -- . -- ( ), . , ce ce , . , .

    " -" ( 1854 ). - , "", , , a ce . :

    27

  • "Bo ... ce , ." ( Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography", William Smith, LLD. London. Walton and Maberly, Upper Gower Street and Ivy Lane, Paternoster Row; John Murray, Albemarle Street. 1854).

    . , :

    " -- , ce ." (Elephteria Mantzouka Syson/Georgios Tsapanos "Latin in Greece before Romans", Forum on the 414 University Hall 230 North Oval Mall, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1319 USA omega. cohums. ohio-state.edu/mailingJists/CLA-L/1998/1 l/0402.php).

    . Flavius, "flavius"? , . ce , "". "" "" ( ). "" "". .

    , (Plato). Bo "" :

    ", ce , ". (Plato "Cratylus", : http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/cratylus.html).

    28

  • , "" , .

    " " , , , .

    . ce "' " (Lucius Flavius Arrianus Xenophon, 92 175 ). (PSI XII. 1284), - . -. (): "... , , ..." . ce 321 .

    , , ce . ( ). , ce .

    29

  • , a , , . :

    " . ce da ... ". (Arrian: "The Campaigns of Alexander", Aubrey De Selincourt, Pengiun books, USA, 1987, . , . 119, ).

    (Mestrius Plutarch, 45 120 ).

    (Eumenes), , :

    " , , to , ce . "

    ( : "...On the first sight of the general of their heart, the troops saluted him in the Macedonian language, clanked their arms, and with loud shouts challenged the enemy to advance, thinking themselves invincible while he was at their head." ("Eumenes" by Plutarch 14,10, translated by John and William Langhorne. : http://www.attalus.org/old/-eumenes.html. , 18 . , a . ce 1770 , ).

    .

    30

  • ce , a . , , , ( ) . , . . , . . :

    " ce , . , , , , . : , , , , , , , . ce , a ( "Macedonian", a : )". {"Antony" by Plutarch, John Dryden, 1631 1700 . : http://classics.mit.edu/Plutarch/antony.html).

    - . , , ( ) ( ). , -

    31

  • , .

    , . ce , .

    ( ) " " " " ( ), a ce :" " ( ) - " " () . " ", "'" " " " ", " " ( .). , , , , :

    "... ce '' '-' , ' ', ".

    , , " " , "Macedonian language " ( ).

    32

  • , : " ", " " "' "!

    "", "-" "" ce "-" ( , , ce ). () "' " " ".

    - "Lidded and Scott Greek-English Lexicon" (Ninth Edition, 1996) , ", ", "", - !

    , "".

    , , (Aeschylus) "" (. 1051), : (agnta phnn barbaron, " '' ", .. " "). "" "". "" ( ). "" "", : " ", a .

    "Libation Bearers" "" "". ( 563), (Orestes), : "de phnn hsomen Parnssida" ( ").

    "" (Euripides). Bo "" (Orestes), 1397 ,

    33

  • "Asiadi phonai" ( ce "Eastern tongue", .. " ").

    (Thycudides) "" "". "' " (6, 5,1), :

    " {phone, ..) ". ( , , . ).

    (Xenophon). Bo " " (Kunegetikos, On Hunting, 2,3). :

    " , , , ... " ( , . ).

    , " " (phonen Hellena).

    ce , ce " " " ", . , " " " ", a " ", " ()". , , "()" "" (: " "), a "", "" (!?). .

    (Plato) "phonen" "".

    34

  • ( , . ), :

    " () , ?" (Plato, Cratylus, Theaetetus, Sophist, Statesman, 163b).

    , "'\ " ".

    ce " " () , ce " ". ce . , ( , , .) . (, , ...). " ", , ". ".

    . 75 , , . ( 53), , :

    "... , ". (: " ", , , 1994).

    ce ce .

    35

  • , () . .

    , . ( ) . , . , - , . . ce .

    , () , , .

    . - , "" . - . - :

    "... ( )... . . ... , , ce , ... " (Dr Charles Francis Poter: "The Lost Years of Jesus Revealed"; A Fawcett Gold Medal Book, Published by Ballantine Books, 1962, 1958, CBS Publications, . 40).

    36

  • , , 1908 , :

    " . . : , ce . ... " (. . -: " - ", . . 14,1908 . . 17-18).

    , ( , , , , ). .

    , , , , .. , a . ce . , , ce , - , ce ( ), .

    ( ce -

    37

  • , a 1 ).

    - , . .

    , , . , , , ce , (): " ". ce :

    " Cela . Te : ce ! "

    , , , . , :

    ", ? , ce ?... , , a eue eu ce ". (Quintus Curtius Rufus, "De Rebus Gestis Alexandri Macedonis'',VI, 10; : " ", - : , 1998 , . 272).

    , , , :

    " ce ce . ce , ? , , , ,

    38

  • , . "(.., . . . 274)., ce

    , , , (): "... , ce , , ".

    , . , , ( - .), , , .

    ce " ".

    , , , , () (, ) .

    ce , , , . . , ce . . , , , - ce .

    .

    a 212

    39

  • " " ( " "). (, . , . 17).

    ( ) - ( 4 , a 65 ). "De consolatione ad Helviam", 7,1), . :

    " ? ?

    ce , . ce .

    .

    "" :

    ", , . - . - . " (: " ").

    Ce : ""? ? ce "" ce ( "") . , .

    40

  • "", ce "".

    "" . , , " , , ", , :

    " ce , -- ce . "(Ema J. Staford: "Ancient Greece, Life Myth and Art"; Great Britain, 2004, ISBN 1-84483-044-6, . : " ", , , 2005, . 72).

    - , " " :

    " '' ce - '' - : , -... ."'(- Synthia Syndor Slowikowski: "Sport and Culture in the Ancient Macedonian Society, The Pensylvania State University, 1988 . 30).

    "". ( 448 - 385 ). "" ( 414 ), "", :

    " da , ".

    ce "" " ", .. ce .

    41

  • , - , "" , , , . , , , "" , . He "" ce , a - . - . - ce -, "-", ce - , "", "- ", " " .

    , - "", .. - . (Thrasymachus) 5 , "" ( 2,8,1 6.2.17). :

    " , ? "

    ce "" - "" ( , ). , , ( ) .

    "" ( , ), "",

    42

  • " ". , "".

    (Isocrates), 436 338 , , .. . "" (346 ), , , , :

    " ... , ( , ..) ..."(Isocrates "Philippus", 5.108).

    "" .

    "". ( ), " " ( ).

    (5 ), " " ( ) ( ) "".

    - . - . ce , .

    ce ,

    43

  • . , .. , - , - ( ) - . -, . , , () , , , .

    " ", ce , a - . ce , . - .

    - , .

    , ce .

    Ce (Hesychius). ,

    44

  • . Ce 5 . ce , ce . Co ce 51.000 .

    ce - , , a . ("The Catholic Encyclopedia", Volume V//Copyright 1910 by Robert Appleton Company Online Edition Copyright 2003 by K. Knight : Hesychius).

    ce . . " ". "", . , . "" . ce , , . " "[ ) : , , , . ce .

    , " " {The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Copyright 2001 Columbia University Press, : Hesychius of Alexandria)

    45

  • , , , . . :

    " 5 . ce . ( .) , . , . - . "

    ce . ce . 1514 , . 1953 , (Kurt Latte) . ( 1966 ). , ce . ce . ce ce . 1987 (Peter Allan Hansen) , ce .

    46

  • ce ce - ce - . , , ce : ; ; ; ; ; ..

    ce - , ce ( , a , , ).

    " ", (). ce 130 .

    , "INDEX SCRIPTORUM IN HESYCHIO ALLATORUM" ce - ( - ) - . ce - , a (Amenas Macedo). - , , ce - .

    - , .

    ce - ( ce - ), a ce .

    47

  • ""

    ce "" (Suidas). , 10 , . "" ce 30.000 , -, .

    ce (Suidas), . , ce -, 10 . - ce . Ce - , .

    "" ce . ce , . ce , ce , . ( - : William Smith: "A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology". London; John Murray, 1873, BO : . tufts.edu/cgibin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0104).

    ,

    48

  • (Amenas). . Ce - 3 . "" (), a . , a " ".

    -

    ce - , , . ce .

    . "", :

    " ( ). , , , , ". (" ", , 2453, . ).

    . "" , , " , " ("", My, 227). ( 382 - 301 ).

    '' " (William Smith: "A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology". London. John Murray, 1873) BO :

    49

  • ", , , , , ce ... ' ' , , , ce do , - . , , - ... "

    "' " ("The Dictionary of theHistory of ideas" Electronic Text Center; PO Box 400148;Charlottesville VA; Maintained by: The Electronic Text Center at theUniversity of Virginia Library, 2003). :

    "... - , ce . . , , . , ce , , . . "

    ce - . . , -, ce . ce - . , , a - ce

    50

  • . , a ( ). , , ce - (1876 - 1959). 1907 1935 . 1939 ce , . ce co - . ce . ce "" .

    . ce , ce ( ) . . ce .

    ( ce ) ce:

    (Anhang Makedonien, . 776 ).

    (Antigonus Macedo, . 775 ).

    (Antiochus Aegaeus, . 747 ). (Antipater Macedo, . 114

    ). , . ce 397 , a 319 .

    51

  • "" (, 2703), , , , .

    (Ariston Pellaeus. . 201 ). (Bardesanes Edessenus, . 719

    ). (Crateras Macedo, . 342

    ). (Leo Pellaeus, . 659 ). (Marsyas Pellaeus, . 135 ).

    . " " ce .

    (Marsyas Philippeus, . 136 ).

    (Menelaus Aegaeus, . 384 ). (Nymphis Heracleensis, . 432

    ). (Philippus Amphipolitanus, . 280

    ). (Polies Aegaeus, . 705 )., (Ptolemaeus Lagus).

    ce 138 . , ( ) , . . ( ,

    52

  • , . ).

    - , , ce , . ce:

    (Joannes Stobaeus). Bo "" (, 466) , . - , a . Ce . , . (Photius), .

    (Polyenus). Bo "" (, 1956) :

    " a . " - ce

    2 . . , a ce . "" {Strategical . . ( : Harry Thurston Peck "Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities", New York. Harper and Brothers. 1898).

    (Damaios). Toj - 2 . , .

    (Posidippos). Bo (Harry Thurston Peck "Harpers Dictionary of

    53

  • Classical Antiquities", New York. Harper and Brothers. 1898, : Posidippos), :

    " . ... "

    "" (, 2111). ce (3 ), . ce .

    (Antiphanes). Toj 1 . ce . (Harry Thurston Peck: "Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities", New York, Harper and Brothers, 1898, : Antiphanes).

    (Perses). , "". ce "". . (William Smith: "A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology", London, John Murray, 1873, : Perses).

    (Macedonius). "" ( ). ce , . (William Smith: "A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology", London, John Murray, 1873, : Macedonius).

    (Timolaos). "" (, 626). "" , .

    (Zoilos). Bo "" (, 130) :

    54

  • " . ce . "

    , ce , . , a ( , ..). , ce ( ). , , , . - .

    (Phaedrus). Bo " ". :

    " . . , ce ". (Harry Thurston Peck "Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities", New York, Harper and Brothers, 1898, : http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc= Perseus%3Atext%3A 1999.04.0062 : Fedrus).

    Bo ( 1 ) . . , , , a . . , .

    55

  • (Philip the Macedonian) (Philip of Thessalonica). - ce " "(William Smith "A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology", London, John Murray, 1873).

    ce , ce .

    (Numenius). Toj ce . . 4 3 . . (William Smith "A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology", London. John Murray, 1873, : Numenius).

    , - . , . , .

    , - ce - (, ) .

    . , 5 , .. .

    56

  • ce 5 , - ! .

    " " - . ( : : " - ", , 1995 ., . 19).

    , :

    " ". ( , . ).

    - . , :

    " ce . , ce , a . " (Hellenic Ministry of Culture, :Macedonia/Early

    Inscriptions;http://alexander.macedonia.culture.gr/6/64/cpright.html).

    , , . ce . . , , .

    57

  • , .. . - , a , . . , , :

    " 349 ... , , . , , ce ... , , a ce do 348 347 ..., , a ". ( , . , . 64).

    :" ,

    , ce , . , , -, ."

    .

    58

  • , , a . .

    - , " " (Funerary inscriptions), :

    " , ce , . "

    , .. 4 , ce . .

    "" (. ). , . " " (Greek Language), ce , , . :

    " , , , , Mope u ".

    , ce . He , , , , . , , ce ( ).

    , ce : , ce

    59

  • , a ce ? " ", ce ce ( )? .

    , - . ce . , , , . , ce (- , " ", , 1997, . 157). , ce ? , , a ce . -- , 7 , , , . / . , ? , : . . ? , 2 (- , . ). , ce 2 , , . ?

    , ( 5 ),

    60

  • . , , ce .

    , . ce , . , , ; ( ce ); , , , ce . .

    ,

    , .

    1. . , ce . . . , , .

    , , , ,

    61

  • , - ce ( - ). , , , , , ce ce , .. , . , ( , , ), 21 . ? : ce 21 . ce , . ce (, , ce ), ce . ce ce ce .

    . , . , , Deutschland , Sverige ja , Nihon ja - , Suomi .. . - .

    , , , ( -

    62

  • Sverige , .. ..).

    - . He , ( ) . - , , .

    ce - , . ce . ce . . , . , , , . , , ( ).

    . . , a . :

    " , a ". ( "", , . . ce "" ).

    "" (

    63

  • - ) .

    , - ce , a ( ).

    , ce , a .

    , a .

    . , a . ( , ce "Library of world history", 17).

    , , , (): " " (. . , . 186).

    . , , , , a . (. ), :

    ", , ( 2638 - 2613 ) ".

    . () . (. , : ) :

    64

  • " , , , ( 664-610 ) ".

    ( ) (!?), a , ce , a ( "").

    - , a - : (!?). , ce . - , . , a .

    "" , ("", 1501).

    . , , , .. , Sop.

    . ce

    . , , " Vie d'Alexander le Grand" (, 1859, . 54), :

    " . Tue ce , ..."

    . . : " ", . 1, :

    " , ,

    65

  • lu lu , ce - ". (. , . , . 22).

    , - , - . ( ) . " " {"Flavius Josephus Against Apion", translated by William Whiston, Christian Classics Ethereal Library, Calvin College, USA), :

    "Tue (, ..) . ... . (, ..) , , (1,2)... , ( ce , ), ce . , ce , ... ce ce ce ? ... Tue ce . Tue ce ... (, ..) ? ? ? . u , a u

    66

  • , , ?... , , () , ?... . (), a , - , a ". (1,2-5).

    , , , a ce . .

    , ce -- , "". ? ce ""? - . , , () ( ) !

    , , , "", ( ce ). , . , . ce: , , , , , , , , , ,

    67

  • , , . , . , . , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . , , , . . , , . , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . , , , , , . , , , , , , , , , . , , , , , , , . , , , . , , , , , , , , , , -,, , , , , , , . , -, , , . , -, , , , . . , , , , , , , , , .

    , - , , "". ce: : . , , , , , , , . , , , , , ,

    68

  • , , , , , , , , , . , , , , , . -, ; , , : , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ( ). . , , ,, , , , . ; ; , , , .

    , . . . , , . a .

    , , : , , , , , , , , . ce , , : , , . "" (, , , , -, , ), a ( : , ..) .

    , a . ce . ', , , a .

    "":

    69

  • , , , ., a .

    , a . , , a .

    . , (): "... ce . " , , . , : , . , , , , , . , , , a , , , , , , , . , : , : , . , . , . , .

    , ce , , , a : . : , .

    "". ce: , , , , a ce

    70

  • , ce: , , , .

    . "". ce: , , , . , , , , , , . ce , , a . , .

    . , , , , . .

    . ce: . . , , , , , , , , , , , , . . , , , , . a : , , , , . ce , a (-, ).

    , ( !), ce: , , , . , , , . . , () (!?). ce . , , .

    71

  • , , - .. , ( ) , , - , . ? , -, , , ( "").

    , , , "", , ce -.

    , ce - . ce "". , ce : , . ce , "" (). ce "" (-) , ce ce, "" (, , ), () , "" ( ). , ce "", a , ce "" ("") . ( ce ), ce "", a ( ). 69

    72

  • 35 "", a ce "" ( ).

    , , ( ), , () . - , .

    , , - , , () , . - , , , ce, - (!?). , , , ( !?). , - - .

    , , - ( , .) "" (, , ). , , - : , , , , , , , , , ( , .)

    73

  • "" ("" ""). , . a ce - . .

    , ( , .)?

    , . . , ce ?

    ( ce ) Interpretato graeca, - (" ", . ). , ( ), ce ( ) , , . , , a .

    . , ( ) ( , .. ). , , - , , ce : . , . (

    74

  • , ce ) . , , . , ce , ; : .., ce . , ? !

    , , , " ", ( "-" , , , .. ..).

    () . ce , . . ce Beatles "". , ( . .. ce ), "" ce ( - ). , , "" . , "Beatles" ( "").

    75

  • Bo , , . ce "" . "" ( ce ), , "" , .. . . (Beatles), , "", "" ().

    . Ce . ce , a "". : "Axa, ". "" .

    , . . . - . ce , a .

    - . - . - (" ", . , . 169) . , a

    76

  • . , () , .. . - !

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    77

  • , (, ) . ce . , ( , .. ) "". "" ("" "" .). ( ) , . , - .

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    78

  • Bo ce . , ? . . , a - ( ). , , .

    , ( ) , , - ( ) ? , ? .

    , , , , . . . , a , ( !) . . " " , ce - , a ( " ", . . . 305). , , , , a ce , , . - , . -

    79

  • (" - , , ", , 1979).

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    80

  • 19 , .. . , , !).

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    81

  • , .

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    82

  • . , ( ) ce , ce .

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    83

  • " ce 'not'", ( : "Alpha may be long or short and is pronounced as in 'not'. " John Opsopaus: "A Brief Guide to Ancient Greek Pronunciation", 1999; : http://www.cs.utk.edu/~mclennan/BA/pronunciation.html).

    (). ce "", ce "", a "" ( ce ).

    (. ) :" ce , , , ,

    ce '' "hang"'. (Ha : " When Gamma occurs before Gamma, Kappa, Mu, Xi or Chi, it is pronounced like the NG in 'hang'".).

    Ho, , " ", , ce : , , ( ) ce ".", a "". {The Greek Aplhabet, Provided by the Greek Language and Linguistics Gateway; greek-language.com; http://www.greek-language.com/alphabet/).

    co (). ce : , , , " ", "" ce .

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    84

  • . . 11 , ce . 127.000 , a ( 1996 ) 2.438 . ce : Henry George Liddell. Robert Scott. A Greek-English Lexicon, revised and augmented throughout by. Sir Henry Stuart Jones, with the assistance of. Roderick McKenzie. Oxford. Clarendon Press. 1940. ISBN: 0198642261.

    A, cera . ( ). - (: -, ). Bo (. ) () , ce (). He ( ) . ce ! ( ). - (: -, ). ( ), , . , (, ).

    85

  • a ( ) , .. ! () : , , , ce . ( ). , :, . , - . Bo ( ). . ( ). - , : , . , ce . ce , ce . :

    - ;- ,

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    )., - ()

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    86

  • ( ). "" (, 2850) : , . "" :

    " ''. u ce . "

    ce (, ), ce () . ( , , ).

    , ce ( , ). ( ). - , : .. , a : . . , . ( , . ), . ( ). ( ). (: ,-). - , : . () ( , . ),

    8-7

  • - . ( ), ce ( , ce - ""). (), .

    "" ce "". , , . ce "" , ce "" ()?

    - , " - ".{"Indo-European Glossaries - Old Macedonian Language"http://www.indoeuro.bizland.com/project/glossary/gloss2.html : Neroznak, V.Paleo-Balkan languages. Moscow,

    1978.2. Katicic, R. Ancient Languages of the Balkans. The Hague, 1976.3. Fasmer, M. The Etymological Dictionary of the RussianLanguage. Moscow, 1986).

    - , (). , . , , , : . , ( , . ). (). (: , ) "" (, 219). , , .. .

    88

  • , , (, " " 1, 1961, . 305). ( ). (: ,-). Bo : " , , ( )". () ( ), . ce (). ( ) , ce . (). (: ,). :, . , ce ( , Glossa et Macedonica , .. ). ,. , : , zap. ( ) , , .. ce . (). (: ,). :, .

    89

  • : , ce . : , , : , ( ), . , , () ce . , , a , : , , . , ce . . (). (: , ). Bo :, , . : , ce . , ce . : , , . , ce , . , ce - . , a , . . (). (: , ).

    90

  • :, , . : , . , . - ce . ( ) , , . (). (: , ). : , . : , ce . : , , ce . , ce . , . (). - (: , ). : , " . ce ( ). ( ) "

    91

  • (1,34), ce . (). "'\ (, 963). , . ce , . , "" ( 367 - 283 ). (Aelian). (). , .. . -. () (). ce - (: -, ). Bo : , . - , - (): " , ( )". . - (), ce . , . , .

    92

  • (). (: , ). co : ", , ". {), ( ), " ". , , ( ) ( ). He (, ). . ( ). (: ,-). , : " , , - , ". , , " - ", {"Indo-European Glossaries - Old Macedonian Language"http://www. indoeuro, bizland. com/project/glossary/gloss2.html, . ). ( ), (), , , ce . (), { ). ( ). (: , -

    93

  • ). "Indo-European Glossaries - Old Macedonian Language" (. ), , . : , . ( ) , ( ). ( ) . "Indo-European Glossaries - Old Macedonian Language" (. ), - , : . (). (: , ). :, . , , (): " ". ( ce ). (), . (). (: , ). - ya:, , ,[ , ]. . , "Indo-European Glossaries - Old Macedonian Language" (. ) . He

    94

  • . . (). (: , ). , a , . , . (). (: , ). co : . , , , -, a . , (, , ). - , a . ( ). (: , ). : , . ( , .. ). , . (). (: ,-). ya:pp -

    95

  • , : , . , . , () (). , ce () ce ( ). (). ce "" (, 3762). :

    " ce ce ". .

    . () ( ) ce co , .

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    96

  • (). (: ,-). Bo 3: . : , a (): ", ". , ce ce . ( ). (). . "" (7 , 9 ), :

    " ce Apoc... Tue ".

    ( ) () . ( , " " 1, 1961, . 13), ce , . ( ) . , (ce , ). , (: "" 2, 681). (). (: , ). co , a

    97

  • : , . , - {, ). ( ) (), ( ). . ( ). (: , -). ya:p, . ( ) : , , .. . ( ) . (). (: , ). - :, , . ( ) : ce .. . , , (, ). ( ). (: , ).

    98

  • ( ) : , . ( ). (), - , . ( ). ' (: Scriptorum in Hesychio Allatorum, Amelias Macedo). Bo : , . ( ). , , , (). (), , a . ( ). (: -, ). Bo : . : . ce - ( ), ce ( .), () (), ce .

    99

  • ( ). - (: ,-). Bo -: , . : , - . Bo ce , .. - . ( ) ce . ( ). (: ,-). Bo : , , , . : (), , , , .. . , ce - () . . () - " " (, -, 1972) , , (), . , , . ( -: " ", , , 1999, , 57).

    100

  • , . - (. , . 165 166) - , ce - . ( ), , . . ce , ( ). (). . - , .

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    101

  • , , , ( ) . , , ( , .. , ). , " ". " ". ce : ( ), ( , .. ) .

    ce , : ( ), ( ) .

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    102

  • ce . . ( . "" ). , . ( ). (: , -). . ( , ). ( ). (: ,-). Bo :, . (), a , , : , , .. . . , ( 1, . , . 66), - (!) ( , .. !). ( ). (: -, ). : , .

    103

  • ce : , ( , - ). He -- () . ce . . (). (: , ). co : , , , . ( ) . ( ). . ( ). (). (: ,). :, . - (), a , , : , , .. . . , (, ce , ). (). ( ), 320 -

    104

  • 239 . ce . , "- " "gonatas", " - ". - - (William Smith: "A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology"; London. John Murray; 1873).

    , , . (). (: , ). co . ( ) (), a . ( ). (, ). (: ,-). Bo . ( ). (: , ). Bo :, , ce ( ). , : , . , . (

    105

  • ) , ce , ce co . - : () - . ( ). (: , ). Bo - : , . (), a , , : , . - () () . (). (: , ). :, , , . , a ce . : (da , ) ( ), ce . - . (). (: , ), . - ( ), ( -

    106

  • " ", . , . 170) " , ". dp, ce . ( ). (: -, ). ( ), .. , ( y ). , ce . . : , . , () . ce "'\ , , , , - ( ) . (). . , ce . , "" (, 1202), . :

    107

  • " . . "

    , ce .

    ce : .

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    108

  • , , ce . , . , , , ( ) ce : (, ), (, ), (, ), (, ), (, ), (, ), (, ), (, ), (, ), (, ), (, ), (-, ), (, ), , (, ), (. , ), (, ), (, ) (, ). ce ce . . , ( ). (). (: , ). co :, . : , . . -, ce :

    109

  • () :, ( ). (). . , 229 221 . "" (. 1483) " ". ( ).

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    ce , , , ( , " " 1, 1961, . 152), .

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    110

  • (), ( , ). (). - (: , ). . ce : () (), ce . (). - (: , ). Bo :, . Bo , () . - , . ce , ce , . sa , ce , , , ce , . (). , a , :

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    ( ).

    111

  • , ce , ( - ). (). (: , ). :, , . , a . , a ( - , .. ). ce - . (, .. ). , , - , , , , ce . , , ce , . , . , ! , , : , . (, , .. ). .

    112

  • "" (14.226). ( " " 1891 - ), . " ", :

    " , '' 14.226". (Georg Autenrieth. "A Homeric Dictionary for Schools and Colleges", New York, Harper and Brothers. 1891 ).

    , BO 14.226 "" " " " ". ce , "" ( ), a , ( ce ).

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    113

  • (, , , ).

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    114

  • ( ), ce . (). (: , ). co -: , . , a , , ( ). , ce - (), ( ) . , , , : . (). (: , ). co -: , . , ( , , ). , ce , (), a ce , - . (). (: ,). co -: , . : , ce . , (

    115

  • ) ce , . (). (: ,-). Bo -: , . . - . : , , ce - . , ce . , , (), ce ( ). -

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    116

  • : , . . - . ce ( , , ). ( ). (). (: , ). -: , , . : , ( , ). , ce . - ( ), a . (). (: , ). - - (Douglas Harper: "Online Etymology Dictionary", 2001, "scarab" http://www.etymonline. com/index.php?l=s&p=6). ce , ce , (). , (, ), (" " 1,

    117

  • 1961, . 320). no , . , . ce (, , , )1 , .

    ( ""), . . ce .

    . ce . , ce . (). (: ,). -: , (). ce . ( ) ( ) ce () (). , , ce (). , ]3 . : , , . - {), : ( ).

    118

  • (). (: ,-). Bo -: , , . (, ). , . , , . , - . (). , "" (. 1139). ce . () . , :

    " ... . ("Photius", edited by Roger Pearse, Great Britain 2002. : http://www.eaiiychristianwritings.com/fathers/photius_03bibliotheca .htm).

    , ce , . ce ( , ) ( - .), . . : .

    119

  • , ce ce (, , , .).

    . , .

    ( ). cautim () caution (, ).

    ( ) , "' " - , "causia", :

    " , ce ". ("A Latin Dictionary" founded on Andrews' edition of Freund's "Latin dictionary", revised, enlarged, and in great part rewritten by Charlton T. Lewis, Ph. D. and Charles Short, LL.D. Oxford. Clarendon Press. 1879.ISBN: 0198642016).

    .

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    120

  • , , . , ce , .. , ce ce ( , ce ). Ce ce , .

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    121

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    122

  • ( , ), . , ce . , ( , ). , . . ( ). , :

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    . , , , ( ), ce .

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    123

  • ? .

    - . , , . ce .

    ce , .

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    " ... ". (" Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities", William Smith, LLD. William Wayte. G. E. Marindin. Albemarle Street, London. John Murray. 1890).

    , , a - ( ). ( ce "oc") e (, ).

    124

  • , , .

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    125

  • . . , , . ce . , , , , , , , a , ( ). . ( ). (: -, ). : . , ce , (). . () , - ( -, - , lick - .).,. (, ). ( ) ( ).

    126

  • ce (, , .).

    ( " " 1, 1961, . 403), , . (). (: ,-). ( ). ce () . (). (: , ). . ce .. (). " ". :

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    . ( ), .

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    127

  • (). - (: , ).Bo , (Livy, 43,19) , . : . . (). "" (, ), ( ). - , . (): ce . , : , . , . ce , ( ) ( ). , .. . ce , a ce , .. . .. (). "" (, 466), , , :

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    128

  • . : (, , ). "" ce "" ( - .). (), . (), : . (). (: , ). co :, . () ( ), . , , , . () , . , , (). () , () '' () ( ) ( ).. (). - ( ). ( ) . . ,

    129

  • 19 ( : " " - , , 1969, . 319). , a , ce , , , V" "" .

    , (), ( , ). (). - (: -, ). Bo : ... a ce . . (- , " ", . , . 167). Ce ce -, .. . , a . . , . (), ( ). , (, ), , (, ). ( ). - "" (, 912). :

    130

  • " ''. '', ( , ..) : ... ,

    ( , ce ), (). , .

    pez hateiroi (N. G. L. Hammond: "The Macedonian State, Origins, Institutions, and History"; Published in the United States by Oxford University Press Inc., New York.1989, ISBN 0-19-814927-1, . 148). ce ( ). ( ) . ( - , " " 3, 1961, . 492).

    ( ). ( ) , , ce . ( , "" ). , . (). - (: -, ). Bo

    131

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    132

  • ( AM ). - (: -, ). Bo : , ,. ( , ), . , . ( ). - (: , ). Bo : , . ( ), ( ). (), , ce . (). - (: ,-). Bo :, . ( ), .. (). - . . . ce , ce

    133

  • CE ( ). "" , ce "" "". , - , a . , CE. . , ( ) . ( ) ce . , . , ce . (). (: , ). . ( ).

    (, ) ce (Carlos Parada: "Genealogical Guide to the Greek Mythology" Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology, Vol 107, Coronet Books; ISBN: 9170810621, Philadelphia, USA, 1993; Silenus).

    ( ).

    CAB AT (, " " 3, 1961, . 135), (-),

    134

  • " ", -. (). (: , ). , , . , , (). , (, ). - (), , . (). . (), . (). - (: Scriptorum in Hesychio Allatorum, Amerias Macedo). Bo , (). (). "" (, 782). , , a ce ( , ). , . , , .. , .".

    135

  • "", ce (), a . (). (: , ). . . (, ). - - " " (, , 1997, . 58). . Co , , ce . - .

    "", "6" " " ( William Smith "A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology", London. John Murray. 1873), ce - "()" .. "()". , .

    , .

    ce (). ce (),

    136

  • , .. . " ". (15,6) " ". ("A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities" William Smith, LLD. William Wayte. G. E. Marindin. Albemarle Street, London. John Murray, 1890).

    (-). (, , .). " ". . () , (-, -, -). (, ) ce , ce "" "" .

    -

    , , , ( ), ce , a .

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    137

  • " - , ". (Harry Thurston Peck "Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities", New York, Harper and Brothers, 1898).

    co , . - , a . " ".

    .

    ce : () ; (-) ; ( ), " Apec " .

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    138

  • ,). : , . . . , a , . , . (), : ( ). (). - (: ,). Bo -: , . ce . , , .. . ce . () , () , . a () , ( ). . (). (: , ). co :, , .

    139

  • . ce ., , . , ce , ce : , , , . .

    . - "", . . -, . , , a , "" - ( , , ). Ce "" , a , a .

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    140

  • .

    ce , , , .

    , . , , , a . , a , , . , ? , a . , a , , , a - . , , a , , , . . (, , ), , , , , ce , . , ? . , . , a ce , , ce .

    141

  • -

    , ce (). - . , , ce ( ), a , .

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    142

  • "" "" - , - , "" "".

    " ("" "") ce , . , , , , , .

    "", ce - , ce "" "". , , , , .

    . ce ce . ce "" () , . . , ( , .. ) , a . - - : " " (, , 1995, . 45 46) . ce :

    143

  • , , , , . . , ce ? .

    , ce ( ce , ). . ( ) ( ). , ( ), a (- " ", , 1997 . . 25).

    , .

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    144

  • , ce : , ( - ).

    - , ce , , ce . ce . , , ce . , , - ce -, - . , , , , ce .

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    145

  • {)! - ! , . , , ? - . , , . , ce , . , , , a , ? ?

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    ce : " " (, 1992). ce 23.450 , , , , . ( ) . ce . , a

    146

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    147

  • Arete(s)Argae(us)

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    149

  • Macart(us)Macedon

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    151

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    152

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    153

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    154

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    155

  • Zaika. - , - (" ", . , . 151). ce . .

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    156

  • Manta. ( ) - (. , . 153). . 19 .

    Mantyas. . .

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    157

  • Nana. , , - (. , . 153). ce (). .

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    158

  • Sipa, Sipa(s). - , "". ( ) . .

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    Sopol(is). - . , (Arrian: "The Campaigns of Alexander", Aubrey De Selincourt, Pengiun books, USA, 1987). Bo (. 255), (), 17 . - . :

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    159

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    Scritia. "Travels in Northern Greece" by William Martin Leake, London, 1835, vol. Ill ( , .12345-12348). ce .

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    218

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